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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"



U.. 




3./-A-8-5. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



EIGHTY.FOURTH MEETING OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




AUSTRALIA: 1914 

JULY 28— AUGUST 31 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1915 

Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, JV. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Officees and Council, 1914-1915 ni 

Rules of the British Association v 

Tables : Past Annual Meetings : * 

Trustees, General Officers, &c. (1831-1914) xxi 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries (1901-1914) xxii 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates (1901-1914) xxx 

Evening Discourses (1901-1914) xxx 

Lectures to the Operative Classes and Public Lectures (1901-1914) xxxi 

Grants for Scientific Purposes (1901-19ly) xxxiii 

Repoet of the Council to the Geneeal Committee, 1913-1914 ... xxxix 

Geneeal Teeasuree's Account, 1913-1914 xliv 

Australian Meetjng, 1914: Sectional Officers xlvi 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, and Sums paid on account of Grants foe Scientific 

PuEPOSES (1831-1914) xlviii 

Analysis of Attendances 1 

Australian Meeting : 

Research Committees lii 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso Ixiv 

Resolutions referred to the Council Ixiv 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixvi 

Caied Fund Ixviii 

* Particulars for early Meetings not furnished in the following Tables will 
be found in Volumes for 1911 and previous years. 

a2 



il CONTEXTS. 

Page 
Address by the President, Professor William Ijatesox, M.A., F.E S. 3 

Reports on the State of Science, &o 41 

Transactions of the Sections : 

A. — Mathematical and Physical Science 285 

B.— Chemistry 322 

C— Geology 344 

D. — Zoology , 383 

E.— Geography 426 

F. — Economic Science aud Statistics 453 

G. — Engineering 490 

H. — Anthropology 515 

I.— Physiology 537 

K.— Botany 560 

L.— Education 592 

M. — Agriculture 636 

Naeeative and Itinerary of the Australian Meeting 679 

Visit of Members of the British Association to the Meeting of 

L' Association Fran9aise at Havre — Report of the Committee 720 

Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee 722 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 722 

Index 757 

List of Publications 78! 

List of Members, &c ]72pages 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. — -Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plate II. — Illustrating the Report on the Upper Old Red Sandstone of Dura Den. 

Plates III. and IV. — Illustrating the Report on Belmullet Whaling Station. 

Plate V. — Illustrating Dr. Lyman Briggs' Paper on Dry-Farming Investiga- 
tions in the United States. 

Plate VI. — Illustrating Prof. H. E. Armstrong's Remarks on the Structure of 
Atoms and Molecules. 

Plate VII. — Illustrating Prof. W. .7. Pope's Address to the Chemistry Section. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1914-1915. 



PATRON. ^ 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
Professor WILLIAM BATESON, IT. A., F.R..S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

His Excellency the Govnruor-General of the Com- i The Honourable the Premiers of New South Wales, 
inonwealth of Australia. | Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western 

Their Excellencies the Governors of New South | Australia, Tasmania. 

Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia. I The Right Honourable the Lord Mayors of Sydney 
Western Australia, Tasmania. and Melbourne. 

The Honourable the Prime Minister of the Com- The Eight Worshipful the Majors of Brisbane 
morwealth. Adelaide, Perth, Hobart. 

The Chancellors of the Universities of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Tasmania, Queensland, 

Western Australia. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Professor Arthur Schuster, Ph.D., Sec.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

The Eight Hon. the Lord Mayor of Manchester. ' The High Sheriff of Cheshire. 

The Right Hon. Lord Shuttleworth, LL.D., '. The Worshipful the Mayor of Salford. 

Lord-Lieutenant of Lancashire. j The Right Rev. the Bishop of Salford. 

The High Sheriff of Lancashire. i Tlie Right Hon. Sir H. E. RCSCOE Ph D , P C L 

The Right Hon. Viscount Morley of Black- j F.R.S. ' • •> 

BURN', O.M., D.O.L., F.R.S., Chancellor of Man- ' The Right Hon. Sir William Mather LL D 

Chester University. : The Vice-Chancellor of the University of ilan- 

His Grace the Duke of Dkvoxshire. I Chester. 

The Right Hon. the Eakl of Derby, K.G. ; Sir Edward Doxxer, Bart., LL.D. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Ellesmere, M.V.O. ' Sir Frank Forbes Ada.m C.I E LL D 

The Right Hon. Viscount Bryce, D.C.L.,LL.D., I Alderman Sir T. ThornhillShaxx,'j.P. 

F.R.S. Professor Horace Lamb, D.Sc F.R.S 

The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Manchester, R. Xotox Barclay, Esii. 

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. I 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor Joh.v Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, D.C.L., P.B.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. Howarth, M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 
H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 
Alderman Edward Holt, J. P. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 

Professor S. J. Hick.son, DSc, F.R.S. | Principal J. C. Ma.xwell Garnett M A 

CouncillorE.D. Simon, M.I.C.E. ' ' " 

A 3 



IV 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Armstrong, Professor H. E.. F.R.S. 
Brabrook, Sir Edward, C.B. 
Bragg, Professor W.H., F.R.S. [ 

Olekk, Dr. DUGALD, F.R.S. [ 

Oraigie, Major P. G., C.B. j 

Crooke, W., B.A. I 

Dexdt, Professor A., F.R.S. 
DiXBT, Dr. F. A., F.R.S. 
Dixon, Professor H. B., F.R.S. 
Dyson, Sir F. W., F.R.S. 
Griffiths, Principal E. H., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A C, F.R.S. 

Weiss, Professor F. 



Hall, A. D., F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
IM Thurn, Sir E. F.. K.O.M.G. 
Lodge, Alfred, M.A. 
Lyons, Captain H. G., F.R.S. 
Meldola, Professor R.. F.R.S. 
Mtres, Professor J. L., M.A. 
Rutherford, Sir B., F.R.S. 
Saunders, Miss E. R. 
Starling, Professor E. H., F.R.S. 
Teall, Dr. J. J. H., F.R.S. 
Thompson, Dr. Silyanus P., F.R.S. 
E., D.Se. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Tlie Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meetlnp. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord Rati.eigh. O.M., MA.., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Arthur W. Rucker, M.A., D.Sc. LL.D., F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A..S. 



F.R.A.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Lord Rayleigh, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir A.Geikle,K.C.B.,O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir W. Orookes, O.M., Pres.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. Rucker, D.Sc., F.R.S. 



Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. 



Sir Norman Lockyer, K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 
SlrE.RayLankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Ramsay, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
: Sir E. A. Schiifer, LL.D., F.R.S. 
I Sir Oliver Lodge, D.Sc, F.H.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir A W. Rucker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Sir E. A. Sohafer, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A.., F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster. F.R.S. 



Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Major P. A, MacMahon, F.R.S. 



Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 



AUDITORS. 

I Professor H.!McLeod, LL.D., F.R.S. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted hj the General Committee at Leicester, 1907, 
with subsequent amendments.'] 

Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Associatioo for the Advance- Objects, 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution. 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee Meetings, 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : — 

(i) Perm,anent Members^ 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 



VI 



RILES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Admission. 



Meetiags^, 



Functions. 



(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) 2'ein2)orary Members — 

{a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(b) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 

sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 
{d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the Report of the Council. 

(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations. 

(iii) Receive and consider the Report of the Committee 
of Recommendations. 

(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 
than two years in advance. 

(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting. 

(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers. 

(ix) Appoint Auditors, 
(x) Elect the Officers of the Conference of Delegates. 

(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 



Vll 



Chapter III. 



Committee of RecoTiwiendations. 

1. * The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution. 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions. 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
appi'ove such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble, Procedure, 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 



Meeting, and, if necessary, on the 



following 



day. Their 



Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 



♦ Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909. 



VIU 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Procedure. 



Constitution. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



Tenure. 



Keports. 



Chapter IV. 
Research Committees. 

1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 
proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 
appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
the Annual Meeting. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. IX 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Grants. 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call Qhairman" ^ 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 

as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (*) Expire on 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before (c) Accounts 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of f^ ^ancf'''^^ 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Ti-easurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains un- 
expended ; provided that a Research Committee may, in the 
first year of its appointment only, apply for leave to retain 
an unexpended balance when or before its Report is presented, 
due reason being given for such application.* 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- {d) Addi- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former graiit, and ^°°* ^^"^ • 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Reseai'ch Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money Disposal of 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their ^pparatu'^^ 
Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens ire. 

thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dundee, 1912. 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

Tlie Council. 

Constitution. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty- five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions. 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. XI 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections, 
time as that of the Officers of the Association. 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary- 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for i-e- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 

^ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
Members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five Members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 

The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the fix'st day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. *^®'^*- 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. '^^^^' 



Xll 



KULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The Geneial 
Treasurer. 



The General 
.Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the "eneral 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the StaflF, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Chapter VII. 
Finance. 



Financial 
Statements. 



1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 



FINANCE. Xlll 

June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable. Cheques. 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 

The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General Local Offi- 

(->iii'c fi n fi 

Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and Qommittees 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions, 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



XIV 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 

Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Rooms, 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 

Co-optation. 



Chapter IX. 
Tlie Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 

Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(6) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons Jice-Presi- 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the Executive 
President and the Recorder. , They shall have power to act on Functions 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 

be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- and of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of ^^^order, 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own Committee, 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 

the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the iirst day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted Reports. 
on its Minutes. 



XVI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Kecommen- 
dations. 



Publication. 



Copyright. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of tlie Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association. 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 



xvn 



Applications. 



Chapter X. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualitication shall be required on the 
part of an applicant for admission f.s a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 
impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
Meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association, 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum 

of Ten Pounds. 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member- shall pay, on admission, the 
• sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 

the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive ^'raizs the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
vnthout intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 



Conditions 
and Privileges 
of Member- 
ship. 



1914 



Amended by the General Committee at Dublin, 1908. 



xvm 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Associates sliall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 
Correspond- 3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 

ing Members. General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chapter XL 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee, 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES, xix 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Coeke- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the spondixo 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves commi^tteb. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure, 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them— those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Conpebenck 
tute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, ^^ ^^le- 
and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by '^^'^^®- 

the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex offi,cio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by Procediueand 
the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings durinor Functions. 

a2 



XX RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and shall 
be empowered to invite any Member or Associate 
to take part in the discussions. 

(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee, 
(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Confeience 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect, 
(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, 
in order that they may be able to bring such re- 
commendations adequately before their respective 
Societies. 

(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 

Amendments and New Rules. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



XXI 



TEUSTEES, GENERAL OFFICERS, &c., 1831-3 914. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. 1. Mukchison (Bart.). 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq.. F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egekton, Bart., F.R.S. 

GENERAL 

1831 Jonathan Gray, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1872- /Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (after- 

1913 ( wards Lord Avebuby), F.R.S. 

1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883- Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Platfaie, F.R.S. 
1898- Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckeb, F.R.S. 
1913- Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 

TREASURERS. 

1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckee, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904- Prof. John Perky, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835 



35 



-36 



1836-37 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Veenon Haecourt, 

Veenon Haecourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1837-39 



1839-45 



1845- 
1850- 



1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 

1863- 

1865- 
1866- 



1868-71 



Veenon Haecourt, 

F.R.S., and R. I. Muechison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
.50 Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine.F.R.S. 
52 General E. Sabinb, F.R.S., and 

J.F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 

65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., 

Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S., and Dr. 
T. Thomson, F.R.S. 



-53 

-59 
-61 
-62 
-63 



and 



and 



and 



1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1883-95 

1895-97 



1897- i 

1900 t 

1900-02 



1902-03 
1903-13 

1913- 



Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Fostee, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclatbe, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S. , and 

Prof. F. M. Balfoue, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Harcouut, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G. Veenon HARCOUET,Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schafer, F.R.S. 
Prof. SCHAFEE, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Robeets-Austen,F.R.S . 
Sir W. C. Robeets-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott. F.R.S., and 

MajorP. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Heedman, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. A. Hebdman, F.R.S., 

and Prof . H.H.TUENER, F.R. S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 



1831 
1832 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 
Secretary. 

1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 
Secretary/. 

1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 
Secretary. 

1890-1902 G. Griffith. E.sq.. M.A. 

1902-04 J. G. Gaeson, Esq., M.D. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A. I 1909- O. J. R. Howaeth, Esq., M.A. 
1904-09 A. SiLVA White, Esq. \ 



John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 
Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 
Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 
Secretary. 



xxii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, 

1901-1913. 

(The List of Sectional Officers for 191-1 will be found on p. xlvi.) 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(^Bec. = Eecorder) 



SECTION A. 1— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907, 
1908. 

1S^9. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 



Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 
Cambridge 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
— Bep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Sciiuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, V.n.S.—Bep. 
of Astro7iomy and Meteor- 
ology, Br. W.N. Shaw.F.R.S. 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.n.S.— Sub- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 
SoutliAfrica Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 
i 
York Principal E. H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 

Leicester... Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Dublin Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 

Winnipeg Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S.... 
Sheffield ...Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S.... 
Portsmouth j Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 
Dundee ...-Prof. H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. 



1913. Birmingham Dr. H. F. Baker, F.R.S 



H. S. Carslaw, C. H.Lees (lieo.),\V. 
Stewart, Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees {Rcc), Prof. 
W. B. Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees 
{Rec), .1. Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 

Dr. C. H. Lees {Rec.\ Dr. W. J. S. 

Lockyer, A. W. Porter, W. C D. 

Whetham. 
A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 

Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees 

(J?ec.). 
Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 

A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter 

{Rec), H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter {Rec). 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, B. Gold, Prof. J. A. 

McCleUand, Prof. A. W. Porter 

{Rec.), Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W. 

Porter {Rec.'), Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 
H. Bateman, A. S. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. Horton, Dr. S. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. W. Porter {Rec). 
H. Bateman, Prof. P. V. Bevan, A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Prof. A. W. 

Porter {Rec), P. A. Yapp. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 

Heywood, R. Norrie, Prof. A. W. 

Porter (i?''c.), W. G. Robson, F. 

J. M. Stratton. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan (Rec), Prof. A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 

Heywood, Dr. A. O. Rankine, Dr. 

G. A. Shakespear. 



' Section A was constituted under this title in 1835, when the sectional division 
was introduced. The previous division was into ' Committees of Sciences.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). xxiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Rec. = Recorder) 



SECTION B.2— CHEMISTRY. 



1901. 
1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1909. 

1910. 

1911. 
1912. 
1913. 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast 



Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester . . . 

Dublin 

Winnipeg. . . 
Sheffield ... 

Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 
Birmingham 



Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 



Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sydney Young.F.R.S.... 



George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S, 



J. E. Stead, F.R.S. ... 



Suh-section of Aqrtculture- 

A. D. Hall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S 



Prof. A. Senier, M.D 



Prof. W. P. Wynne, F.R.S. 



W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose {Rec). 
R, F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope 

{Rec). 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope 

{Rec). 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. 

W. J. Pope iRec). 
W. A. Caldecott, Mr. M. O. Forster, 

Prof. G. G. Henderson {Rec), C. F. 

Juritz. 
Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof. A.W. Cross- 
ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope 

{RecX 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 

Crossley (Reo.% J. H. Hawthorn, 

Dr. F. M. Perkin. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. A. 
j McKenzie, Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. 
i .J. H. Pollock. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. T. 

M. Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. 

Shipley. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. T. 

M. Lowry, Dr. F. M. PerKn, W. 

E. S. Turner. 
Dr. C. Crowther, J. Goldinar, Dr. 

E. J. Russell. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong {Rec), Dr. 

C. H. Desch, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 

Dr. F. Beddow. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. C. 

H. Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. J. K. 

Wood. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. C. H. 

Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. H. 

McCombie. 



SECTION C.3 -GEOLOGY. 

1901. Glasgow ... John Home, F.R.S H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

(Rec). 

1902. Belfast Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

F.R.S. (Rec), J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. 

Seymour. 

1903. Southport Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

M.Sc. J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton (Rec). 



^ 'Chemistrv and Mineralogy,' 1835-1894. 
» ' Geology and Geography,' 1835-1850. 



xxiv PRESIDExVTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1904. Cambridge : Aubrey Strahan, F.H.S 

1905. SouthAfrica Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 
(^Rec. = Recorder) 



1906. York 



G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 



1907. Leicester... Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.. 



1908. Dublin. 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 



Prof. John Joly, F.R.S 



Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S... 



1911. Portsmouth A. Harker, F.R.S 



1912. Dundee ... Dr. B. N. Peach, F.R.S 



1913. Birmingham 



Prof. E. J. Garwood, M.A. ... 



H. L. Bowman (^Rec), Rev. W. L. 

Carter, J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L. Bowman (Rec), J. Lomas, Dr. 

Molengraaff, Prof. A. Young, Prof. 

R. B. Young. 
H. L. Bowman {Rer.), Rev. W. L. 

Carter, Rev. W. Johnson. J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas (.Bet?.) 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas (Rec). 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Sey- 
mour. 
W. L. Carter ( Rec), Dr. A. R. D werry- 

house, R. T. Hodgson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
W. L. Carter (Rec.'), Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 

house, B. Hobson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
Col. C. W. Bevis, W. L. Carter ( Rec), 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. S. 

H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. B. Boulton, A. W. R. Don, 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse {Rec), 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. A. R. 

Dwerryhouse (Rec), F. Raw, 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 



SECTION D.i— ZOOLOGY. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 



Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 



Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. 



1904. Cambridge William Bateson, F.R.S. , 



1905. 
1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1909. 



SouthAfrica 
York 



Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S.; J. G. Kerr (Rec), J. Rankin, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, 

A. Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson 

(Re6.), Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson (Rec), Dr. H. 

W. M. Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster. 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H.W. M. Tims 

(Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 
1 (Rec). 
Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S Dr. J. H. Ashworth. L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Fraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

(Rec). 
Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. ... C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr. 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

(Rec). 



G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 
J. J. Lister, F.R.S 



Leicester ... Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A 

Dublin 

Winnipeg.. 



* ' Zoology and Botany," 1835-1847 ; 'Zoology and Botany, including Physiology,' 
1848-1865 ;' Biologj-,' 1866-1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). 



XXV 



Date and Place 



1910. Sheffield .. 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.E.S. 



Prof. D'Arcj' W. Thompson, 
C.B 



Secretaries 
{Rec. = Recorder) 



Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 
T. J. Evans, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 
iRec.-). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, C. Foran, R. D. 
Laurie, Dr. H.W. M.. Tims {Re c). 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, | Dr. J. H. Ashworth, K. D. Laurie, 
F.R.S. Miss D. L. Mackinnon, Dr H. W. 

M. Tims {Rec.'). 

Dr. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S 'Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. C. L. 

Boulenger, R. D. Laurie, Dr. H. 
W. M. Tims {Rec). 



SECTION E.5— GEOGEAPHY. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport... 


1904. 


Cambridge 


190.5. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


1911 


Portsmouth 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


1913 


Birmingham 



Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S 

SirT. H. Holdich, K.C.B. .. 



Capt. E. VV. Creak, R.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Douglas W. Freshfield 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B., F.E.S. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... 

Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., 

R.E. 
Col. SirD. Johnston.K.C.M.G., 

C.B., R.E. 
Prof. A. J. Herbertson, M.A., 

Ph.D. 
Col. C, F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. 

Col. Sir C. M. Watson, 

K.C.M.G. 
Prof. H. N. Dickson, D.Sc. ... 



H. N. Dickson {Rec), E. Heawood, 
G. Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm {Rec), E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. 
Lindsay. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. 
Underwood. 

E. Heawood(i2ef.),Dr.A. J. Herbert- 
son, H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson {Rec), H. Y. 
Oldham. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 

E. Heawood {Rec), O. J. R. How- 
arth, E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 

W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. R. 
Howarth {Rec), E. A. Reeves. 

G. G. Chisholm {Rec), J. McFar- 
lane, A. Mclntyre. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Rec), Dr. R. 
Brown, J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 

J. BIcFarlane {Rec), E. A. Reeves, 
W. P. Smith. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Rec), J. McFar- 
lane, E. A. Reeves, D. Wylie. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Rec ), P. E. Mar- 
tineau, J. McFarlane, E.A.Reeves. 



SECTION F.6— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

1901. Glasgow ... Sir R. GifEen, K.C.B., F.R.S. W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan {Rec), S. J. Chapman. 

1902. Belfast ...E. Cannan, M. A., LL.D jA. L. Bowley {Rec), Prof. S. J. 

I Chapman, Dr. A. Duffin. 



" Section E was that of ' Anatomy and Medicine,' 1835-1840 ; of ' Physiology ' 
(afterwards incorporated in Section D), 1841-1847. It was assigned to ' Geography 
and Ethnology,' 1851-1868 ; ' Geography,' 1869. 

" 'Statistics,' 1835-1855. 



XXvi PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). 



Date and Place 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 



Presidents 



E. W. Brabrook, C.B. 



Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D. 



Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D. 
D.Sc. 

A. L. Bowley, M.A 



Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A. 



Secretaries 
{Ree. - Recorder) 



W. M. Ac worth, M.A 

Suh-seotio)i of Agriculture — 

Et. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 

Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, 

K.C.B., M.A. 
Hon. W. Pember Reeves 

Sir H.H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. 

Rev. P. H. Wicksteed, M.A. 



A. L. Bowley {Rec), Prof. S. J. 
Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. 
Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley {Reo.), 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. 
Ginsburg. 
'R. ^ Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley (^Rec), 
I Prof. H. E. S. Fremantle, H. O. 
I Meredith. 

Prof. S. J. Chapman {Rec), D. H. 
Macgregor, H. 0. Meredith, B. 
S. Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman {Rec), D. H. 
Macgregor, H. 0. Meredith, T. S. 
Taylor. 
W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
j man (Rec), Prof. D. H. Macgre- 
1 gor, H. O. Meredith. 
A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 

Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 
Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han. Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec). 
C. R. Fay, H. O. Meredith (Rec), 

Dr. W. R. Scott, R. Wilson. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec), 

H. A. Stibbs. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec), E. 

Tosh. 
C. E. Fay, Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, 
■ Prof. H. 0. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 
I Scott (Rer.). 



SECTION G.'— ENGINEERING. 



1901. Glasgow ... R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 



1902. 
1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1909. 

1910. 
1911. 



Belfast ... 
Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg. . . 

Sheffield .. 
Portsmouth 



Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir C. Scott- Moncrieff, 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 
J. A. Bwing, F.R.S 

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 

F.R.S. 
Dugald Clerk, F.R.S 

Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D., 

D.Sc. 



H. Bamf ord, W. E. Dalby, W. A. Price 

(Rec). 
M. Barr, W. A. Price (Rec), J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price (Rec). 
J. B. Peace,W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price 
1 {Rec). 

W. T. Maccall,W. B. Marshall (Rec), 
\ Prof. H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price (Bee), 

J. Triffit. 
Prof. B. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 
j W. A. Price (Rec>, H. E.Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

W. A. Price (.Hec), H. E. Wimperis. 

E. B. Brydone-Jack, Prof. E. G.Coker, 
Prof. E. W. Marchant, W. A. Price 
(Rec). 

F. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), 
i A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

H. Ashley, Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), 
A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 



Mechanical Science,' 1836-1900. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). XXVU 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Ree. = Recorder) 



1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 



Prof. A. Barr, D.Sc Prof. B. G. Coker (^Rec), A. E. Ful- 
ton, H. Eichardson, A. A. Rowse, 
H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. Gisbert Kapp, D.Eng.... Prof. E. G. Coker {Rec), J. Purser, 

A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 



SECTION H.*"— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1901. Glasgow ...Prof. D. J. Cunningham, W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 
j F.R.S. Gemmill, J. L. Myres (Ree.). 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon 

J. L. Myres (Rcc). 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 
E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres (Rec). 
W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 
H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres {Rec). 
A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 
Hartland {Rec.). 

1906. York E. Sidney Hartland, F.S. A.... Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize 

I {Rec.),^. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. 



1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport... Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. 

1904. Cambridge H. Balfour, M.A 

1905. SouthAfrica'Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 



Shrubsall. 

C. J. BiUson, E. N. Fallaize {Rec), 
H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrub- 
sall. 

E. N. Fallaize {Rec), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. 
Steele. 

H. S. Kingsford {Bee), Prof. C. J. 
Patten. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize {Rec), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Prof. C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. 
I Shrubsall. 

1911. Portsmouth W. H. R. Elvers, M.D., F.R.S. E. N. Fallaize (Rec), H. S. Kings- 

ford, E.W. Martindell, H. Rundle, 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

1912. Dundee ... Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. D. D. Craig, E. N. Fallaize {Rec), E. 

\V. Martindell, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

1913. Birmingham Sir Richard Temple, Bart. ... E. N. Fallaize {Rec), E. W. Martin- 

dell, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, T. Yeates. 



1907. Leicester .. D. G. Hogarth, M.A 

1908. Dublin Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. 

1909. Winnipeg... Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A. ., 

1910. Sheffield ... W. Crooke, B.A 



SECTION 1.9— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimentai. 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



Prof.J. G.McKendrick, F.R.S. W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

i W. H. Thompson (5«f.). 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton, J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne 
F.R.S. {Rec), Dr. C. Shaw. 

J. Barcroft {Bee), Prof. T. G. Brodie, 

Dr. L. E. Shore. 
J. Barcroft {Rec), Dr. Baumann, 
Dr. Mackenzie, Dr. G. W. Robert- 
son, Dr. Stanwell. 



1901. Glasgow .. 

1902. Belfast .. 

1904. Cambridge Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

1905. SouthAfrica Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ... 



« Established 1884. 



' Established 1894. 



xxviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Rec. = Recorder) 



1906. York Prof. P. Gotch, F.R.S. , 



1907. Leicester ... Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. 



1908. Dublin, 



Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 



1909. Winnipeg..., Prof. E. H. Starling, F.RS.... 

1910. Sheffield ... Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. 

1911. Portsmouth Prof . J. S. Macdonald, B.A. 

1912. Dundee ... Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

1913. Birmingham Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins, 

I F.R.S. 

I 



J. Barcroft (Mec), Dr. J. M. Hamill, 
1 Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. 
I Long. 

Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft (Bee), 
': Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. 

Warner. 
Prof. D. J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. H. E. 

Roaf (Bee). 
Dr. N. H. Alcock (Rec), Prof. P. T. 

Herring, Dr. W. Webster. 
Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (Rec), Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. J. T. Leon, Dr. Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (Rec.), Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. Keith Lucas, W. Moodie, Dr. 

H. E. Roaf (Rec), Dr. J. Tait. 
C. L. Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring, Dr. 

T. G. Maitland, Dr. H. E. Roaf 

(Rec), Dr. J. Tait. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 



SECTION K.'o— BOTANY 

Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. . 



Prof. J. R. Green, F.R S 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Subsection of Agricvlture- 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. . 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. . 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S.. 



Lieut.-Col. D. Prain, CLE 

F.R.S. 
Sub-section of Agnculturc- 

Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. 



1910. Sheffield ... Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S 

1911. Portsmouth Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc 



Sub-section of Agriculture- 
W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 



.. D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward (Rec), H. 

Wager. 
.. A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

H. Wager (Rec), R. H. Yapp. 
.. H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager 

(Rec), R. H. Yapp. 
.. Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 
- H. Wager (Rec ), T. B. Wood, R. H. 

Yapp. 
.. R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp (Rec). 
.. Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley (Rec), Prof. R. H. 

Yapp. 
.. W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley (Rec), Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
.. Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley (Bcc), Prof. R. H. 

Yapp. 
Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. R. H. Yapp 

(Rec). 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. Wilson. 

B. H. Bentley, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. 
K. H. Yapp (Rec). 

C. G. Delahunt, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp (Rec). 

J. Golding, H. R. Pink, Dr. E. .J. 
Russell. 



'» Established ISQ.^i. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETAEIES OF SECTIONS (1901-13). Xxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(^f(?. = Eecorder) 



1912. Dundee ... Prof. F. Keeble, D.Sc J. Brebner, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 

Vaughan (Rec), Dr. C. E. SIoss, 
D. Thoday. 

1913. Birmingham Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.S.... W. B. Grove, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 

Vaughan (Bee), Dr. C. E. Moss, 

I D. Thoday. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907. 



Glasgow ... 

Belfast ... 

Southport .. 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester . . . 



1908. Dublin , 



1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 

1913, 



Winnipeg. . . 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 



Birmingham 



Sir John E. Gorst, F.K.S. ... 



Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 



Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 



Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. H.B.Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 

Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 

D.D. 
Prof. J. Adams, M.A 



Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
F.R.S. 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie. C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers (Bee). 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

(Bee), R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins, Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

(Rec), Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. 

L. Snape. 
J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller (Bee), Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins. 
A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C.W. 

Kimmins (Bee), J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Beller 

(Bee), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory 

(Bee), J. S. Laver, Hugh Rich- 
ardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregory (Bee), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 

Holland ci?e(?.), Hugh Richardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J. L. 

Holland (Bee), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, O. Freeman, J. L. 

Holland (Bee), Hugh Richardson. 
D. Berridge, Dr. J. Davidson, Prof. 

J. A. Green ( Ree), Hugh Richard- 
son. 
I D. Berridge, Rev. S. Blofeld, Prof. 

J. A. Green (Bee), H. Richard- 
son. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



1912. Dundee ... T. H. Middleton, M.A 

1913. Birmingham Prof. T. B. Wood, M.A. .. 



( Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. A. 
I Lauder, Dr. E. J. Russell (Bee). 
\\V. E. Collinge, Dr. C. Crowther, 
i J. Golding, Dr. E. J. Russell (Bee). 



XXX CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES OF CONFERENCES OF DELEGATES. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 1901-14.' 



Date and Place 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport .. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


London ... 


1906 


York 


1907. 


Leicester ... 


1908. 


DnbUn 


1909. 


London ... 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


1913. 


Birmingham 


1914. 


Le Havre... 



Chairmen 



F. W. Eudler, F.G.S 

Prof. W. W. Watts, F.G.S. .. 

W. Whitaker, F.R.S 

Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward 

F.R.S. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S.... 
Dr. A. C. Had don, F.R.S. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. 
Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell 

F.R.S. 
Sir H. George Fordham 



Secretaries 



Dr. J. G. Grarson, A. Somerville. 

E. J. Bles. 

F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 



1 



F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 

W. Mark Webb. 



EVENING DISCOUESES, 1901-1914. 



Date and Place 



1901. Glasgow .., 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport.., 

1904. Cambridge 

190.5. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town ... 

Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein.., 

Kimberley 

Bulawayo 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



. [Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S The Inert Constituents of the 

I Atmosphere. 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S The Movements of Plants. 

, Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. Inheritance. 

. Dr. R. Munro Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palaeolithic Period. 

Dr. A. Rowe The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 

Prof. H. F. Osborn Palaeontological Discoveries in the 

Rocky Mountains. 

, Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... W. J. BurcheU's Discoveries in South 

; Africa. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

, ' Douglas W. Freshfield The Mountains of the Old World. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. Marine Biology. 

Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... Sleeping Sickness. 

H. T. Ferrar The Cruise of the 'Discovery.' 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... The Distribution of Power. 

Prof. J. O. Arnold Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 
. A. R. Hinks The Milky Way and the Clouds of 

j Magellan. 

. Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S Diamonds. 

Prof. J. B. Porter The Bearing of Engineering on 

I Jlining. 

, D. RandaU-MacIver The Ruins of Rhodesia. 



Established 1885. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



XXXI 



Date and Place 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester.. 



1908. Dublin.... 

1909. Winnipeg. 



1910. Sheffield 



Lecturer 



Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

W. Duddell, F.R.S 

Dr. F. A. Dixey 

Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. M. Davis 

Dr. A. B. H. Tutton, F.R.S.... 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
» Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 
' Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

. Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 

D. G. Hogarth 

1911. Portsmouth Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. ... 

1912. Dundee ...iProf. W. H. Bragg, F.R.S. ... 

jProf. A. Keith, M.D 

1913. Birmingham SirH. H. Cunynghame,K.C.B. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 
1014 .^ii.sfir3,li3i ' 

Adelaide I Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W.J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 
Melbourne ' Prof . E. B. Poulton, F.R.S ... 

iDr.F. W. Dyson, F.R.S. ... 
Sydney ...[Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 

Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. ... 
Brisbane Prof. HE. Armstrong, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe 



Subject of Discourse 

Volcanoes. 

The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 
telegraphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 

The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 

Types of Animal Movement. - 

New Discoveries about the Hittites. 

The Physiology of Submarine Work. 

Links with the Past in the Plant 
World. 

Radiations Old and New. 

The Antiquity of Man. 
; Explosions in Mines and the Means 
of Preventing them. 

Missing Links among Extinct 
Animals. 

The Ether of Space. 
Ancient Hunters. 
Mimicry. 

Greenwich Observatory. 
Primitive Man. 
Atoms and Electrons. 
The Materials of Life. 
Wireless Telegraphy. 



LECTUKES TO THE OPEKATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

190.3. Southport... 

1904. Cambridge.. 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 



Lecturer 



H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. S. Flett 



Dr. J. B. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S 

Dr. H. R. Mill 



Subject of Lecture 



of Men by Lanrl 



The Movements 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent ; 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of Water. 
Metallic Alloys. 
Rain. 



the 



' ' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 
* Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



XXXll 



LECTURES TO TEE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



PUBLIC OK CITIZENS' LECTUEES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


Prof. B.Moore, D.Sc 


Science and National Health. 






Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 


Prices and Wages. 






Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S 


The Sun. 


1913. 


Birmingham 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.Pt.S. ... 


The Decorative Art of Savages. 






Dr. Vaughan Cornish 


The Panama Canal. 






Leonard Doncaster, M.A. ... 


Recent Work on Heredity and its 
Application to Man. 






Dr. W. Pvosenhain, F.R.S. ... 


Metals under the Microscope. 






Frederick Soddy, F.R.S 


The Evolution of Matter. 


1914. 


Australia : 








Perth ... 


Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Why we Investigate the Ocean. 






Prof. A. S. Eddington, F.R.S. 


Stars and their Movements. 






H. Balfour, M.A 


Primitive Methods of Making Fire. 






Piof. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. ... 


Electrical Action of the Human 
Heart. 






C. A. Buckmaster, M.A 


Mining Education in England. 




Adelaide 


Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 


Saving and Spending. 




Melbourne 


Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. ... 


Making of a Big Gun. 






Prof. H. B. Dison, F.R.S. ... 


Explosions. 




Sydney ... 


Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 


Brown Earth and Brisrht Sunshine. 






Prof. H. H. Turner, P.R.S. ... 


Comets. 




Brisbane 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


Decorative Art in Papua. 



GRAN IS OF MONFA'. 



xxxiu 



Geupral Statement of Su7ns wJdch have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes, 1901-1913. 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 

Seismological Observations... 

Wave-length Tables 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 

Migration of Birds 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 

Changes of Land-level in the 
Phlegr^an Fields 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 

Small Screw Gauge 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 

Silchester Excavation 

EthnoloiJ-ical Survey of 
Canada 

Anthropological Teaching ... 

Exploration in Crete 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 

Chemistry of Bone Marrov?... 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 
Rabbit 

Fertilisation in Phajophycea; 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
maceffi 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ 


«. 


d. 


45 








75 








4 


14 





35 








20 








50 








15 








100 








20 








75 








10 








5 








50 







I 


15 








45 








75 








10 








ao 








5 








145 








30 








5 


15 


11 


5 








15 








20 








15 









£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites ". 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

1914. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Wave-lenoth Tables 


5 








Life-zones in British Car- 




boniferous Rocks 


10 








Exploration of Irish Caves ... 


45 








Table at the Zoological 








Station, Naples 


100 








Index Generum et Specierum 








Animalium 


100 








Migration of Birds 


15 








Structure of Coral Reefs of 








Indian Ocean 


50 








Compound Ascidians of the 








Clyde Area 


9r, 


n 


(■> 


Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 


15 








Legislation regulating Wo- 








men's Labour 


30 
20 









Small Screw Gauge 





Resistance of Road Vehicles 








to Trac ti on 


50 





n 


Ethnological Survey of 




Canada 


15 
30 

100 










Ag& of Stone Circles 





Exploration in Crete 





Anthropometric Investigation 








of Native Egyptian Soldiers 


15 








Excavations on the Roman 








Site at Gelligaer 


5 








Changes in Hemoglobin 


15 








Work of Mammalian Heart 








under Influence of Drugs... 


20 








Investigation of the Cyano- 








phycefe 


10 





n 


Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 








versities and Schools 


5 








Conditions of Healtli essen- 








tial to carrying on Work in 








Schools 


2 








Corresponding Societies Com- 




mittee 


15 





n 






£947 









1903. 

Electrical Standards 3.5 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North - 

west Yorkshire 40 

b 



XXXIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycere 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 13~^2 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-lengthTables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 
























































































£ s. d. 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 18 11 



1905. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitroamines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 
Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928 2 2 



GRANTS OF MONEV. 



XXXV 



1906. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 
Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitroamines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias . 7 8 11 

Cry,stalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 

Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 30 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles ... 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
andDisease 20 

Research on South African 
Cycads 14 ]9 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

i882 9 
1907. 

Electrical Standards 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 
Africa 25 7 6 

Wave-length Tables of 
, Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

D3'namic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks .. 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 
Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of , 
South- West England 15 



£ s. d. 
Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 

in the Mediterranean Basin 50 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 
Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 
Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

EfEect of Climate upon Health 

andDisease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 

Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation.. 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12~l6 



1908. 

Seismological Observations ... 40 
Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 16 6 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Signiticance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

atNaples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 50 

b2 



XXXVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 30 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom 3 7 6 

Electrical Standards 50 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 30 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Age of Stone Circles 50 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands 13 14 8 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

andDisease 33 

Body Metabolism in Cancer. . . 30 

Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum Spa- 
dices 10 j 

Marsh Vegetation 15 ' 

Succession of Plant Remains 18 ' 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,137 18 8 



1909. 

Seismological Observations .. CO ; 

Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 10 ^ 

Magnetic Observations at I 

Falmouth 50 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 16 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic ; 

Nitroamines 10 Q) \ 

Electroanalysis 30 I 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 8 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 1 

boniferous Limestone in the i 

British Isles 8 ! 

Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales and | 

the West of England 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 11 13 9 

Investigations at Biskra 50 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Index Animalium 75 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 35 

■Gaseous Explosions 75 ' 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 5 



£ s. d. 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Researches in Crete 70 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomenaand Me- 
tabolism of J r«?/t <S/ya(^ice« 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anaesthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Alga3 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curriculaof Secondary Schools 5 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 

£1,014 9 9 

1010. —'""'"""■ 

Measurement of Geodetic Arc 

in South Africa 100 

Republication of Electrical 

Standards Reports 100 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 23 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Electroanalysis 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

South African Strata 5 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Heredity Experiments 15 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Amount and Distribution of 

Income 15 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 

Greece .. 3 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 20 

Anaesthetics 25 

Tissue Metabolism 25 

Mentaland Muscular Fatigue 18 17 

Electromotive Phenomena in 

Plants 10 



GRANTS OF MONEY, 



XXXVll 



£ s. d. 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Survey of Clare Island 30 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 2 

£963 17 



1911. 

Seismological Investigations 60 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmoutli 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Grant to International Com- 
mission on Pli}-sical and 
Chemical Constants 30 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Electroanalysis 15 

Intiuence of Carbon, kc, on 

Corrosion of Steel 15 

CiTstalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 

Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 
Deposits, Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan ". 75 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

BelmuUet Whaling Station... 30 

Map of Prince Charles Fore- 
land 30 

Gaseous Explosions 90 

Lake Villages in the neigli- 

bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs 10 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Anesthetics 20 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 25 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants 10 

Dissociation of Oxy-Hsemo- 
globin 25 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Experimental Stufly of 

Heredity 15 

Suivey of Clare Island 20 

Kegistration of Botanical 

Photographs 10 

Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£!)22 


























































1912. 

£ s. d. 

Seismological Investigations 60 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 30 

Grant to International Com- 
mission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants 30 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 
Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines 10 

Electroanalysis 10 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Igneous and Associated Rocks 
of Glensaul, &c 15 

I;ist of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Sutton Bone Bed 15 

P.embridge Limestone at 

Creechbarrow Hill 20 

Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples 50 

Index Animalium 75 

Bel mullet Whaling Station... 20 

Secondary Sexual Characters 
in Birds 10 

Gaseous Explosions HO 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glaston- 
bury 5 

Artificial Islands in High- 
land Lochs 10 

Physical Character of Ancient 
Egyptians 10 

Excavation in Easter Island 15 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 
Man 40 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Experimental Study of 
Heredity 35 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 15 

Overlapping between Second- 
ary and Higher Educa- 
tion 1 

Curricula, &c., of Industrial 
and Poor Law Schools 10 

Influence of School Books 
upon Eyesight 3 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

Colled ions illustrating 
Natural History of Isle of 

Wight '. __^^^ J* 

£845 7 6 






























































18 


6 








9 












XXXVlll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 















9 






























11)13. 

£ s. (I. 

Seismological Investigations 130 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

International Committee on 
Physical and Chemical 
Constants 40 

Calculation of Mathematical 
Tables 20 

Disposal of Copies of the 
' Binary Canon ' 4 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 
Substances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines 15 

Study of Plant Enzymes 25 

Correlation of Crystalline 
Form with Molecular Struc- 
ture 25 

Study of Solubility Pheno- 
mena 10 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Geology of Ramsey Island ... 10 

Fauna and Flora of Trias of 
Western Midlands 10 

Critical Sections in Lower 
Palfeozoic Rocks 15 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 20 

Nomenclature Animalium 
Genera et Sub-genera 50 

Antarctic Whaling Industry 75 

Maps for School and Univer- 
sity Use 40 

Gaseous Explosions 50 

Stress Distributions in Engi- 
neering Materials 50 
































































£. s. ii. 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glaston- 
bury 20 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Artificial Islands in the High- 
lands of Scotland 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 20 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in Cyprus 50 

Palasolithic Site in Jersey ... 50 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 30 

Binocular Combination of 

Kinematograph Pictures... 17 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 5 

Flora of the Peat of tiie 

Kennet Valley 15 

Vegetation of Ditcham Park 14 4 3 

Physiology of Heredity 30 0, 

Breeding Experiments with 

(Enotheras 19 17 4 

Mental and Physical Fac- 
tors involved in Educa- 
tion 20 

Influence of School Books on 

Eyesight 2 8 9 

Character, Work, and Main- 
tenance of Museums 10 

Corresf)onding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£■1,086 16 4 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXXIX 



EEPOET OF THE COUNCIL, 1913-14. 

I. The Council have to record their profound sorrow at the death of 
Sir David Gill, F.E.S., ex-President. The following resolution was 
conveyed to Lady Gill by the President : — 

' The Council deeply regret the death ol their late distinguished 
President, Sir David Gill, whose personality was so widely 
appreciated, and whose woi-k for Astronomy at the Cape 
Observatory elevated it to the first rank ; and they empower 
the Officers to convey to Lady Gill and his family their 
profound sympathy. " 

IL Professor A. Schuster, F.E.S., has been unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Council to fill tEe office of President of the Association 
for 1915-16 (Manchester Meeting). 

III. Caird Fund. — (a) Eesolutions referred by the General 
Committee to the Council for consideration and, if desirable, for action, 
were dealt with as follows : — 

(1) ' That the Council be asked to appoint a Committee to cany 
out the request of Sir J. K. Caird in his letter of 
September 10 (viz., that his further gift of £1,000 be ear- 
marked for the study of Eadio- Activity as a branch of Geo- 
physics).' 

It was resolved to appoint the following Committee to carry out the 
above request: The President and General Officers, Sir E. Eutherford, 
Mr. F. Soddy, and Sir J. J. Thomson. The Committee was empowered 
to add to its number and to modify the condition attaching to the above 
gift, subject to the approval of Sir J. K. Caird. 

(2) ' That the request of Section A (Mathematics and Physics) 
for a grant from the Caird Fund of £500 for Eadio-telegraphic 
investigations be sent to the Council for consideration and 
action. ' 

It was resolved that the above request be granted, and that the 
General Treasurer be empowered to pay the sum named to the Chairman 
of the Committee appointed to conduct the said investigations. 

(3) ' That a grant of £100 for the coming year be made to the 
Committee on the Naples Table from^ the Caird Fund, and 
that the Council be requested to consider the advisability of 
endowing the Committee by a capital sum yielding an annual 
income of £100.' 

It was resolved that a grant of £100 for the coming year be made 
to the Committee on the Naples Table from the Caird Fund, and that 
a grant of £100 be made annually in future to the Committee, subject 
to the adoption of its annual report. 



Xl REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

(4) ' That a grant of £100 for the coming year be made to the 
Committee on Seismological Investigations from the Caird 
Fund, and that the Council be asked to consider the 
advisability of endowmg the Committee by a capital sum 
yielding an annual income of £100.' 

It was resolved that a grant of £100 for the coming year be made 
to the Committee on Seismological Investigations, and that a grant of 
£100 be made annually in future to the Committee, subject to the 
adoption of its annual report. 

(b) An application to the Council from the ' Scotia ' Publication 
Committee (Scottish Antarctic Expedition) for a grant of £400 from the 
Caird Fund towards the expenses of the publication of the ' Scientific 
Results of the Voyage of the " Scotia " ' was considered, and it was 
resolved that the application could not be entertained. 

IV. Resolutions referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Birmingham for consideration, and, if desirable, for action, were 
dealt with as follows : — 

From Sections A and E. 

' That the terms First Order, Second Order, Third Order, and 
Fourth Order of triangulation, as connoting definite degrees 
of precision, be used to describe triangulation even though 
the terms now in use {e.g., Major, Minor, &c.), which have 
only a local significance, are also employed. ' 

' That this resolution be communicated through the proper 
channels to (a) the Geodetic Association, and (fe) the Institute 
of Surveyors.' 

The Council approved the principle of the above resolution, and 
resolved that Professor H. H. Turner and Captain H. G. Lyons be 
appointed a Committee to communicate, in the name of the Council, 
with the Geodetic Association and the Institute of Surveyors. The 
Committee duly canned out this instruction. 

Fro7n Section I. 

' The Committee of Section I requests the Council of the 
Association to forward to the Board of Trade the following 
resolution : — 

(i) That Colour Vision Tests are most efficiently conducted 

by means of what is known as the " Lantern Test." 
(ii) That the best form of such lantern has not yet been 

finally decided upon, and can be arrived at only after 

further expert report, 
(iii) That the actual application of sight tests requires the 

co-operation of an ophthalmic surgeon with a practical 

navigator. ' 

The Council, after careful consideration and consultation among 
members specially interested in this question, resolved to take no action. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xli 

From Section I. 

' That in view of the fact that numerous deaths continue to take 
place from anaesthetics administered by unregistered persons, 
the Committee of the Section of Physiology of the British 
Association appeals to the Council of the Association to repi'e- 
sent to the Home Office and to the Privy Council the urgent 
need of legislation to protect the public against such 
unnecessary risks.' 

The Council appointed a Committee to consider and report upon 
the above resolution, and subsequently adopted the following resolution, 
which was transmitted to the Home Office: — 

' The Council of the British Association desire to urge upon 
His Majesty's Government the necessity of introducing legis- 
lation on the subject of the administration of anaesthetics, as 
recommended by the Departmental Committee of the Home 
Office, dated March 18, 1910, but with the addition to Recom- 
mendation (3) of a clause permitting administration by un- 
registered persons under the immediate supervision of a person 
duly qualified. The Council would point out that the recom- 
mendations of the General Medical Council are practically 
identical with those of the Departmental Committee, and that 
these recommendations have been approved by various 
academic and professional bodies, and also by the Council 
of this Association in 1910.' 

V. In connection with the Magnetic Ee-survey of the British Isles, 
referred to in the Eeport of the Council for 1912-13, the Council 
agreed to the proposal of the Royal Society that a joint supervising 
committee of the Society and the Association be appointed, and the 
following members were appointed to represent the Association : Sir 
Oliver Lodge, Prof. J. Periy, Prof. H. H. Turner, Dr. C. Chree, 
Dr. S. Chapman, Dr. P. W. Dyson, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

The Council empowered the General Treasurer to pay from the 
Caird Fund a sum not exceeding £250 towards the cost of the Survey. 

VI. Australian Meeting. — (i) At their meeting in December 1913 
the Council were informed as to the limit of the total number of the 
oversea party which the Australian authorities had found it necessary 
to propose, having regard to the provision of suitable travelling 
facihties, &c., in Australia. The Council were also informed that by 
counting all doubtful or qualified intimations from members, and all 
applications for new membership, the limit above mentioned was 
already substantially exceeded. It was resolved (a) that there should 
be no more admissions to the oversea party, excepting any member 
whose attendance the Australian Committee or the General Officers (in 
consultation, if necessary, with representatives of any particular 
Section) might decide to be of special importance to the scientific 
work of the meeting; (b) that the General Secretaries should be 
empowered to desire members v/hose intimations were qualified by 



Xlii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

doubt to express their definite intentions by a certain date; (c) that 
the General Officers should be emjDowered to take, in the name of the 
Council, any other measures which might appear necessary to effect 
a reduction in the total number of the oversea party. 

(ii) Previously to the departure of Dr. A. 0. D. Eivett, General 
Organising Secretary in Australia, from London in December 1913, it 
was resolved that the thanks of the Council be expressed to Dr. Eivett 
for the assistance he had rendered in connection with the an-angements 
for the meeting during his visit to England, and to the authorities in 
Australia under whose direction he had paid this visit. 

VII. The Council resolved that the meetings of the Conference of 
Delegates of Corresponding Societies be held in Havre in August 1914 
on the occasion of the meeting there of L 'Association Frangaise pour 
I'Avancement des Sciences. 

In these circumstances the Council made the following appoint- 
ments on behalf of the General Committee (in place of nominations, 
as usual) : — 

Conference of Delegates. — Sir H. G. Pordham (Chairvmn) , Sir 
E. Brabrook {Vice-Chairman), Mr. "W. Mark Webb (Secretary). 

The following nominations are made by the Council: — 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Mr. W. Whitaker (Chair- 
man), Mr. W. Mark Webb (Secretary), Eev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, and the President and 
General Officers of the Association. 

VIII. The Council have received an intimation from the Town 
Clerk of Cardiff that the Council and other authorities in that city 
intend to present an invitation to the Association to hold there its 
Meeting in 1918. 



•'to 



IX. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. In consequence of the early removal of the books, 
&c., from London to Australia, it has not been possible to prepare the 
usual annual accounts. These will be audited and presented to the 
General Committee at the Manchester Meeting (1916). 

X. The retiring members of the Council are: — 

Sir D. Prain, Prof. C. S. Shen-ington, Prof. F. T. Trouton, 
Dr. J. E. Marr, Prof. J. B. Farmer. 

The Council nominated the following new members: — 
Dr. F. W. Dyson, 
Miss E. E. Saunders, 
Prof. E. H. Starling, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



xlii 



The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong. 
Sir E. Brabrook. 
Prof. W. H. Bragg. 
Dr. Dugald Clerk. 
Major P. G. Craigie. 
W. Crooke. 
Prof. A. Dendy. 
Dr. F. A. Di.xey. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon. 
Dr. F. W. Dyson. 
Principal E. H. Griffiths. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 



A. D. Hall. 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

Sir Everard im Thurn. 

Alfred Lodge. 

Capt. H, G. Lyons. 

Prof. R. Meldola. 

Prof. J. L. Myres. 

Miss E. R. Saunders. 

Prof. E. H. Starling 

J. J. H. Teall. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson. 



XI. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council 
as follows: — 

Gen&ral Treasurer : Prof. J. Perry. 
. General Secretaries : Prof. W. A. Herdman. 

Prof. H. H. Turner. 



XII. The foUowincf have been admitted as members of the General 



Committee : — 

Prof. H. S. Carslaw. 

Prof. W. J. Dakin. 

Prof. T. W. Edgeworth David. 

Prof. W. G. Duffield. 

Mr. A. du Toit. 

Prof. A. J. Ewart. 

Mr. J. T. Ewen. 

Prof. H. J. Fleure. 

Mr. Willoughby Gardner. 

Prof. Kerr Grant. 

Mr. C. Hedley. 

Prof. W. A. Jollv. 

Dr. C. F. Juritz. 



Prof. T. Lyle. 
Dr. H. McCombie. 
Mr. J. H. Maiden. 
Dr. R. R. Marett. 
Prof. Orme Masson. 
Dr. N. V. Sidgwick. 
Prof. C. Michie Smith. 
Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer. 
Prof. B. D. Steele. 
Prof. E. C. Stirling. 
Dr. W. E. Sumpner. 
Major A. J. N. Tremearne. 



I. 


rf. 


13 


3 
































2 














10 


16 


11 



xliv GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Dr. ■ THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

1913-1914. RECEIPTS. 

£ 

Balance brought forward 1,375 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 549 

Annual Subscriptions 782 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 356 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 1,266 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 290 

Sale of Publications 248 

Sir James Caird's Gift (Radio-activit}' Investigation) 1,000 

Interest on Deposits : 

Lloyds Bank, Birmingham 52 

Bank of Scotland, Dundee - 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned : £ s i/. 

Fos3il Plants 10 3 

Corresponding Societies Committee 114 8 

Jurassic Flora 3 14 1 

Dividends on Investments : - 5 19 

Consols .- 134 4 8 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 101 14 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 29 1 6 
Dividends on 'Caird Fund' Investments : - 265 2 
London and North-Western Railway Consoli- 
dated 4 per Cent. Preference Stock 94 3 4 

London and South-Western Railway do. do. 94 3 4 

India 3i per Cent. Stock 86 11 8 

Canada 3i per Cent. Registered Stock 82 7 10 

357 6 2 

Australian Government Subsidy : 1914 Meeting 15,000 

Mpiii, : Receipts on account of the Australian Meeting 
(1914), amounting to £243, are not included in tliis account, 
but are paid to a separate (No. 2) account at the I!ank. 

Investmevf.'i. 

Nominal Amount. Value SOth June, 1914. 

& s. d. £. i. d. 

6,70110 5 2| per Cent. Consolidated Stock 4,276 2 10 

3,600 India 3 per Cent. Stock 2,700 

879 14 9 £43 Great Indian Peninsula Railway 

'B' Annuity (cost) 849 5 

2,627 10 India 3i per Cent. Stock, 'Caird Fund' 2,338 1 4 

2,500 London and North-Western Railway 
Consolidated 4 per Cent. Preference 
Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 2,500 

2,500 London and South-Western Railway 
Consolidated 4 per Cent. Preference 
Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 2,475 

2,600 Canada3iper Cent. 1930-1950 Regis- 
tered Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 2,225 

Sir Frederick Bram well's Gift: — 

78 12 7 Self-cumulating Consolidated Stock, - 

[To be awarded in 1931 for a paper £21,549 18 4 

dealing with the whole question 

of the Prime Movers of 1931, and 

especially with the then relation 

between steam engines and internal 

combustion engines.] 

John Pbrey, General Treamrer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. xlv 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE Cr. 

July 1, 1913, to June 30, 1914. 

1913-1914. PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. 

Rent and Office Expenses 167 7 

Salaries, &c 758 11 9 

Printing, Binding, &c 1,21.5 8 10 

Expenses of Birmingham Meeting 165 11 2 

Payments on account of Australian Meeting -14 4 9 

Grants to Research Committees : — £ s. a. 

Seismological luvestigations 1 30 U 

luvestigatioii of the Upper Atmosphere 25 

Iiitertiatioual Committee on Physical aud Chemical Constants 40 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables -'0 

Disposal of Copies of the ' Binary Canon ' 4 9 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 2.'* 

Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamiues 15 

Study of Plant Enzymes 25 

Correlation of Crystalline Form with MolecnUr Structnre 25 

Study of Solubility Phenomena 10 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 U 

Gtolcgy of Ramsey Island .. 10 

Fauna and Flora of Trias of Western Midlands 10 

Critical Sections iu Lower Palfeozoic Eocks 15 

Belmullet WhaUng Station 20 

Nomenclature Auimalium Genera et Sub-genera 50 

Antarctic WhaUng Industry 75 

Maps for School aud Duiversity Use 4U 

Gaseous Explosions 50 

Strfss Distributions in Engineering Materials 50 

Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury 20 

Age of Stone Circes 20 

Artificial Islands in the Highlands <jf Scotlai.d 5 

Excavations ou Roman Sites ill Britain 20 

Anthi-opometric luvestigatiOLS in Cyprus 50 

Palajolithic Site iu Jersey 50 

The Ductless Glauds 35 

Calorimetric Observations on Man 40 

Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart 30 

Binocular Combination of Kiuemalograph Pictures 017 

Structiu-e of FossU Plants 15 

J urassio Flora of Yorkshire 5 

Flora of the Peat of the Kennet Valley .. . 15 

Vegeta' ion of Uitcham Park 14 4 3 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Bi ceding Experiments with (Enotheras 19 17 4 

Mental and Physical Factoi s involved in Education 20 

Influence of School Books on Eyesight 2 8 9 

Character, Work, and Maintenance of Museums 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25 

1,086 16 4 



Grants made from ' Caird Fund ' 775 

Amounts paid to Grantees from Australian Government 

Subsidy: 1914 Meeting 14,950 

Balance at Lloyds Bank, Birmingham (including £ s, a. 

accrued Interest) 1,676 12 3 

Balance at Bank of England, 

Western Branch : On General 

Account £933 1 10 

Li'M Overspent on 'Caird Fund'... 226 6 6 



706 15 4 

Petty Cash in li and 3 17 4 

2,387 4 1 1 

£21, 549 18 4 
An Account a/" £864 G*. 6(f. is outstandiuff due to Messrf. Spottiswoode 4" Co. 

I liave examined the above Account with the Eooks and Vouchers of the Association, aud certify the 
same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the Bankers, and have aseertained that the Invest- 
ments are registered iu the names cf the Trustees. W. B. Keen, Charteied Accounla/il. 
Apptoved — Z^fce;/i6tfr 2, 1914. 
Kdward Bbabrook, 1 , ,., . 
Herbert Mcleod, '} -^''''''o'*- 



xlvi GENERAL MEETINGS. 

GENERAL MEETINGS, 1914. 

The General Meetings held in Australia will be found mentioned in 
the course of the Narrative on pp. 679, seqq. A Narrative of the Visit of 
Members to the Meeting of L' Association Fran9aise at Le Havre, with an 
account of the meetings held there, is given on p. 720. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS AT THE AUSTRALIAN 
MEETING, 1914. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Prof. F. T. Trouton, F.R.S. {in absentia). Vice-Presidents. — 
Prof. E. W. Brown, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. S. Carslaw, F.R.S. ; Sir Oliver J. Lodge, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. A. W. Porter, F.R S. ; Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. Secretaries.— 
Prof. A. S. Eddington, F.R.S. (Recorder); E. Gold, M.A. ; Prof. S. B. McLareo, 
M.A. ; A. O. Rankine D.Sc. ; Prof. T. R. Lyle, F.R.S. (Local Sec, Melbourne) ; 
Prof. J. A. Pollock, D.Sc. (Local Sec, Sydney). 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President, — Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. F. Clowes, 
D.Sc. ; Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ; Prof. Orme Masson, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. H. 
Rennie, D.Sc. ; Prof. B. D. Steele, D.Sc. Secretaries.— A. Holt, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; 
N. V. Sidgwick, D.Sc; D. Avery, M.Sc. (Local Sec, Melbourne); Prof. C. 
Fawsitt, D.Sc. (Local Sec, Sydney). 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Frol Sir T. H. Holland, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, D.Sc; Prof. T. W. Edgewortb David, C.M.G, ; H. 
Herman ; Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. ; Prof. Woolnough, D.Sc. Secretaries.— 
A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; Prof. S. H. Reyuolds, M.A. ; Prof. E. W. 
Skeats, D.Sc. (Local Sec, Melbourne); E. F. Pittman, A.R.S.M. (Local Sec, 
Sydney). 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

Preside7it. —VroL A. Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Frol C. B. 
Davenport; Prof. W. A. Haswell, F.R.S.; Prof. H. Jungersen; Dr. 0. Maas; 
Prof. E. A. Mincbin, F.R.S.; Prof. Baldwin Spencer, C.M.G., F.R.S. Secre- 
taries.— Froi. H. AV. Marett Tims, M.A., M.D. (Recorder); J. H. Ashwortb, 
D.Sc; R. Douglas Laurie, M.A. ; T. S. Hall, D.Sc. (Local Sec, Melbourne) ; 
Prof. W. A. Haswell, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Local Sec, Sydney). 

[^ , SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Siv Charles P. Lucas, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. 
Guido Cora; Prof. T. W. Edgewortb David, C.M.G. ; Capt. J. K. Davis; Prof. 
W. M. Davis ; Sir John Forrest ; Prof. A. Penck. Secretaries. — H. Yule Oldham, 
M.A. (Recorder); J. McFarlane, M.A. ; J. A. Leacb, M.Sc. (Local Sec, Mel- 
bourne) ; F. Poate (Local Sec, Sydney). 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— PvoL E. C. K. Gouner, M.A. Vice-Presidents.— S. Bali; T. R. 
Bavin; Denison Miller; H. Y. Braddon ; Harrison Moore. Secretaries. — Prof. 
A. W. Kirkaldy,M.A., M.Com. (Recorder) ; Prof. H. 0. Meredith, M.A., M.Com. ; 
G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G. (Local Sec, Melbourne) ; Prof. R. F. Irvine, M.A. (Local 
Sec, Sydney). 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1914. xlvii 



SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President. — Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents. — W. Davidson ; H. 
Deaue, M.A. ; Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S. ; Col. J. Monash ; Prof. J. E. Petavel, 
F.R.S. Secretaries.— Vrot'. G. W. 0. Howe, M.Sc. (Becorder) ; Prof. W. M. 
Tliorutou, D.Sc. ; Prof. II. Payne (Local Sec, Melbourne) ; Prof. W. H. Warren 
(Local Sec, Sydney), 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Siv Everaid im Tbiirn, C.B., K.C.M.G. Vice-Presidents.— 
H. Balfour, M.A. ; Dr. Etberidge; Dr. A. 0. Haddou, F.R.S.; Prof. F. von 
Luschan ; Prof. Baldwin Spencer, C.M.G., F.R.S. ; Prof. E. 0. Stirling, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — R. R. Marett, M.A., D.Sc. (Becorder) ; B. Malinowski, Ph.D. ; 
Prof. R. J. A. Berry, M.D. (Local Sec, Melbourne) ; Prof. J. T. Wilson, M.B,, 
F.R.S. (Local Sec, Sydney). 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— VioL Benjamin Moore, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Piot W. D- 
Halliburton, F.R.S. ; Prof. Sir E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. C. Stirling, 
F.R.S. Secretaries.— Vrol P. T. Herring, M.D. (Becorder) ; Prof. T. H. Milroy, 
M.D.; Prof. W. A. Osborne, D.Sc. (Local Sec, Melbourne); Prof. Sir T. P. 
Anderson Stuart, M.D., LL.D. (Local Sec, Sydney). 



SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President. — Prof. F. (). Bower, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — J. H. Maiden, 
F.L.S. ; Miss E. R. Saunder.«, F.L.S. ; Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. Secretaries. — 
Prof. T. Johnson, D.Sc. (Becorder) ; Miss E. N. Thomas, D.Sc; Prof. A. J. 
Ewart, D.Sc. (Local Sec, Melbourne); Prof. A. Austruther La'wson,Ph.D ,D.Sc. 
(Local Sec, Sydney). 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. E. Armstrong, 
F.R.S. ; C. A. Buckmaster, M.A. ; G. T. Moody, D.Sc. Secretaries.— FioL J. A. 
Green, M.A. (Becorder); 0. A. Buckmaster, M.A. ; J. Smyth, M.A. (Local 
Sec, Melbourne) ; P. Board, M.A. (Local Sec, Sjdney). i 

SECTION M. — AGRICULTURE. 

President.— A. D. Hall, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— E. S. Beaven, F.C.S. ; 
Prof. T. B. Wood, M.A. Secretaries.—]. Golding,F.I.C. (Becorder) ; A. Lauder, 
D.Sc. ; Piof. T. Cherry, M.Sc. (Local Sec, Melbourne) ; Prof. R. D. Watt, M.A- 
(Local Sec, Sydney). I 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING I 
SOCIETIES (HAVRE, 1914). 

Chairman. — Sir H. G. Fordham. Vice- Chairman. — Sir E. Brabrook. 
Secretary. — W. Mark Webb. 



xlviii 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 







Table showing the Atteiidances and 


Eeceijyts 


Date of Meeting 

1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 


Where held 
York 


Presidents 


! Old Life 
1 Members 

1 

r - 


\ New Life 
Members 




Viscount Milton, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. . . . 






Crford 




1833, June 25 


Cambridge 


The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 










1834, Sept. 8 


Edinburgli 


Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. . 


— 







1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 


Dublin 


The Rev. Provost LIoyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S. . 


— 


— 




Bristol 




1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 


Liverpool 

Newoastle-on-Tvne- . . 


The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 


— 


— 




The Duke of Northumberiaud, F.R.S. 




1839, Aug. 26 


Birmingham 


TlieRev.W. VernunHarcourt, F.R.S. 


— 


— 




1840, Sept. ir 


Glasgow 


The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 





. 




1841, July 20 


Plymouth 


The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 


169 


6.') 




1842, June 23 


Manchester 


The Loril Francis Egerton, F.G.S. 


303 


169 




1843, Aug. 17 


Cork 


The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. . 


109 


28 




1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 


York 


The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John F. W.Hersohel, Bart.., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 


226 
313 
241 


150 
36 
10 




Cambridge 




Southampton 




1847, June 23 


Oxford 


Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. 


314 


18 




1848, Aug. 9 


Swansea 


TheMarquisofNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 


149 


3 




1849, Sept. 12 


Birmingham 


Tlie Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 


227 


12 




1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 


Edinburgh 


Sir Darid Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airv, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 


235 
172 


9 
8 




Ipswich 




1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 


Belfast 


Lieut.-Geueral Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowbv, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 


164 
141 
238 
194 


10 
13 
23 
33 




Hull 




Liverpool 




Glasgow 




1856, Aug. 6 


Cheltenham 


Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.. . . 


182 


14 




1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 


Dublin 


The Rev. H. Llovd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort 


236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 


15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 




Leeds 




Aberdeen 




Oxford 


The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 




Manchester 




Cambridge 




18G3, Aug. 26 


Newcastle-on-Ty ne. . . 


Sir William G. Armstrong.C.B., F.R.S. 


203 


36 




1864, Sept. 13 


Bath 


Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., P.H.S. 


287 


40 




1865, Sept. 6 


Birmingham 


Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 


292 


44 




1866, Aug. 22 


Nottingham 


WilUam R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 


207 


31 




1867, Sept. 4 


Dundee 


The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 


1G7 


25 




1868, Aug. 19 


Norwich 


Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 


196 


18 




1869, Aug. 18 


Exeter 


Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S 


204 


21 




1870, Sept. 14 


Liverpool 


Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 


314 


39 




1871, Aug. 2 


Edinburgh 


Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 


246 


28 




1872, Aug. 14 


Brighton 


Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 


245 


36 




1873, Sept. 17 


Bradford 


Prof. A. W. Williamson. F R.S 


212 


27 




1874, Aug. 19 


Belfast 


Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 


162 


13 




1875, Aug. 25 


Bristol 


Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 


239 


36 




1876, Sept. 6 


Glasgow 


Prof. T. Andrews. M.D., F.R.S 


221 


35 




1877, Aug. 15 


Plymouth 


Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 


173 


19 




1878, Aug. 14 


Dublin 


W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 


201 


18 




1879, Aug. 20 


Sheffield 


Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S 


184 


16 




1880, Aug. 25 


Swansea 


A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 


144 


11 




1881, Aug. 31 


York 


Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 


272 


28 




1882, Aug. 23 


Southampton 


Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 


178 


17 




1883, Sept. 19 


Southport 


Prof. A. Cavley, D.C.L., F.R.S 


203 


60 




1884, Aug. 27 


Montreal 


Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 


235 


20 




1885, Sept. 9 


Aberdeen 


Sir Lvou Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. 


225 


18 




1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 


Birmingham 


Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 


314 

428 
266 


25 
86 
36 




Manchester 




Bath 




1889, Sept. 11 


Newcastle-ou-Tvne. . . 


Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B.. F.R.S. 


277 


20 




1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 


Leeds . 


Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie. LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury ,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 


259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 


21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 




OardifE 




Edinburgh 




Nottingham 




Oxford 




Ipswich 




1896, Sept. 16 


Liverpool 


Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. ... 


330 


31 




1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 


Toi-onto 


Sir John Evans, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Seo.R.S.... 
Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 


120 
281 
296 
267 


8 
19 
20 
13 




Bristol 




Dover 




Bradford 









• Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
[Continued on p. 1. 



ATTENDANCES AND KECEIPTS. 



xlix 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 





Old 
Annual 


New 
Annual 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid 
on account 
of Grants 


Year 




Members 


Members 








for Scientific 
Purposes 






— 


— 


— 




— 


353 


— 


1831 
1832 
1833 










_ 


z 


900 


z 


z 







— 


— 


_ 


— 


1298 


— 


£20 


1834 

























167 


1835 







— . 


— 


— 


— 


1350 


— 


435 


1836 







. 





— 





1840 





922 12 6 


1837 







— . 


— 


1100* 


— 


2400 


— 


933 2 2 


1838 







— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


1595 11 


1839 







— , 


. — 


— 


40 


1353 


— 


1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 


— , 


60» 


— 


891 





1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331» 


28 


1315 


— 


1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 





160 


— 


_ 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


n 


260 


— 


— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


_ 


831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 


685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 





208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




66 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45t 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1871 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1S76 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


not 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 


54S 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 




297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1801 


1072 10 


1900 



t Including Ladies. | Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting 



1914. 



[Continued on p. li. 
c 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 

Table shoiving the Attendances and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 

Prof. A. W. RUcker, D.Sc. SecR.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. ; 

Rer. Prof. T. 6. Bouuey, F.R S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Rimsay, K.C.B , F.R.S. 

Prof. E. A. Schafer. F.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 


1901, Sept. 11 

1902, Sept. 10 

1903, Sept. 9 

1904, Aug. 17 

1905, Aug. 15 

1906, Aug. 1 

1907, July 31 

1908, Sept. 2 

1909, Aug. 25 

1910, Aug. 31 

1911, Aug. 30 

1912, Sept. 4 

1913, Sept. 10 ,...,. 

1914, July-Sept.... 


Glasgow 


310 
243 
250 
419 
115 
322 
276 
294 
117 
293 
284 
288 
376 
172 


37 


Belfast 


21 


Southport 


21 


Cambridge 


32 


South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 


40 
10 
19 
24 
13 
26 


Portsmouth 

Dundee 

Birmingham 


21 
14 
40 
13 







*S Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 
XX Grants from the Caird Fund are not included in this and subsequent sums. 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 

Average attendance at 79 Meetings : 1858. 

Average 
Attendance 
Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during Jmie, hetmecn 

1833 and 1860 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during July, hetiveen 

1841 aM(^ 1907 1122 

Average attendance at 32 Meetings beginning during Avfjust, hetween 

1836 aM^Z 1911 "... 1927 

Average attendance at 37 Meetings beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1913 1977 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . IIGI 



Meetings beginning during August. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Bleetings beginning during tlie 1st week in AvijustC 1st- 7tli) 

5 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ ■„ ( 8th-Uth) 
9 „ „ „ ., 3rd , (l.'Jth-21st) 

14 „ „ „ „ 4tli „ „ „ (22nd-31st) 



1905 
2130 
1802 
1935 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



at Annual Meetings of the Association — (continued). 



Old 
Annual 
Members 



374 

314 

319 

449 

937t 

356 

339 

465 

290»» 

379 

349 

368 

480 

139 



New 
Annual 
Members 



131 

86 

90 

113 

411 

93 

61 

112 

162 

57 

61 

95 

149 

416011 



Asso- 
ciates 



Ladies 



794 

647 

688 
1338 

430 

817 

659 
1166 

789 

563 

414 
1292 
1287 

S39II I 



246 
305 
365 
317 
181 
352 
251 
222 

90 
123 

81 
359 
291 



Foreigners 


Total 


20 


1912 


6 


1620 


21 


1754 


121 


2789 


16 


2130 


22 


1972 


42 


1647 


14 


2297 


7 


1468 


8 


1449 


31 


1241 


88 


2504 


20 


2643 


21 


5044!! 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



£2046 

1644 

1762 

2650 

2422 

1811 

1561 

2317 

1623 

1439 

1176 

2349 

2756 
4873 



Sums paid 
on account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Purposes 



£920 9 11 
947 
845 13 2 
887 18 11 
928 2 2 
882 9 
757 12 10 
1157 18 8 
1014 9 9 
963 17 
922 
845 7 6 
978 17 lit 



[1086 16 4 



Year 



1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 



** Including 137 Members of tlie American Association. 
(I Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, gee 
p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to att3nd the Meeting of L' Association 
Francaise at Le Havre. 



THE ANNUAL MEETINGS, 1831-1913. 
1835, 1843, and 1844 are unknown.^ 



Meetings beginnvig during September. 
Average attendance at — 

Average 
Attendance 
13 Meetings beginning during the 1st vt eek yd. September (^ 1st- 7th). 2131 

17 „ „ „ „ 2nd , ( 8th-14th). 1906 

5 „ „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ ( 15th-21st). 2206 

2 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in J?«!e (15th-21st) 1079 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 1306 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in Jiily (lst-7th) 710 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

.hdy (15th-21st) ... 1066 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1907, July 31) beginning during the 5th 

weekin J«Zy (29th-31st) 1647 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in Oc«oJ<rr (lst-7th) 1161 

1914. c 2 



Ui 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



LIST OF GRANTS: Australia, 1914. 



Research Committees, etc.. appointed on behalf of the General 
Committee at the Australian Meeting : August, 1914. 

1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Seismological Observations. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmo- 
sphere. 



Annual Tables of Constants and 
Numerical Data, chemical, phy- 
sical, and technological. 



Calculation of 
Tables. 



Mathematical 



Chairman. — Prof essorH. H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Mr. Horace Darwin, Mr. C. Davi- 
son, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. 
M. H. Gray, Professors J. W. 
Judd and C. G. Knott, Sir J. 
Larmor, Professor E. Meldola, 
Mr. W. E. Plummer, Dr. K. A. 
Sampson, Professor A. Schuster, 
Mr. J. J. Shaw, and Mr. G. W. 
Walker. 



Chairman.— Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. Gold. 

Mr. C. J.' P. Cave, Mr. W. H. Dines, 

Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Sir J. 

Larmor, Professor J. E. Petavel, 

Professor A. Schuster, and Dr. 

W. Watson. 



Chairman. — Sir W. Ramsay. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. C. McC. Lewis. 



Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. 
Hill. 

Secretary.-?volessoT J. W. Nichol- 
son. 

Mr. J. R. Airey, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, 
Professor Alfred Lodge, Pro- 
fessor L. N. G. Filon, Sir G. 
Greenhill, and Professors E. W. 
Hobson, A. E. H. Love, H. M. 
Macdonald, and A. G. Webster. 



Grants 



£ 
60 



s.d. 
0* 



25 



JO 



30 



» In addition, the Council \va? authorised to expend a sum not exceeding £70 for the priuting of 
circulars, &c., in connection with the Committee on Seismological Observations, 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receivitig Grants of Money — continued. 



mi 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Hydro-Aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



Tlie Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to 
Substitution in Benzene De- 
rivatives. 

Tlie Study of Plant Enzymes, 
particularly with relation to 
Oxidation. 



Correlation of Crystalline Form 
with Molecular Structure. 



Study of Solubility Phenomena. 



Chemical Investigation of Natural 
Plant Products of Victoria. 



The Influence of Weather Con- 
ditions upon the Amounts of 
Nitrogen Acids in the Rainfall 
and the Atmosphere. 

Research on Non-Aromatic Diazo- 
nium Salts 



Cliairman. — ProfessorW.H.Perkin. 

Secretary. — Professor A. W. Cross- 
ley. 

Dr. M. 0. Forster, Dr. Le Sueur, 
and Dr. A. McKenzie. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, and Dr. M. 0. 
Forster. 

Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 
Secretary. — ProfessorK.J.P.Orton. 
Dr. S. Ruhemann and Dr. J. T. 

Hewitt. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. D. Hall. 

Secretary. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong. 

Professor H. E. Armstrong, Pro- 
fessor F. Keeble, and Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 

CJiairman. — Professor W. J. Pope. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Mr. W. Barlow and Professor 
W. P. Wynne. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. V. Eyre. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Professor A. 
Findlay, Dr. T. M. Lowry, and 
Professor W. J. Pope. 

Chairman. — Professor Orme Mas- 
son. 

Secretary. — Dr. Heber Green. 

Mr. J. Cronin, and Mr. P. R. H. 
St. John. 

Chairma/ii. — Professor Orme Mas- 
son. 
Secretary. — Mr. V. G. Anderson. 
Mr. D. Avery and Mr. H. A. Hunt. 

Chairman, — Dr. F. D. Chattaway. 
Secretary. — Professor G.T.Morgan. 
Mr. P. G. W. Bayly and Dr. N. V. 
Sidgwick. 



£ s. d. 
15 



40 



20 



30 



25 



10 



50 



40 



10 



c :^ 



liv 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of tlie British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To consider the preparation of a 
List of Characteristic Fossils. 



The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 
Kiltorcan, Ireland. 



Fauna and Flora of the Trias of 
the Western Midlands. 



To excavate Critical Sections in 
the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of 
England and Wales. 



Chairman.— Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Dwerrj'house. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Rev. S. N. Harrison, 
Dr. J. Home, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
and Messrs. W. Hill, J. W. 
Stather, and J. H. Milton. 

Chairman. — Professor P. F. Ken- 
dall. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Lower Carter. 

Mr. H. A. Allen, Professor W. S. 
Boulton, Professor G. Cole, Dr. 
A. R. Dwerryhouse, Professors 
J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Hol- 
land, G. A. Lebour, and S. H. 
Reynolds, Dr. Marie C. Stopes, 
Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor 
W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor Grenville 

Cole. 
Secretary. — Professor T. Johnson. 
Dr. J. W. Evans, Dr. R. Kidston, 

and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. Barrow. 

Secretary. — Mr. L. J. Wills. 

Dr. J. Humphreys, Mr. W. Camp- 
bell Smith, Mr. D. M. S. Watson, 
and Professor W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor W. W. 

Watts. 
Secretary. — Professor W. G. 

Fearnsides. 
Professor W. S. Boulton, Mr. B. S. 

Cobbold, Mr. V. C. Illing, Dr. 

Lapworth, and Dr. J. E. Marr. 



£ s. d. 
5 



10 



10 



10 



1.5 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To investigate the Biological 
Problems incidental to the Bel- 
mullet Whaling Station. 



Chairman.— T)!-. A. B. Shipley. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Stanley 
Gardiner. 

Professor W. A. Herdman, Rev. W. 
Spotswood Green, Mr.E.S. Good- 
rich, Professor H. W. Marett 
Tims, and Mr. R. M. Barringtou. 



45 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Chants of Money — continued. 



Iv 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Nomenclator Animalium Genera 
et Sub-genera. 



An investigation of tlie Biology of 
the Abrolhos Islands aod the 
North-west Coast of Australia 
(north of Shark's Bay to 
Broome), with particular refer- 
ence to the Marine Fauna. 

To obtain, as nearly as possible, a 
representative Collection of 
Marsupials for work upon (a) 
the Reproductive Apparatus and 
Development, (ft) the Brain. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. (^iJhalmers Mit- 
chell. 

SecrHar]/.—Hev. T. E. R. Stebbing. 

Dr. M. Laurie, Prof. Marett Tims, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Professor W. J. Dakin. 

Dr. J. H. Ashworth and Professor 
F. 0. Bower. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Dendy. 

Secretaries Professors T. Flynn 

and G. E. Nicholls. 

Professor E B. Poulton and Pro- 
fessor H. W. Marett Tims. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To investigate the Conditions 
determining the Selection of 
Sites and Names for Towns, 
with special reference to Aus- 
tralia. 

I The Hydrographical Survey of 
I St or Fjord, Spitsbergen, by Dr. 
W. S. Bruce. 



To aid in the preparation of a 
Bathymetrical Chart of the 
Southern Ocean between Aus- 
tralia and Antarctica. 



Chairman. — Sir C. P. Lucas. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Yule Oldham. 
Mr. G. G. Chisholm, Professor A. J. 

Herbertson, and Professor J. L. 

MyrfiS. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. G. Chisholm. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. McFarlaiie. 
Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown, Capt. 

J. K. Davis, and Mr. H. Yule 

Oldham. 

Chairman. — Professor T.W. Edge- 
worth David. 

Secretary. — Capt. J. K. Davis. 

Professor J. W. Gregory, Sir C. P. 
Lucas, and Professor Orme 
Masson. 



Grants 



£ 
25 



s. d. 




40 



100 



20 



50 



100 



Section R— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The question of Fatigue from the 
Economic Standpoint, if pos- 
sible in co-operation with Sec- 
tion I, Sub-section of Psycho- 
logy. 



Chairman. — Professor Muirhead. 

Secretary.— Miss B. L. Hutchins. 

Miss A. M. Anderson, Professor 
F. A. Bainbridge, Mr. E. Cad- 
bury, Professor S. J. Chapman, 
Mr. P. Sargant Florence, Pro- 
fessor Stanley Kent, Miss M. C. 
Matheson, Mrs. Meredith, Dr. 
C. S. Myers, Mr. J. W. Rams- 
bottom and Dr. Jenkins Robb. 



30 



Ivi 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 




Section G.— ENGINEEEING. 



The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference 
to Temperature. 



To report on certain of the more 
complex Stress Distributions in 
Engineering Materials. 



Chairman. — Dr. Dugald Clerk. 

Secretary.— Professor W. E. Dalby. 

Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, E. G. 
Coker, and H. B. Dixon, Drs. 
R. T. Glazebrook and J. A. 
Marker, Colonel H. C. L. Holden, 
Professors B. Hopkinson and 
J. E. Petavel, Captain H. Riall 
Sankey, Professor A. Smithells, 
Professor W. Watson, Mr. D. L. 
Chapman, and Mr. H. B. 
Wimperis. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Perry. 

Secretaries. — Professors E. G. 
Coker and J. E. Petavel. 

Professor A. Barr, Dr. Chas. Chree, 
Mr. Gilbert Cook, Professor 
W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Messrs. 
A. R. Fulton and J. J. Guest, 
Professors J. B. Henderson and 
A. E. 11. Love, Mr. W. Mason, 
Sir Andrew Noble, Messrs. F. 
Rogers and W. A. Scoble, Dr. 
T. E. Stanton, and Mr. J. S. 
Wilson. 



£ 
50 



s.d. 




50 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To investigate the Lake Villages 
in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a 
Committee of the Somerset 
Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



To investigate the Physical 
Characters of the Ancient 
Egyptians. 



Chairman. — Professor Boyd Daw- 20 
kins. 

Secretary.— Mr. Willoughby Gard- 
ner. 

Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur 
J. Evans, Sir C. H. Read, Mr. 
H. Balfour, and Dr. A. Bulleid. 

C/iairmau.— Sir C. H. Read. 20 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Professor W. 
Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir 
A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Pro- 
fessors Boyd Dawkins and J. L. 
Myres, Mr. A. L. Lewis, and 
Mr. H. Peake. 

Chairman.— Froiessoi G. Elliot ; 34 16 6 

Smith. { 

Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. | 

Dr. F. Wood-Jones, Dr. A. Keith, i 

and Dr. C. G. Seligman. I 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money— continued. 



Irii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To conduct Anthropometric In- 
vestigations in the Island of 
Cyprus. 

To excavate a PalEeolithic Site in 
Jersej'. 



To conduct Archasological Inves- 
tigations in Malta. 



To prepare and publish Miss 
Byrne's Gazetteer and Map of 
the Native Tribes of Australia. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres, 
Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Secretary. — Colonel Warton. 

Dr. C. W. Andrews, Mr. H. Bal- 
four, Dr. Dunlop, Mr. G. de 
Gruchy, and Professor A. 
Keith. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. Ashby. 
Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
and Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Chairman. — Professor Baldwin 

Spencer. 
Secretary.— Dr:. R. R. Marett. 
Mr. H. Balfour. 



Grants 



£ s.a. 

50 



50 



10 



20 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Ductless Glands. 



To acquire further knowledge, 
Clinical and Experimental, con- 
cerning Anaesthetics — general 
and local — with special refer- 
ence to Deaths by or during 
Anaesthesia, and their possible 
diminution. 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants. 



To investigate the Physiological 
and Psychological Factors in 
the production of Miners' 
Nystagmus. 



The Significance of the Electro- 
motive Phenomena of the Heart. 



Chairman. — Sir E. A. Schafer. 

Secretary.— Yioiessov Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore,and Mrs.W. H.Thompson. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. Sir F. W. Hewitt. 
Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, 
and Dr. G. A. Buckmaster. 



Cliairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors J. B. Farmer, T. John- 
son, and Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. 

Ellison. 

Chairman. — Professor J. H. Muir 

head. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. G. Maitland. 
Dr. J. Jameson Evans and Dr. 

C. S. Myers. 

Chairman. — Professor W. D. Halli- 
burton. 

Secretary. — Dr. Florence Buch- 
anan. 

Professor A. D. Waller. 



35 



20 



20 



20 



20 



Iviii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Eeceieinff Grants of Moiiey — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Metabolism of Phosphates. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Os- 
borne. 
Secretary. — Miss Kincaid. 
Dr. Rothera. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

The Structure of Fossil Plants. C/<air7«a/i.— Professor F.W.Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
, Mr. E . Newell Arber, Professor A. C. 
Seward, and Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Experimental Studies in the C/<airwa«.— Professor F.F. Black- 
Physiology of Heredity. man. 

! Secretary.— Mr. B. P. Gregory 
Professors Bateson and Keeble 
and Miss E. R. Saunders. 

The Renting of Cinchona Botanic C/(«'i>/Ha«.— Professor F. O. Bower. 
Station in Jamaica. Secretary.— VroiessoT R. H Yapp. 

Professors R. Buller, F. W. Oliver, 
and F. E. Weiss. 

To carry out a Research on the C/mr/«fl«. — Professor F. 0. Bower. 

Influence of varying percent- Sfcretery.— Professor A. J. E wart 

ages of Oxygen and of various i Professor F. F. Blackman. 
Atmospheric Pressures upon 
Geotropic and Heliotropic Ir- 
ritability and Curvature. 



The Collection and Investigation 
of Material of Australian Cy 



Chairman. — Professor A. A. Law- 

-- „_, son. 

cadaceae, especially Bowenia Secretary .—YtoUssor T. G. B. 

from Queensland and Macro- Osborn. 

zaunia from West Australia. Professor A. C. Seward. 



To cut Sections of Australian Chairman. — Professor Lang. 
Fossil Plants, with especial Secretary.— ?xoteasoT T. G. B. 
reference to a specimen of I Osborn. 

Zygopteris from Simpson's , Professor T. W. E. David and 
Station, Barraba, N.S.W. ' Professor A. C. Seward. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
20 



15 



45 



25 



50 



25 



25 



Seci'ion L.— educational SCIENCE. 



To inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of 
research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 
Education. 



Chairman. — Dr. C. S. Myers. 

Secretary Professor J. A. Green. 

Professor J. Adams, Dr. G. A. 
Auden, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. 
Brown, Mr. C. Burt, Professor 
E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. 
Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Pro- 
fessor R. A. Gregory, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor W. 
McDougall, Dr. T. P. Nunn, 
Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. F. C. 
&hrubsall,Mr.H.Bompas Smith, 
Dr. C. Spearman, and Mr. A. E. 
Twentyman. 



30 



KESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Bectiving Grants of Money — continued. 



lix 




The Influence of School Books 
upon Eyesight. 



Chairman. — Dr. G. A. Auden. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. F. Daniell. 

Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 
Eggar, Professor K. A. Gregory, 
Mr. J. L. Holland, Dr. AV. E. 
Sumpner, and Mr. Trevor Walsh. 



To inquire into and report on the 
number, distribution and re- 
spective values of Scholarships, 
Exhibitions, and Bursaries held 
by University Students during 
their undergraduate course, and 
on funds private and open avail- 
able for their augmentation. 

To examine, inquire into, and re- 
port on the Character, Work, 
and Maintenance of Museums, 
with a view to their Organisa- 
tion and Development as In- 
stitutions for Education and 
Research ; and especially to 
inquire into the Requirements 
of Schools. 



-Sir Henry Miers. 
-Professor Marcus Har- 



Chairman.- 

Secreitary. - 
tog. 

Miss Lilian J. Clarke, Miss B. 
Foxley, Professor H. Bompas 
Smith, and Principal Griffiths. 



Chairman. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Secretaries.— 'Mt. H. Bolton and 
Dr. J. A. Clubb. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. C. A. Buck- 
master, Mr. Ernest Gray, Mr. 
M. D. Hill, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
Professors E. J. Garwood and 
P. Newberry, Sir Richard 
Temple, Mr. H. Hamshaw 
Thomas, Professor F. E. Weiss, 
Mrs. J. White, Rev. H. Browne, 
Drs. A. C. Haddon and H. S. 
Harrison, Mr. Herbert R. Rath- 
bone, and Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Mark Webb. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 
T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, and the President 
and General Officers of the 
Association. 



£ s. d. 
5 



5 



20 



25 



Ix 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money* 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Radiotelegraphic Investigations. Chairman. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. H. Eccles. 

Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. C. Cliree, Professor 
A. S. Eddington, Dr. Erskine-Murray, 
Professors J. A. Fleming, G. W. O. 
Howe, H. M. Macdonakl, and J. W. 
Mioholson, Sir H. Norman, Captain 
H. R. Saukey, Dr. A. Schuster, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Professor S. P. Tiiompson, 
find Professor H. H. Turner. 



To aid the work of Establishing a Solar 
Observatory in Australia. 



♦Determination of Gravity at Sea. 



Chairman. — 

Secretary.— Dr. W. G. Duffield. 

Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 

Mr. F. McClean, and Professors A. 

Schuster and H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Professor A. E. Love. 
Secretary. — Professor W. G. Duffield. 
Mr. T. \V. Chaundy and Profes.sors A. S. 
Eddington and H. H. Turner. 



Section B.— CHEMISTEY. 



Research on the Utilization of Brown 
Coal Bye-Products. 



To report on the Botanical and Chemical 
Characters of the Eucalypts and their 
Correlation. 



Section C- 

The Collection, Preservation, and Sj's- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To consider the Preparation of a List 
of Stratigraphical Names, used in the 
British Isles, in connection with the 
Lexicon of Stratigraphical Names in 
course of preparation by the Inter- 
national Geological Congress. 



Chairman. — Professor Orme Masson. 
Secretary.— Mr. P. G. W. Bayly. 
Mr. D. Avery. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Secretary.— Mr. H. G. Smith. 

Dr. Andrews, Mr. R. T. Baker, Professor 
F. O. Bower, Mr. R. H. Cambage, 
Professor A. J. Ewart, Professor C. B. 
Fawsitt, Dr. Heber Green, Dr. Cuth- 
bert Hall, Professors Orme Masson, 
Rennie, and Robinson, and Mr. St. 
John. 

GEOLOGY. 

CJiairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretaries. — Professors \V. W. Watts and 
S. H. Reynolds. 

Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. 
Y. Crook, Professor E. J. Garwood, 
and Messrs. R. Kidston, A. S. Raid, 
J. J. H. Teall, R. Welch, and W. 
Whitaker, 

Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 
Professor Grenville Cole, Mr. Bernard 

Hobson, Professor Lebour, Dr. J. 

Home, Dr. A. Strahan, and Professor 

W. W. AVatts. 



* Excepting the case of Committees receiviug grants from the Caird Fuud (p. Ixviii). 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
3. JS'^ot receiving Orants of Monti/ — continued. 



ixi 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To consider the Nomenclature of tlie 
Carboniferous. l'ermo-Carboniferou.s, 
and Permian Rocks of the Southern 
Hemisphere. 




Chairman.— VroteasoY T. W. Edgeworth 
David. 

/Scfc-rc^rtry.— Professor E. W. Skoats. 

Mr. W. S. Dun, Sir T. II. llollaiui, Pro- 
fessor llowchin, Mr. O. W. Lamplugh, 
and Professor W. G. Woolnough. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



*To aid competent Investigators se- 
lected by the Coramittce to carry on 
definite pieces of work at the Zoolo- 
gical Station at Naples. 



To investigate the Feeding Habits of 
British Birds by a study of the 
contents of the crops and gizzards 
of botli adults and nestlings, and by 
collation of observational evidence, 
with the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge as to the economic status 
of many of our commoner birds 
affecting rural science. 

To defray expenses connected with work 
on the Inheritance and Development 
of Secondary Sexual Characters in 
Birds. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



To formulate a Definite System on 
which Collectors should record their 
captures. 



C/iairmdn.— Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Sccretari/. — Dr. J. H. Ashworth. 

Mr. G. P. Bidder, Professor V. O. Bower, 
Drs. W. B. Hardy and S. F. Ilarmer, 
Professor 8. J. llickson, Sir E. Ray 
Lankester, Professor W. C. Mcintosh, 
and Dr. A. D. Waller. 

Chairnitni. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 

Secretari/.— Mr. H. S. Leigh. 

Mr. J. N. Halbert, Professor Robert 
Newstead, Messrs. Clement Reid, 
A. G. L. Rogers, and F. V. Theobald, 
Profes.sor F. E. Weiss, Dr. C. Gordon 
Hewitt, and Professors S. J. Hickson, 
F. W. Gamble, G. H. Carpenter, :ind 
J. Arthur Thomson. 

Chairman. — Professor G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr. Geoffrey Sraitii. 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. W. T. Caiman, 
and Dr. Marett Tims. 

Chairmnn. — Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

Seeretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, and W. A, Herdman, Mr. 
M. D. Hill, Professors J. Graham Kerr 
and Minchin, Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 
Professors E. B. Poulton and Stanley 
Gardiner, and Dr. A. E. Shipley. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 

Dendy. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor J. P. 

Hill, and Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 



67(fl';vwi««.— Professor J. W. H. Trail. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. Balfour Browne. 

Drs. ScharflE and E. J. Blcs, Professors 
G. H. Carpenter and B. B. Poulton, 
and Messrs. A. G. Tansley and R. Iiloyd 
Praeger. 



* See note on preeeUiiiK piige. 



Ixii 



RESEAECH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of 3Ioney — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



A Natural History Survej' of the Isle 
of Man. 



Cliairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. M. C. Kermode. 

Dr. W. T. Caiman, Rev. J. Davidson, 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor E. W. 

MacBride, and Lord Raglan. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To inquire into the choice and style of 
Atlas, Textual, and Wall Maps for 
School and University Dse. 



Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Rev. VV. J. Barton. 

Professors R. L. Archer and R. N. R. 
Brown, Mr. G. G. Cliisholm, Professor 
H. N. Dickson, Mr. A. R. Hinks, Mr. 
O. J. R. Howarth, Sir Duncan John- 
ston, and Mr. E. A. Reeves. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To consider and report on the Stan- 
dardization of Impact Tests. 



Chairman. — Professor W. H. Warren. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Vicars. 
Mr. Julius, Professor Gibson, Mr. Hough- 
ton, and Professor Pavne. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

The Collection, Preservation, and I Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Systematic Registration of Photo- : Secretary. — 

graphs of Anthropological Interest. , Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 

Professor J. L. Myres. 



To conduct Archaological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



To report on the present state of knovir- 
ledge of the Prehistoric Civilisation 
of the Western Mediterranean with 
a view to future research. 



To conduct Excavations in Easter Island. 



To report on PalEeolithic Sites in the 
West of England. 



Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. i 
Duckworth, Sir A. J. Evans, Professor ' 
W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridge waj-. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. Ashby. 

Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Mr. D. G. 
Hogarth, Sir A. J. Evans, Professor 
J. L. Mj-res, and Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 

Mr. R. R. Marett and Dr. C. G. Seligman. 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Dawk ins. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth. 
Professor A. Keith. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixiii 



Subject for InveBtigation, or Purpose 



The Teaching of Anthropology. 



Members of Committee 



To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. 



To report on the Distribution of Bronze 
Age Implements. 



To investigate and ascertain the Distri- 
bution of Artificial Islands in the 
lochs of the Highlands of Scotland. 



To co-operate with Local Committees 
in Excavations on Roman Sites in 
Britain. 



Chairman. — Sir Richard Temple. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Sir E. F. im Thurn, Mr. W. Crooke, Dr. 
C. G. Seligman, Professor Q. Elliot 
Smith, Dr. R. R. Marett, Professor 
P. E. Newberry, Dr. G. A. Auden, Pro- 
fessors T. H. Bryce, P. Thompson, 
R. W. Raid, H. J. Fleure, and J. L. 
Myres, Sir B. C. A. Windle, and Pro- 
fessors R. J. A. Berry, Baldwin Spencer, 
Sir T. Anderson Stuart, and E. C. 
Stirling. 

Chairma7i. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 
Professors R. C. Bosanquet and J. L. 
Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary.— ^Ir. H. Peake. 

Professor W. Ridgeway, Mr. H. Balfour, 
Sir C. H. Read, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, and Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Prof. J. L. Myres. 
Professors T. H. Bryce and W. Ridgeway, 
Dr. A. Low, and Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosanquet. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. Willoughby Gardner, 
and Professor J. L. Myres. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hjemoglobin 
at High Altitudes. 

Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. 



Calorimetric Observations on Man in 
Health and in Febrile Conditions. 



Further Researches on the Structure 
and Function of the Mammalian 
Heart. 

The Binocular Combination of Kine- 
matograph Pictures of different 
Meaning, and its relation to the 
Binocular Combination of simpler 
Perceptions. 



Cliairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. Barcrof t. 
Dr. W. B. Hardy. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr. Edridge-Green. 
Professor Leonard Hill, Professor A. W. 

Porter, Dr. A. D. Waller, Professor C. S. 

Sherrington, and Dr. F, W. Mott. 

Chairman. — Professor J. S. Macdonald. 
Secretan-y. — Dr. Francis A. DufBeld. 
Dr. Keith Lucas. 

Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sherrington. 
Secretary. — Professor Stanley Kent. 
Dr. Florence Buchanan. 



Chairman.- 
Secretaiy.— 



-Dr. C. S. Myers. 
T. H. Pear. 



Ixiv 



RESOLUTIONS, ETC. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Moneij— continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section K, 

To consider and report on the ad- 
visability and the best means of 
securing definite Areas for the 
Preservation of Types of British 
Vegetation. 



The Investigation of the Vegetation of 
Ditcham Park, Hampshire. 



-BOTANY. 

Chairman. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Secretary. —Mr. A. G. Tanslev. 

Professo'r J. W. H. Trail, Mr. R. Lloyd 
Praeger, Professor F. W. Oliver, Pro- 
fessor R. W. Phillips, Dr. C. E. Moss, 
and Messrs. G. C. Druce and H. W. T. 
Wager. 

Chairman.— Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. S. Adamson. 

Dr. C. E. Moss and Professor R. H. Yapp. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affect" 
Secondary and Higher Education 



affecting 



The Aims and Limits of Examinations. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Secretary. — Major E. Gray. 

Miss Coignan, Principal Griffiths, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Sir Horace Plunkett, 
Mr. H. Ramage, Professor M. B. Sadler, 
and Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon. 



CJiairman. — Professor M. E. Sadler. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. J. Hartogr. 

Mr. D. P. Berridge, Professor G H. 

Bryan, Mr. W. D. Eggar, Professor 

R. A. Gregorv, Principal E. H. 

Griffiths, Miss C. L. Laurie, Dr. W. 

McDougall, Mr. David Mair, Dr. T. P. 

Nunn, Sir W. Ramsay, Rt. Rev. J. E. C. 

Welldon, Dr. Jessie White, and Mr. 

G. U. Yule. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

Section A. — Joint Discussion with Section B on the Structure of Atoms and 
Molecules. 

Section ^.— Dr. E. Goldstein: Salts coloured by Cathode Rays. 

Section C. — Discussion on Physiography- of Arid Lands. 

Section B. — Discussion on Antarctica. 

Section I. — Dr. J. W. Barrett : The Problem of the Visual Requirements of the 
Sailor and the Railway Employee. 

Section M. — Dr. Lyman J. Briggs : Dry-farming Investigations in the United States. 

Resolutions referred to the Coimcil for consideration, and, if desirable, 

for action. 

(a) From Sections A and C. 
'That in view of the fact that meteorites, which convey information of world- 
wide importxnce, are sometimes disposed of privately, in such a way as to deprive 
the public of this information, the Council be requested to take such steps as may 
initiate international legislation on the matter.' 

(b) From Section A. 

' That the British Association respectfully urge the need for the establishment 
in Australia of a Bureau of Weights and Measures, with the view of legalising the 



BBSEABCH COMMITTEES. IxV 

metric system as an alternative standard (as in Great Britain). They would also 
cordially welcome the inclusion of Australia as a member of the International 
Convention.' 

(o) From Section A. 

' That the British Association learns with great satisfaction that the State 
Government of Victoria has put a definite annual grant at the disposal of the 
Director of the Melbourne Observatory for printing the work already done at the 
Observatory. It is very desirable that every effort should be made to publish as soon 
as possible the arrears accumulated during the past thirty years.' 

(d'l From Sections C and E. 

' The Committees of the Geographical and Geological Sections of the British 
Association wish to draw attention to the high scientific value and practical 
importance of systematic glacial observation in New Zealand, and venture to urge 
upon the favourable consideration of the Government of the Dominion the great 
importarce of continuing and extending the work which is now being done in this 
direction by officers of the Government, as far as possible in conformity with the 
methods adopted by the Commission Internationale des Glaciers.' 

(e) From Sections Cand E. 

' The Geographical and Geological Sections of the British Association respect- 
fully request the Secretary of State for the Colonies to establish on certain islands 
in the Coral Seas— in extension of a plan that has lately been presented to His 
Excellency the Governor of Fiji, and by him submitted for the favourable con- 
sideration of the Legislative Council of that Colony— a number of bench-marks, 
with respect to which the mean level of the sea surface shall be accurately deter- 
mined once every ten years, in order to discover, after a century or longer, whether 
any change takes place in the altitude of land with respect to the sea. 

' It is suggested that a uniform plan for this work be prepared by the appropriate 
Government department, and that an abstract of the results obtained for each decade 
be forwarded to the British Association for publication.' 

(f) From, Section C, 

' That the Committee of Section C submits for favourable consideration to the 
committee of Recommendations of the British Association the question of urging 
the Federal and State Governments in Australia to co-operate in undertaking, as 
soon as possible, a gravity survey of the Earth's crust within the area of the 
Commonwealth. The Committee suggests that the work be commenced in the 
region of the Great Rift Valley of Australia, extending from near Adelaide north- 
wards to Lake Eyre.' 

(g) From Section E, 

' The Committee of Section E most warmly favours the project of a uniform 
Map of the World on a scale of 1 : 1,000,000, and expresses the hope that the sheets 
of Australia may be undertaken as soon as possible, on the same plan as has lately 
been adopted by the War Office in London for a map of Africa, and by the 
Geological Survey in Washington for the U.S.A. To this end they regard it as 
desirable that in the extensive surveys which the several States of the Common- 
wealth are carrying on, as much stress should be laid upon the geographical features 
of the land, the watercourses and the mountains, as upon property boundaries, and 
that in particular the determination of altitudes should be carried on, in order 
eventually to provide the basis for contoured maps.' 

(h) From Sections D and K. 

' It is with much pleasure that we ascertain that a Bill has been prepared by the 
present Government of South Australia for the establishment of a reserve of 300 
square miles situated on the western end of Kangaroo Island for the preservation of 
the fauna and flora, which are fast being exterminated on the mainland, and that 
this reserve will be placed under the control of a Board nominated by the University 
of Adelaide and the Government. We trust that this Bill will become law at an 
early date.' 



Ixvi RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

(i) From the Covimittee uf Recommendations. 

'That in view of the successful issue of the Australian Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, the Council be asked to consider the best means of bringing into closer 
relationship the British Association and scientific representatives from the 
Dominions overseas.' 



Synopsis of Grants of Moneii {exclusive of Grants from the Gaird 
Fund) apin'opriated for Scientific Purposes on helialf of the General 
Oommittee at the Australian Meeting, September 1914. The 
Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for the 
Grants are prefixed to the respective Research Gommittees. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations t60 

*Shaw, Dr. W. K— Upper Atmosphere 25 

*Ramsay, Sir W. — Annual Table of Constants and Numerical 

Data 40 

*Hill, Professor M. J. M. — Calculation of Mathematical 

Tables 30 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

*Perkin, Dr. W. H. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances ir> 

*Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 40 

*Kipping, Professor F. B. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 

amines "20 

*E[all, A. D.— Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

*Pope, Professor W. J. — Correlation of Crystalline Form with 

Molecular Structure 25 

♦Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Solubility Phenomena 10 

Masson, Professor Orme. — Chemical Investigation of Natural 

Plant Products 50 

Masson, Professor Orme. — Influence of Weather Conditions 

on Nitrogen Acids in Rainfall 40 

Chattaway, Dr. F. D. — Non-aromatic Diazonium Salts 10 

Section C. — Geology, 

*Tiddeman, R. H.— Erratic Blocks 5 

*Kendall, Professor P. F.— List of Characteristic Fossils 10 

*Cole, Professor Grenville. — Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan 10 

*Barrow, G.— Trias of Western Midlands 10 

*Watts, Professor W. W. — Sections in Lower Palaeozoic 

Rocks 15 


























































Carried forward £445 

* Reappointed 

•f- In addition, the Council are authorised to expend a sum not exceeding £70 on 
the printing of circulars, &c., in connection with the Committee on Seismological 
Observations. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixvii 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 445 

Section D. — Zoology. 

*Shipley, Dr. A. E.—Belmullet Whaling Station 45 

*Mitchell, Dr. Chalmers. — Nomenclator Animalium 25 

Herdman, Professor W. A. — Biology of Abrolhos Islands ... 40 

Dendy, Professor A. — Collection of Marsupials 100 

Section E. — Geography. 
Lucas, Sir C. P. — Conditions determining Selection of Sites 

and Names for Towns . . 20 

Chisholm, G. G. — Survey of Stor Fjord, Spitsbergen 50 

David, Professor T. "W. E. — Antarctic Bathymetrical Chart 100 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Muirhead, Professor J. F. — Fatigue from Economic Stand- 
point 30 

Sec tio7i G . — Engineering. 

*Clerk, Dr. Dugald. — Gaseous Explosions 50 

*Perry, Professor J. — Stress Distributions 50 

Section H. — Anthropology. 

*Dawkins, Professor Boyd. — Lake Villages in the neighbour- 
hood of Glastonbury 20 

*Read, Sir C. H. — Age of Stone Circles 20 

*Smith, Professor G. Elliot. — -Physical Characters of the 

Ancient Egyptians 34 16 6 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Anthropometric Investigations in 

Cyprus 50 

*Marett, Dr. R. R. —Palaeolithic Site in Jersey 50 

Myres, Professor J. L. — Excavations in Malta 10 

Spencer, Professor Baldwin. — Gazetteer and Map of Native 

Tribes of Australia '. 20 

Section I. — Physiology 

*Schafer, Sir E. A.— The Ductless Glands 35 

*Waller, Dr. A. D. — Anaesthetics 20 

*Wal]er, Dr. A. D. — Electromotive Phenomena in Plants 20 

*Muirhead, Professor J. F. — Miners' Nystagmus 20 

Osborne, Professor W. A. — Metabolism of Phosphates 20 

Halliburton, Professor W. D. — Electromotive Phenomena of 

the Heart 20 

Section K. — Botany. 

*01iver, Professor F. W.— Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

*Blackman, Professor F. F. — Physiology of Heredity 45 

*Bower, Professor F. O. — Renting of Cinchona Botanic Sta- 
tion, Jamaica 25 

Carried forward £1,379 16 6 

* Reappointed. 



Ixviii SYNOPSIS OF grants of money. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 1,379 16 6 

Bower, Professor F. O. — Influence of Percentages of Oxygen, 
Ac, on Geotropic and Heliotropic Irritation and Curva- 
ture 50 

Lawson, Professor A. A. — Australian Cycadacese 25 

Lanff, Professor W. H. — Sections of Australian Fossil Plants 25 

Section L. — Education. 

*Myers, Dr. C. S. — Mental and Physical Factors involved in 

Education 30 

*Auden, Dr. G. A. — Influence of School Books on Eyesight... 5 

*Miers, SirH. — Scholarships, &c., held by University Students 5 
*Green, Professor J. A. — -Character, Work, and Maintenance 

of Museums 20 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 
* Whitaker, W.— For Preparation of P^eport 25 

Totalt £1,634 16 6 

* Eeappointed. 
f Including £70 as specified in footnote on p. Ixvi. 

Caird Fund. 

An unconditional gift of 10,000^. was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Caird, LL.D., of 
Dundee. 

The Council in its Report to the General Committee at the Bir- 
mingham Meeting made certain recommendations as to the administra- 
tion of this Fund. These recommendations were adopted, with the 
Eeport, by the General Committee at its meeting on September 10, 1913. 

The following allocations have been made from the Fund V)y the 
Council to December 1914 : — 

Naples Zoological Station Committee (p. Ixi).— 50Z. (1912-13); 100?. 
(1913-14) ; 100?. annually in future, subject to the adoption of the Com- 
mittee's report. 

Seismology Committee (p. lii). — 100?. (1913-14) ; 100?. annually in 
future, subject to the adoption of the Committee's report. 

Badiotelegraphic Committee (p. Ix). 500?. (1913-14). 

Magnetic Re-survey oj the British Isles (in collaboration with the 
Royal Society).— 250?. 

Committee on Determination of Gravity at Sea (p. Ix). — 100?. 
(1914-15). 

Mr. F. Sargent, Bristol University, in connection with his Astro- 
nomical Work.—lOl. (1914). 

J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of 1,000?. 
^sociation, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 




19U. 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Professor WILLIAM BATESON, M.A,, F.R.S., 
PRESIDENT. 



Part I.— MELBOURNE.' 

The outstanding feature of this Meeting must be the fact that we are 
here — in Austraha. It is the function of a President to tell the 
Association of advances in science, to speak of the universal rather than 
of the particular or the temporary. There will be other opportunities 
of expressing the thoughts which this event must excite in the dullest 
heart, but it is right that my first words should take account of those 
achievements of organisation and those acts of national generosity by 
which it has come to pass that we are assembled in this country. Let 
us, too, on this occasion, remember that all the effort, and all the 
goodwill, that binds Australia to Britain would have been powerless to 
bring about such a resuft had it not been for those advances in science 
which have given man a control of the forces of Nature. For we are 
here by virtue of the feats of genius of individual men of science, 
giant-variations from the common level of our species ; and since I am 
going soon to speak of the significance of individual variation, I cannot 
introduce that subject better than by calling to remembrance the line 
of pioneers in chemistry, in physics, and in engineering, by the work- 
ing of whose rare — or, if you will, abnormal — intellects a meeting of 
the British Association on this side of the globe has been made physically 
possible. 

I have next to refer to the loss wthin the year of Sir David Gill, 
a former President of this Association, himself one of the outstanding 
great. His greatness lay in the power of making big foundations. He 
built up the Cape Observatory; he organised international geodesy; he 
conceived and canned through the plans for the photography of the 
whole sky, a work in which Atistralia is bearing a conspicuous part. 

^ Delivered in Melbourne on Friday, August 14, 1914. 

B 2 



president's address. 



Astronomical observation is now organised on an international scale, 
and of this great scheme Gill was the heart and soul. His labours have 
ensured a base from which others will proceed to discovery otherwise 
impossible. His name will be long remembered with veneration and 
gratitude. 

As the subject of the Addresses which I am to deliver here and 
in Sydney I take Heredity. I shall attempt to .give the essence 
of the discoveries made by Mendelian or analytical methods of 
study, and I shall ask you to contemplate the deductions which these 
physiological facts suggest in application both to evolutionary theory at 
large and tO' the special case of the natural history of human society. 

Eecognition of the significance of heredity is modern. The teriB 
itself in its scientific sense is no older than Herbert Spencer. Animals 
and plants are formed as pieces of living material split from the body 
of the parent organisms. Their powers and faculties are fixed in their 
physiological origin. They are the consequence of a genetic process, 
and yet it is only lately that this genetic process has become the subject 
of systematic research and experiment. The curiosity of naturalists 
has of course always been attracted to such problems ; but that accurate 
knowledge of genetics is of paramount importance in any attempt to 
understand the nature of living things has only been realised quite 
lately even by naturalists, and with casual exceptions the laity still 
know nothing of the matter. Historians debate the past of the human 
species, and statesmen order its present or profess to guide its future 
as if the animal Man, the unit of their calculations, with his vast 
diversity of powers, were a homogeneous material, which can be 
multiplied like shot. 

The reason for this neglect lies in ignorance and misunderstanding 
of the nature of Variation ; for not until the fact of congenital diversity 
is grasped, with all that it imports, does knowledge of the system of 
hereditary transmission stand out as a primary necessity in the con- 
struction of any theory of Evolution, or any scheme of human polity. 
The first full perception of the significance of variation we owe to 
Darwin. The present generation of evolutionists realises perhaps more 
fully than did the scientific world in the last century that the theoiy of 
Evolution had occupied the thoughts of many and found acceptance 
with not a few before ever the ' Origin ' appeared. We have come also 
to the conviction that the principle of Natural Selection cannot have 
been the chief factor in delimiting the species of animals and plants, 
such as we now with fuller knowledge see them actually tO' be. We 
are even more sceptical as to the validity of that appeal to changes in 
the conditions of life as direct causes of modification, upon which 
latterly at all events Darwin laid much emphasis. But that he was the 



I 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. O 

first to provide a body of fact demonstrating the variability of living 
things, whatever be its causation, can never be questioned. 

There are some older collections of evidence, chiefly the work of 
the French school, especially of Godron^ — and I would mention also 
the almost forgotten essay of Wollaston ' — these however are only 
fragments in comparison. Darwin regarded variability as a property 
inherent in hving things, and eventually we must consider whether this 
conception is well founded ; but postponing that inquiry for the present, 
we may declare that with him began a general recognition of variation 
as a phenomenon widely occurring in Nature. 

If a population consists of members which are not alike but differen- 
tiated, how will their characteristics be distributed among their off- 
spring? This is the problem which the modem student of heredity 
sets out to investigate. Formerly it was hoped that by ' the simple 
inspection of embryological processes the modes of heredity might be 
ascertained, the actual mechanism by which the offspring is formed 
from the body of the parent. In that endeavour a noble pile of 
evidence has been accumulated. All that can be made visible by 
existing methods has been seen, but we come little if at all nearer to 
the central mystery. We see nothing that we can analyse further — 
nothing that can be translated into terms less inscrutable than the 
physiological events themselves. Not only does embryology give no 
direct aid, but the failure of cytology is, so far as I can judge, equally 
complete. The chromosomes of nearly related creatures may be 
utterly different both in number, size, and form. Only one piece of 
evidence encourages the old hope that a connection might be traceable 
between the visible characteristics of the body and those of the chromo- 
somes. I refer of course to the accessory chromosome, which in many 
animals distinguishes the spermatozoon about to form a female in 
fertilisation. Even it however cannot be claimed as the cause of 
sexual differentiation, for it may be paired in forms closely allied to 
those in which it is unpaired or accessory. The distinction may be 
present or wanting, like any other secondary sexual character. Indeed, 
so long as no one can show consistent distinctions between the 
cytological characters of somatic tissues in the same individual we 
can scarcely expect to perceive such distinctions between the chromo- 
somes of the various types. 

For these methods of attack we now substitute another, less 
ambitious, perhaps, because less comprehensive, but not less direct. 
If we cannot see how a fowl by its egg and its sperm gives rise to 

' De I'Espcce. et dcs Races dans Ics Elrcs Organises, 185D. 
^ On the. Variation of Species, 1856. 



6 president's address. 

a chicken or how a Sweet Pea from its ovule and its pollen grain 
produces another Sweet Pea, we at least can watch the system 
by which the differences between the various kinds of fowls or 
between the various kinds of Sweet Peas ai-e distributed among the 
offspring. By thus breaking the main problem Uip into its parts 
we give ourselves fresh chances. This analytical study we call 
Mendelian because Mendel was the first to apply it. To be sure, he 
did not approach the problem by any such line of reasoning as I 
have sketched. His object was to determine the genetic definite- 
ness of species ; but though in his writings he makes no mention of 
inheritance it is clear that he had the extension in view. By cross- 
breeding he combined the characters of varieties in mongrel individuals 
and set himself to see how these characters wonld be distributed among 
the individuals of subsequent generations. Until he began this analysis 
nothing but the vaguest answers to such a question had been attempted. 
The existence of any orderly system of descent was nevex even sus- 
pected. In their manifold complexity human characteristics seemed 
to follow no obvious system, and the fact was taken as a fair sample 
of the working of heredity. 

Misconception was especially brought in by describing descent in 
terms of ' blood. ' The common speech uses expressions such as 
consanguinity, pure-blooded, half-blood, and the like, which call up a 
misleading picture to the mind. Blood is in some respects a fluid, 
and thus it is supposed that this fluid can be both quantitatively and 
qualitatively diluted with other bloods, just as treacle can be diluted 
with water. Blood in primitive physiology being the peculiar vehicle 
of life, at once its essence and its corporeal abode, these ideas of 
dilution and compounding of characters in the commingling of bloods 
inevitably suggest that the ingredients of the mixture once combined are 
inseparable, that they can be brought together in any relative amounts, 
and in short that in heredity we are concerned mainly with a quantita- 
tive problem. Truer notions of genetic physiology are given by the 
Hebrew expression ' seed.' If we speak of a man as ' of the blood- 
royal ' we think at once of plebeian dilution, and we wonder how much 
of the royal fluid is likely to be ' in his veins ' ; but if we say he is 
' of the seed of Abraham ' we feel something of the permanence and 
indestructibility of that germ which can be divided and scattered among 
all nations, but remains recognisable in type and characteristics after 
4,000 years. 

I knew a breeder who had a chest containing bottles of coloured 
liquids by which he used to illustrate the relationships of his dogs, 
pouring from one to another and titrating them quantitatively to illus- 
trate their pedigrees. Galton was beset by the same kind of mistake 
when he promulgated his ' Law of Ancestral Heredity.' With modern 



president's address. 



research all this has been cleared away. The allotment of character- 
istics among offspring is not accomplished by the exudation of drops 
of a tincture representing the sum of the characteristics of the parent 
organism, but by a process of cell-division , in which numbers of these 
characters, or rather the elements upon which they depend, are sorted 
out among the resulting germ-cells in an orderly fashion. "What these 
elements, or factors as we call them, are we do not know. That they 
are in some way directly transmitted by the material of the ovum and 
of the spermatozoon is obvious, but it seems to me unlikely that they 
are in any simple or literal sense material particles. I suspect rather 
that their properties depend on some phenomenon of anrangement. 
However that may be, analytical breeding proves that it is according 
to the distribution of these genetic factors, to use a non-committal term, 
that the characters of the offspring are decided. The first business of 
experimental genetics is to determine their number and interactions, 
and then to make an analysis of the various types of life. 

Now the ordinary genealogical trees, such as those which the stud- 
books provide in the case of the domestic animals, or the Heralds' 
College provides in the case of man, tell nothing of all this. Such 
methods of depicting descent cannot even show the one thing they are 
devised to show — purity of ' blood.' For at last we know the physio- 
logical meaning of that expression. An organism is pure-bred when it 
has been formed by the union in fertilisation of two germ-cells which 
are alike in the factors they bear ; and since the factors for the several 
characteristics are independent of each other, this question of purity 
must be separately considered for each of them. A man, for example, 
may be pure-bred in respect of his musical ability and cross-bred in 
respect of the colour of his eyes or the shape of his mouth. Though 
we know nothing of the essential nature of these factors, we know 
a good deal of their powers. They may 'confer height, colour, shape, 
instincts, powers both of mind and body — indeed, so many of the 
attributes which animals and plants possess, that we feel justified in 
tHe expectation that with continued analysis they will be proved to be 
responsible for most if not all of the differences by which the varying 
individuals of any species are distinguished from each other. T will 
not asseiii that the greater differences which characterise distinct Species 
are due generally to such independent factors, but that is the conclusion 
to which the available evidence points. All this is now so well under- 
stood, and has been so often demonstrated and expounded, that details 
of evidence are now superfluous. 

But for the benefit of those who are unfamiliar with such work let me 
briefly epitomise its main features and consequences. Since genetic 
factors are definite things, either present in or absent from any germ- 
cell, the individual may be either ' pure-bred ' for any particular factor, 



8 peesident's address. 

or its absence, if he is constituted by the union of two germ-cells both 
possessing or both destitute of that factor. If the individual is thus 
pure, all his germ-cells will in that respect be identical, for they are 
simply bits of the similar germ-cells which united in fertilisation to 
produce the parent organism. We thus reach the essential principle, 
that an organism cannot pass on to offspring a factor which it did not 
itself receive in fertilisation. Parents, therefore, which are both 
destitute of a given factor can only produce offspring equally destitute 
of it; and, on the contrary, parents both pure-bred for the presence 
of a factor produce offspring equally pure-bred for its presence. 
Whereas the germ-cells of the pure-bred are all alike, those of the 
cross-bred, which results from the union of dissimilar germ-cells, are 
mixed in character. Each positive factor segregates from its negative 
opposite, so that some germ-cells carry the factor and some do not. 
Once the factors have been identified by their effects, the average com- 
position of the several kinds of families formed from the various 
matings can be predicted. 

Only those who have themselves witnessed the fixed operations of 
these simple rules can feel their full significance. We come to look 
behind the simulacrum of the individual body, and we endeavour to 
disintegrate its features into the genetic elements by whose union the 
body was formed. Set out in cold general phrases such discoveries 
may seem remote from ordinary life. Become familiar with them and 
you will find your outlook on the world has changed. Watch the effects 
of segregation among the living things with which you have to do — 
plants, fowls, dogs, horses, that mixed concourse of humanity we call 
the English race, your friends' children, your own children, yourself — 
and however firmly imagination be restrained to the bounds of the 
known and the proved, you will feel something of that range of insight 
into Nature which Mendelism has begun to give. The question is 
often asked whether there are not also in operation systems of descent 
quite other than those contemplated by the Mendelian rules. I myself 
have expected such discoveries, but hitherto none have been plainly 
demonstrated. It is true we are often puzzled by the failure of a 
parental type to reappear in its completeness after a cross — the merino 
sheep or the fantail pigeon, for example. These exceptions may still 
be plausibly ascribed to the interference of a multitude of factors, a 
suggestion not easy to disprove; though it seems to me equally likely 
that segregation has been in reality imperfect. Of the descent of quan- 
titative characters we still know practically nothing. These and hosts 
of difficult cases remain almost untouched. In particular the discovery 
of E. Baur, and the evidence of Winkler in regard to his ' graft hybrids, ' 
both showing that the sub-epidermal layer of a plant — the layer from 
which the germ-cells are derived — may bear exclusively the characters 



president's address. 9 

of a pai't only of the soma, give hints of curious compHcations, and 
suggest that in plants at least the interrelations between soma and 
gamete may be far less simple than we have supposed. Nevertheless, 
speaking generally, we see nothing to indicate that qualitative characters 
descend, whether in plants or animals, according to systems which 
are incapable of factorial representation. 

The body of evidence accumulated by this method of analysis is 
now very large, and is still growing fast by the labours of many workers. 
Progress is also beginning along many novel and curious lines. The 
details are too technical for inclusion here. Suffice it to say that not 
only have we proof that segregation affects a vast range of characteris- 
tics, but in the course of our analysis phenomena of most unexpected 
kinds have been encountered. Some of these things twenty years ago 
must have seemed inconceivable. For example, the two sets of sex 
organs, male and female, of the same plant may not be carrying the 
same characteristics ; in some animals characteristics, quite independent 
of sex, may be distributed solely or predominantly to one sex; in 
certain species the male may be breeding true to its own type, while 
the female is permanently mongrel, throwing off eggs of a distinct 
variety in addition to those of its own type; characteristics, essentially 
independent, may be associated in special combinations which are 
largely retained in the next generation, so that among the grand- 
children there is numerical preponderance of those combinations which 
existed in the grandparents — a discovery which introduces us to a new 
phenomenon of polarity in the oiiganism. 

We are accustomed to the fact that the fertilised egg has a polarity, 
a front and hind end for example ; but we have now to recognise that it, 
or the primitive germinal cells formed from it, may have another 
polarity shown in the groupings of the parental elements. I am entirely 
sceptical as to the occurrence of segregation solely in the maturation of 
the germ-cells,* preferring at present to regard it as a special case of 
that patchwork condition we see in so many plants. These mosaics 
may break up, emitting bud-sports at various cell-divisions, and 1 
suspect that the great regularity seen in the F^ ratios of the cereals, for 
example, is a consequence of very late segregation, whereas the exces- 
sive irregularity found in other cases may be taken to indicate that 
segregation can happen at earlier stages of differentiation. 

The paradoxical descent of colour-blindness and other sex-limited 
conditions — formerly regarded as an inscrutable caprice of nature — has 
been represented with approximate correctness, and we already know 
something as to the way, or, perhaps, I should say ways, in which the 

* The fact that in certain plants the male and female organs respectively 
carry distinct factors may be quoted as almost decisively negativing the sug- 
gestion that segregation is confined to the reduction division. 



10 president's address. 

determination of sex is accomplished in some of the forms of hfe — 
though, I hasten to add, we have no inkhng as to any method by which 
that determination may be influenced or directed. It is obvious that 
such discoveries have bearings on most of the problems, whether 
theoretical or practical, in which animals and plants are concerned. 
Permanence or change of type, perfection of type, purity or mixture 
of race, ' racial development, ' the succession of forms, from being vague 
phrases expressing matters of degree, are now seen to be capable of 
acquiring physiological meanings, already to some extent assigned with 
precision. For the natm-alist — and it is to him that I am especially 
addressing myself to-day — these things are chiefly significant as relating 
to the history of organic beings — the theory of Evolution, to use our 
modern name. They have, as I shall endeavour to show in my second 
address to be given in Sydney, an immediate reference to the conduct 
of human society. 

I suppose that everyone is familiar in outline with the theory of 
the Origin of Species which Dai'\v'in promulgated. Through the last 
fifty years this theme of the Natural Selection of favoured races has been 
developed and expounded in writings innumerable. Favoured races 
certainly can replace others. The argument is sound, but we are doubt- 
ful of its value. For us that debate stands adjourned. We go to 
Darwin for his incomparable collection of facts. We would fain 
emulate his scholarship, his width and his power of exposition, but 
to us he speaks no more with philosophical authority. We read his 
gchenie of Evolution as we would that of Lucretius or of Lamarck, 
delighting in their simplicity and their courage. The practical and 
experimental study of Variation and Heredity has not merely opened 
a new field; it has given a new point of view and new standards of 
criticism. Naturalists may still be found expounding teleological 
systems' which would have delighted Dr. Pangloss himself, but at 
the present time few are misled. The student of genetics knows that 

° I take the following from the Abstract of a recent Croonian Lecture 
' On the Origin of Mammals ' delivered to the Royal Society : — ' In 
Upper Triassic times the larger Cynodonts preyed upon the large 
Anomodont, Kannemeijeria, and carried on their existence so long a.s these 
Anomodonts survived, but died out with them about the end of the Trias or 
in Ehretic times. The small Cynodonts, having neither small Anomodonts nor 
small Cotylosaurs to feed on, were forced to hunt the very active long-limbed 
Thecodonts. The greatly increased activity brought about that series of 
changes which formed the mammals— the flexible skin with hair, the four- 
chambered heart and warm blood, the loose jaw with teeth for mastication, 
an increased development of tactile sensation and a great increase of cerebrum. 
Not improbably the attacks of the newly evolved Cynodont or mammalian type 
brought about a corresponding evolution in the Pseudosuchian Thecodonts, which 
ultimately resulted in the formation of Dinosaurs and Birds.' Broom R 
Proc. Boy. Soc. B., 87, p. 88, 



president's address. 11 

Ihe time for the development of theory is not yet. He would rathet 
stick to the seed-pan and the incubator. 

In face of what we now know of the distribution of variability in 
nature the scope claimed for Natural Selection in determining the fixity 
of Species must be greatly reduced. The doctrine of the survival of the 
fittest is undeniable so long as it is applied to the organism as a whole, 
but to attempt by this principle to find value in all definiteness of parts 
and functions, and in the name of Science to see fitness everywhere 
is mere eighteenth-century optimism. Yet it was in application to the 
parts, to the details of specific difference, to the spots on the peacock's 
tail, to the colouring of an Orchid flower, and hosts of such examples, 
that the potency of Natural Selection was urged with the strongest 
emphasis. Shorn of these pretensions the doctrine of the survival of 
favoured races is a truism, helping scarcely at all to account for the 
diversity of species. Tolerance plays almost as considerable a part. 
By these admissions almost the last shred of that teleological fustian 
with which Victorian philosophy loved to clothe the theory of Evolu- 
tion is destroyed. Those who would proclaim that whatever is is right 
will be wise henceforth to base this faith frankly on the impregnable 
rock of superstition, and to abstain from direct appeals to natural fact. 

My predecessor said last year that in physics the age is one of rapid 
progress and profound scepticism. In at least as high a degree this is 
true of Biology, and as a chief characteristic of modern evolutionary 
thought we must confess also to a deep but irksome humility in 
presence of great vital problems. Every theory of Evolution must be 
such as to accord with the facts of physics and chemistry, a primary 
necessity to which our predecessors paid small heed. For them the 
unknown was a rich mine of possibilities on which they could freely 
draw. For us it is rather an impenetrable mountain out of which the 
truth can be chipped in rare and isolated fragments. Of the physics and 
chemistry of hfe we know next to noohing. Somehow the characters 
of Hving things are bound up in properties of colloids, and are largely 
determined by the chemical powers of enzymes, but the study of these 
classes of matter has only just begun. Living things are found by a 
simple experiment to have powers undreamt of, and who knows what 
may be behind? 

Naturally we turn aside from generalities. It is no time to discuss 
the origin of the MoUusca or of Dicotyledons, while we are not even 
sure how it came to pass that Primula obconica has in twenty-five years 
produced its abundant new forms almost under our eyes. Knowledge 
of heredity has so reacted on our conceptions of variation that very 
competent men are even denying that variation in the old sense is a 
genuine occurrence at all. Variation is postulated as the basis of all 
evolutionary change. Do we then as a matter of fact find in the world 



12 president's address. 

about us variations occurring of auch a kind as to warrant faith in a 
contemporary progressive Evolution? Till lately most of us would 
have said ' yes ' without misgiving. We should have pointed, as 
Darwin did, to the immense range of diversity seen in many wild 
species, so commonly that the difficulty is to define the types them- 
selves. Still more conclusive seemed the profusion of forms in the 
various domesticated animals and plants, most of them incapable of 
existing even for a generation in the wild state, and therefore fixed 
unquestionably by human selection. These, at least, for certain, are 
new forms, often distinct enough to pass for species, wdiich has arisen 
by variation. But when analysis is applied to this mass of variation 
the matter weai's a different aspect. Closely examined, what is the 
' variability ' of wild species ? What is the natural fact which is 
denoted by the statement that a given species exhibits much variation ? 
Generally one of two things : either that the individuals collected in one 
locality differ among themselves; or perhaps more often that samples 
from separate localities differ from each other. As direct evidence of 
Yariation it is clearly to the first of these phenomena that we must 
have recourse — the heterogeneity of a population breeding together in 
one area. This heterogeneity may be in any degree, ranging from 
slight differences that systematists would disregard, to a complex 
variability such as we find in some moths, where there is an abund- 
ance of varieties so distinct that many would be classified as specific 
forms but for the fact that all are freely breeding together. Naturalists 
formerly supposed that any of these varieties might be bred from any 
of the others. Just as the reader of novels is prepared to find that 
any kind of parents may have any kind of childi'en in the course of the 
story, so was the evolutionist ready to believe that any pair of moths 
might produce any of the varieties included in the species. Genetic 
analysis has disposed of all these mistakes. We have no longer the 
smallest doubt that in. all these examples the varieties stand in a regular 
descending order, and that they are simply terms in a series of com- 
binations of factors separately transmitted, of which each may be 
present or absent. 

The appearance of contemporary variability proves to be an illusion. 
Variation from step to step in the series must occur either by the 
addition or by the loss of a factor. Now, of the origin of new forms 
by loss there seems to me to be fairly clear evidence, but of the con- 
temporary acquisition of any new factor I see no satisfactory proof, 
though I admit there are rare examples which may be so interpreted. 
We are left with a picture of variation utterly different from that 
which we saw at first. Variation now stands out as a definite physio- 
logical event. W^e have done with the notion that Darwin came latterly 
to favour, that large differences can arise by accumulation of small 



president's address. 13 

differences. Such small differences are often mere ephemeral effects 
of conditions of life, and as such are not transmissible ; but even small 
differences, when truly genetic, are factorial like the larger ones, and 
there is not the slightest reason for supposing that they are capable 
of summation. As to the origin or source of these positive separable 
factors, we are without any indication or surmise. By their effects 
we know them to be definite, as definite, say, as the organisms which 
produce diseases ; but how they arise and how they come to take part 
in the composition of the living creature so that when present they are 
treated in cell-division as constituents of the germs, we cannot con- 
jecture. 

It was a commonplace of evolutionary theory that at least the 
domestic animals have been developed from a few wild types. Their 
origin was supposed to present no difficulty. The various races of 
fowl, for instance, all came from Gallus bankiva, the Indian jungle- 
fowl. So we are taught; but try to reconstruct the steps in their 
evolution and you realise your hopeless ignorance. To be sure there 
are breeds, such as Black-red Game and Brown Leghorns, which have 
the colours of the jungle-fowl, though they differ in shape and other 
respects. As we know so little as yet of the genetics of shape, let us 
assume that those transitions could be got over. Suppose, further, as 
is probable, that the absence of the maternal instinct in the Ijeghorn 
is due to loss of one factor which the jungle-fowl possesses. So far 
we are on fairly safe ground. But how about White Leghorns ? Their 
origin may seem easy to imagine, since white varieties have often 
arisen in well-authenticated cases. But the white of White Leghorns 
is not, as white in nature often is, due to the loss of the colour-elements, 
but to the action of something which inhibits their expression. Whence 
did that something come ? The same question may be asked respecting 
the heavy breeds, such as Malays or Indian Game. Each of these is a 
separate introduction from the East. To suppose that these, with their 
peculiar combs and close feathering, could have been developed from 
pre-existing European breeds is very difficult. On the other hand, 
there is no wild species now living any more hke them. We may, of 
course, postulate that there was once such a species, now lost. That 
is quite conceivable, though the suggestion is purely speculative. I 
might thus go through the list of domesticated animals and plants of 
ancient origin and again and again we should be driven to this 
suggestion, that many of their distinctive characters must have been 
derived from some wild original now lost. Indeed, to this unsatisfying 
conclusion almost every careful writer on such subjects is now reduced. 
If we turn to modern evidence the case looks even worse. The new 
breeds of domestic animals made in recent times are the carefully 
selected products of recombination of pre-existing breeds. Most of the 



14 president's address, 

new varieties of cultivated plants are the outcome of deliberate crossing. 
There is generally no doubt in the matter. We have pretty full 
histories of these cix>sses in Gladiolus, Orchids, Cineraria, Begonia, 
Calceolaria, Pelargonium, &c. A very few certainly arise from a single 
origin. The Sweet Pea is the clearest case, and there are others which 
I should name with hesitation. The Cyclamen is one of them, but 
we know that efforts to cross Cyclamens were made early in the cul- 
tural history of the plant, and they may very well have been success- 
ful. Several plants for which single origins are alleged, such as the 
Chinese Primrose, the Dahlia, and Tobacco, came to us in an already 
domesticated state, and their origins remain altogether mysterious. 
Formerly single origins were generally presumed, but at the present 
time numbers of the chief products of domestication, dogs, horses, 
cattle, sheep, poultry, wheat, oats, rice, plums, cherries, have in turn 
been accepted as ' polyphyletic,' or, in other words, derived from several 
distinct forms. The reason that has led to these judgments is that the 
distinctions between the chief varieties can be traced as far back as the 
evidence reaches, and that these distinctions are so great, so far tran- 
scending anything that we actually know variation capable of effecting, 
that it seems pleasanter to postpone the difficulty, relegating the critical 
differentiation to some misty antiquity into which we shall not be asked 
to jJenetrate. For it need scarcely be said that this is mere procrastina- 
tion. If the origin of a form under domestication is hard to imagine, it 
becomes nO' easier to conceive of such enormous deviations from type 
coming to pass in the wild state. Examine any two thoroughly distinct 
species which meet each other in their distribution, as, for instance, 
Lychnis diurna and vespertina do. In areas of overlap are many inter- 
mediate forms. These used to be taken to be transitional steps, and 
the specific distinctness of vespertina and diurna was on that account 
questioned. Once it is known that these supposed intergradea are 
merely mongrels between the two species the transition from one to the 
other is practically beyond our powers of imagination to conceive. If 
both these can survive, why has their common parent perished? Why 
when they cross do they not reconstruct it instead of producing partially 
sterile hybrids? I take this example to show how entirely the facts 
were formerly misinterpreted. 

When once the idea of a true-breeding — or, as we say, homozygous 
— type is grasped, the problem of variation becomes an insistent oppres- 
sion. What can make such a type vary? We know, of course, one 
way by which novelty can be introduced — by crossing. Cross two 
well-marked varieties — for instance, of Chinese Primula — each breeding 
true, and in the second generation by mere recombination of the various 
factors which the two parental types severally introduced, there will 
be a profusion of forms, utterly unlike each other, distinct also from 



president's address. 15 

the original parents. Many of these can be bred true, and if found 
wild would certainly be described as good species. Confronted by the 
difficulty I have put before you, and contemplating such amazing poly- 
morphism in the second generation from a cross in Antirrhinum, Lotsy 
has lately with great courage suggested to us that all variation may be 
due to such crossing. I do not disguise my sympathy with this effort. 
After the blind complacency of conventional evolutionists it is refresh- 
ing to meet so frank an acknowledgment of the hardness of the problem. 
Lotsy 's utterance will at least do something to expose the artificiality of 
systematic zoology and botany. Whatever might or might not be 
revealed by experimental breeding, it is certain that without such tests 
we are merely guessing when we profess to distinguish specific limits 
and to declare that this is a species and that a variety. The only defin- 
able unit in classification is the homozygous form which breeds true. 
When we presume to say that such and such differences are trivial and 
such others valid, we are commonly embarking on a course for which 
there is no physiological warrant. Who could have foreseen that the 
Apple and the Pear — so like each other that their botanical differences 
are evasive — could not be crossed together, though species of Antir- 
rhinum so totally unlike each other as niajus and 7nolle can be 
hybridized, as Baur has shown, without a sign of impaired fertility? 
Jordan was perfectly right. The true-breeding forms which he dis- 
tinguished in such multitudes are real entities, though the great 
systematists, dispensing with such laborious analysis, have pooled them 
into arbitrary Linnean species, for the convenience of collectors and for 
the simplification of catalogues. Such pragmatical considerations may 
mean much in the museum, but with them the student of the physio- 
logy of variation has nothing to do. These 'little species,' finely cut,, 
true-breeding, and innumerable mongrels between them, are what he 
finds when he examines any so-called variable type. On analysis the 
semblance of variability disappears, and the illusion is shown to be due 
to segregation and recombination of series of factors on pre-determined 
lines. As soon as the ' little species ' are separated out they are found 
to be fixed. In face of such a result we may well ask with Lotsy, 
is there such a thing as spontaneous variation anywhere? His answer 
is that there is not. 

Abandoning the attempt to show that positive factors can be added 
to the original stock, we have further to confess that we cannot 
often actually jsrove variation by loss of factor to be a real pheno- 
menon. Lotsy doubts whether even this phenomenon occurs. The 
sole source of variation, in his view, is crossing. But here I 
think he is on unsafe ground. When a v,'ell-established variety like 
' Crimson King ' Primula, bred by Messrs. Sutton in thousands of 
individuals, gives off, as it did a few years since, a salmon-coloured 



16 president's address. 

variety, 'Coral King,' we might claim this as a genuine example o! 
variation by loss. The new variety is a simple recessive. It differs 
from ' Crimson King ' only in one respect, the loss of a single colour- 
factor, and, of course, bred true from its origin. To account for the 
appearance of such a new form by any process of crossing is exceedingly 
difficult. From the nature of the case there can have been no cross 
since ' Crimson King ' was established, and hence the salmon must 
have been concealed as a recessive from the first origin of that variety, 
even when it was represented by very few individuals, probably only by 
a single one. Surely, if any of these had been heterozygous for salmon 
this recessive could hardly have failed to appear during the process of 
self-fertilisation by which the stock would be multiplied, even though 
that selfing may not have been strictly carried out. Examples like this 
seem to me practically conclusive.® They can be challenged, but not, 
I think, successfully. Then again in regard to those variations in 
number and division of parts which we call meristic, the .reference of 
these to original cross-breeding is surely barred by the circumstances in 
which they often occur. There remain also the rare examples men- 
tioned already in which a single wild origin may with much confidence 
be assumed. In spite of repeated trials, no one has yet succeeded in 
crossing the Sweet Pea with any other leguminous species. We know 
that early in its cultivated history it produced at least two marked 
varieties which I can only conceive of as spontaneously arising, though, 
no doubt, the profusion of forms we now have was made by the crossing 
of those original varieties. I mention the Sweet Pea thus prominently 
for another reason, that it introduces us to another though subsidiary 
form of variation, which may be described as a fractionation of factors. 
Some of my Mendelian colleagues have spoken of genetic factors as 
permanent and indestructible. Eelative permanence in a sense thej 
have, for they commonly come out unchanged after segregation. But 
I am satisfied that they may occasionally undergo a quantitative dis- 
integration, with the consequence that varieties are produced inter- 
mediate between the integral varieties from which they were derived. 
These disintegrated conditions I have spoken of as subtraction — or 
reduction — stages. For example, the Picotee Sweet Pea, with its 
purple edges, can surely be nothing but a condition produced by the 
factor which ordinarily makes the fully purple flower, quantitatively 
diminished. The pied animal, such as the Dutch rabbit, must similarly 
be regarded as the result of partial defect of the chromogen from which 
the pigment is formed, or conceivably of the factor which effects its 
oxidation. On such lines I think we may Avith gi'eat confidence 

' The numerou-s and most interesting ' mutations ' recorded by Professor 
T. H. Morgan and his colleagues in the fly, Drosophila, may also 'be cited as 
unexceptionable cases. 



president's address. 17 

interpret all those intergrading forms which breed true and are not 
produced by factorial interference. 

It is to be inferred that these fractional degradations are the con- 
sequence of irregularities in segregation. We constantly see irregulari- 
ties in the ordinary meristic processes, and in the distribution of somatic 
differentiation. We are familiar with half segments, with imperfect 
twinning, with leaves partially petaloid, with petals partially sepaloid. 
All these are evidences of departures from the normal regularity in the 
rhythms of repetition, or in those waves of differentiation by which the 
qualities are sorted out among the parts of the body. Similarly, when 
in segregation the qualities are sorted out among the germ-cells in 
certain critical cell-divisions, we cannot expect these differentiating 
divisions to be exempt from the imperfections and iiTegularities which 
are found in all the grosser divisions that we can observe. If I am 
I'ight, we shall find evidence of these irregularities in the association 
of unconformable numbers with the appearance of the novelties which 
I have called fractional. In passing let us note how the history of the 
Sweet Pea belies those ideas of a continuous evolution with which we 
had formerly to contend. The big varieties came first. The little ones 
have arisen later, as I suggest by fractionation. Presented with a 
collection of modern Sweet Peas how prettily v,'ould the devotees of 
Continuity have arranged them in a graduated series, showing how 
every intergrade could be found, passing from the full colour of the 
wild Sicilian species in one direction to white, in the other to the 
deep purple of ' Black Prince, ' though happily we know these two to be 
among the earliest to have appeared. 

Having in view these and other considerations which might be 
developed, I feel no reasonable doubt that though we may have to 
forgo a claim to variations by addition of factors, yet variation both by 
loss of factors and by fractionation of factors is a genuine phenomenon 
of contemporary nature. If then we have to dispense, as seems likely, 
with any addition from without we must begin seriously to consider 
whether the course of Evolution can at all reasonably be represented as 
an unpacking of an original complex which contained within itself the 
whole range of diversity which living things present. I do not suggest 
that we should come to a judgment as to what is or is not probable in 
these respects. As I have said already, this is no time for devising 
theories of Evolution, and I propound none. But as we have got to 
recognise that there has been an Evolution, that somehow or other the 
forms of life have arisen from fewer forms, we may as well see whether 
we are limited to the old view that evolutionary progress is from the 
simple to the complex, and whether after all it is conceivable that the 
process was the other way about. When the facts of genetic discovery 
become familiarly known to biologists, and cease to be the preoccupa- 
1914. o 



18 president's address, 

tion of a few, as they etill are, many and long discussions must 
inevitably arise on the question, and I offer these remarks to pre- 
pare the ground. I ask you simply to open your minds to this 
possibility. It involves a certain effort. We have to reverse our 
habitual modes of thought. At first it may seem rank absurdity to 
suppose that the primordial form or fonns of protoplasm could have 
contained complexity enough to produce the divers types of life. But 
is it easier to imagine that these powers could have been conveyed by 
extrinsic additions ? Of what nature could these additions be ? Additions 
of material cannot surely be in question. We are told that salts of 
iron in the soil may turn a pink hydrangea blue. The iron cannot be 
passed on to the next generation. How can the iron multiply itself? 
The power to assimilate the iron is all that can be transmitted. A 
disease-producing organism like the pebrine of silkworms can in a very 
few cases be passed on tlirough the germ-cells. Such an organism can 
multiply and can produce its characteristic effects in the next genera- 
tion. But it does not become part of the invaded host, and we cannot 
conceive it taking part in the geometrically ordered processes of segre- 
gation. These illustrations may seem too gross; but what refinement 
will meet the requhements of the problem, that the thing introduced 
must be, as the living organism itself is, capable of multiplication and 
of subordinating itself in a definite system of segregation ? That which 
is conferred in variation must rather itself be a change, not of material, 
but of arrangement, or of motion. The invocation of additions extrinsic 
to the organism does not seriously help us to imagine How the power to 
change can be conferred, and if it prove that hope in that direction 
must be abandoned, I think we lose very little. By the re-arrangement 
of a very moderate number of things we soon reach a number of possi- 
bilities practically infinite. 

That primordial life may have been of small dimensions need not 
disturb us. Quantity is of no account in these considerations. 
Shakespeare once existed as a speck of protoplasm not so big as a 
small pin's head. To this nothing was added that would not equally 
well have served to build up a baboon or a rat. Let us consider how far 
we can get by the process of removal of what we call 'epistatic ' factors, 
in other words those that control, mask, or suppress underlying powers 
and faculties. I have spoken of the vast range of colours exhibited by 
modern Sweet Peas. There is no question that these have been derived 
from the one wild bi-colour form by a process of successive removals. 
When the vast range of form, size, and flavour to be found among the 
cultivated apples is considered it seems difficult to suppose that all this 
variety is hidden in the wild crab-apple. I cannot positively assert that 
this is so, but I think all familiar with Mendehan analysis would agi'ee 
with me that it is probable, and that the wild crab contains presumably 



president's address. 19 

inhibiting elements which the cultivated kinds have lost. The legend 
that the seedlings of cultivated apples become crabs is often repeated. 
After many inquiries among the raisers of apple seedlings I have never 
found an authentic case — once only even an alleged case, and this 
on inquiry proved to be unfounded. I have confidence that the artistic 
gifts of mankind will prove to be due not to something added to the 
make-up of an- ordinary man, but to the absence of factors which in the 
normal person inhibit the development of these gifts. They are almost 
beyond doubt to be looked upon as releases of powers normally sup- 
pressed. The instrument is there, but it is 'stopped down.' The 
scents of flowers or fruits, the finely repeated divisions that give its 
quality to the wool of the Merino, or in an analogous case the multi- 
plicity of quills to the tail of the fantail pigeon, are in all probability 
other examples of such releases. You may ask what guides us in the 
discrimination of the positive factors and how we can satisfy ourselves 
that the appearance of a quality is due to loss. It must be conceded 
that in these determinations we have as yet recourse only to the effects 
of dominance. When the tall pea is crossed with the dwarf, since the 
offspring is tall we say that the tall parent passed a factor into the 
cross-bred which makes it tall. The pure tall parent had two doses of 
this factor ; the dwarf had none ; and since the cross-bred is tall we say 
that one dose of the dominant tallness is enough to give the full height. 
The reasoning seems unanswerable. But the commoner result of cross- 
ing is the production of a form intermediate between the two pure 
parental types. In such examples we see clearly enough that the full 
parental characteristics can only appear when they are homozygous — ■ 
formed from similar geiTn-cells, and that one dose is insufficient to 
produce either effect fully. When this is so we can never be sure 
which side is positive and which negative. Since, then, when dominance 
is incomplete we find ourselves in this difficulty, we perceive that the 
amount of the effect is our only criterion in distinguishing the positive 
from the negative, and when we return even to the example of the 
tall and dwarf peas the matter is not so certain as it seemed. Professor 
Cockerell lately found among thousands of yellow sunflowers one 
which was partly red. By breeding he raised from this a form wholly 
red. Evidently the /ellow and the wholly red are the pure forms, and 
the partially red is .he heterozygote. We may then say that the yellow 
is YY with two doses of a positive factor which inhibits the development 
of pigment; the red is yy, with no dose of the inhibitor; and the 
partially red are Yy, with only one dose of it. But we might be tempted 
to think the red was a positive characteristic, and invert the expressions, 
representing the red as RR, the partly red as Rr, and the yellow as 
rr. According as we adopt the one or the otlier system of expression 
we shall interpret the evolutionary change as one of loss or as one of 



20 president's address. 

addition. May we not interpret the other apparent new dominants in 
the same way? The white dominant in the fowl or in the Chinese 
Primula can inhibit colour. But may it not be that the original coloured 
fowl or Primula had two doses of a factor which inhibited this inhibitor ? 
The Pepper Moth, Amphidasys hetularia, produced in England about 
1840 a black variety, then a novelty, now common in certain areas, 
which behaves as a full dominant. The pure blacks are no blacker 
than the cross-bred. Though at first sight it seems that the black 
must have been something added, we can without absurdity suggest 
that the normal is the term in which two doses of inhibitor are present, 
and that in the absence of one of them the black appears. 

In spit-e of seeming perversity, therefore, we have to admit that 
there is no evolutionary change which in the present state of our know- 
ledge we can positively declare to be not due to loss. "When this ha6 
been conceded it is natural to ask whether the removal of inhibiting 
factors may not be invoked in alleviation of the necessity which has 
driven students of the domestic breeds to refer their diversities to 
multiple origins. Something, no doubt, is to be hoped for in that 
direction, but not until much better and more extensive knowledge of 
what variation by loss may effect in the living body can we have any real 
assurance that this difficulty has been obviated. We should be greatly 
helped by some indication as to whether the origin of life has been single 
or multiple. Modern opinion is, perhaps, inclining to the multiple 
theory, but we have no real evidence. Indeed, the problem still stands 
outside the range of scientific investigation, and when we hear the 
spontaneous formation of formaldehyde mentioned as a possible first 
step in the origin of life, we think of Harry Lauder in the character of 
a Glasgow schoolboy pulling out his treasures from his pocket — ' That's 
a wassher — for makkin' motor cars ' ! 

As the evidence stands at present all that can be safely added in 
amplification of the evolutionary creed may be summed up in the 
statement that variation occurs as a definite event often producing a 
sensibly discontinuous result; that the succession of varieties comes 
to pass by the elevation and estabhshment of sporadic groups of 
individuals owing their origin to such isolated events ; and that 
the change which we see as a nascent variation is often, perhaps 
always, one of loss. Modern research lends not the smallest encourage- 
ment or sanction to the view that gi-adual evolution occurs by the trans- 
fonnation of masses of individuals, though that fancy has fixed itself on 
popular imagination. The isolated events to which variation is due are 
evidently changes in the germinal tissues, probably in the manner in 
which they divide. It is likely that the occurrence of these variations 
is wholly irregular, and as to their causation we are absolutely without 
surmise or even plausible speculation. Distinct types once arisen, no 



president's address. 21 

doubt a profusion of the forms called species have been, derived from 
them by simple crossing and subsequent recombination. New species 
may be now in course of creation by this means, but the limits of the 
process are obviously narrow. On the other hand, we see no changes in 
progress around us in the contemporary woi'ld which we can imagine 
likely to culminate in the evolution of forms distinct in the larger sense. 
By intercrossing dogs, jackals, and wolves new forais of these types 
can be made, some of which may be species, but I see no reason to 
think that fi'om such material a fox could be bred in indefinite time, or 
that dogs could be bred from foxes. 

Whether Science will hei'eafter discover that certain groups can by 
peculiarities in their genetic physiology be declared to have a preroga- 
tive quality justifying their recognition as species in the old sense, and 
that the differences of others are of such a subordinate degree that they 
may in contrast be termed varieties, further genetic research alone can 
show. I myself anticipate that such a discovery will be made, but I 
cannot defend the opinion with positive conviction. 

Somewhat reluctantly, and rather from a sense of duty, I have 
devoted most of this Address to the evolutionary aspects of genetic 
research. We cannot keep these things out of our heads, though some- 
times we wish we could. The outcome, as you will have seen, is 
negative, destroying much that till lately passed for gospel. Destruc- 
tion may be useful, but it is a low kind of work. We are just about 
where Boyle was in the seventeenth, century. We can dispose of 
Alchemy, but we cannot make more than a quasi-chemistry. We are 
awaiting our Priestley and our Mendel6eff. In truth it is not these 
wider aspects of genetics that are at present our chief concern. They 
will come in their time. The great advances of science are made like 
those of evolution, not by imperceptible mass-improvement, but by the 
sporadic bh-th of penetrative genius. The journeymen follow after him, 
widening and clearing up, as we are doing along the track that Mendel 
found. 



Part II.— SYDNEY.' 

At Melbourne I spoke of the new knowledge of the properties of 
living things which Mendelian analysis has brought us. I indicated 
how these discoveries are affecting our outlook on that old problem 
of natural history, the origin and nature of Species, and the chief 
conclusion I drew was the negative one, that, though we must hold 
to our faith in the Evolution of Species, there is little evidence as to 
how it has come about, and no clear proof that the process is con- 
tinuing in any considerable degree at the present time. The thought 

' Delivered in Sydney on Thursday, August 20, 1914. 



22 president's address. 

uppermost in our minds is that knowledge of the nature of hfe is 
altogether too slender to warrant speculation on these fundamental 
subjects. Did we presume to offer such speculations thej' would 
have no more value than those which alchemists might have made as 
to the nature of the elements. But though in regard to these 
theoretical aspects we must confess to such deep ignorance, enough has 
been learnt of the general course of heredity within a single species to 
justify many practical conclusions Avhich cannot in the main be shaken. 
T propose now to develop some of these conclusions in regard to our 
own species, Man. 

In my former Address I mentioned the condition of certain animals 
and plants which are what we call ' polymorphic. ' Their populations 
consist of individuals of many types, though they breed freely together 
with perfect fertility. In cases of this kind which have been suffi- 
ciently investigated it has been found that these distmctions — some- 
times very great and affecting most diverse features of organisation — 
are due to the presence or absence of elements, or factors as we call 
them, which are treated in heredity as separate entities. These 
factors and their combinations produce tlie characteristics which we 
perceive. No individual can acquire a particular characteristic unless 
the requisite factors entered into the composition of that individual 
at fertilisation, being received either from the father or from the 
mother or from both, and consequently no individual can pass on to 
his offspring positive characters which he does not himself possess. 
Rules of this kind have already been traced in operation in the human 
species; and though I admit that an assumption of some magnitude 
is involved when we extend the application of the same system to 
human characteristics in general, yet the assumption is one which 
I believe we are fully justified in making. With little hesitation we 
can now declare that the potentialities and aptitudes, physical as v\ell 
as mental, sex, colours, powers of work or invention, liability to 
diseases, possible duration of life, and the other features by which the 
members of a mixed population differ from each other, are determined 
from the moment of fertilisation; and by all that we know of heredity 
in the forms of life with which we can experiment we ai'e compelled 
to believe that these qualities are in the main distributed on a factorial 
system. By changes in the outward conditions of life the expression 
of some of these powers and features may be excited or restrained. 
For the development of some an external opportunity is needed, and 
if that be withheld the character is never seen, any more than if the 
body be starved can the full height be attained; but such influences 
are superficial and do not alter the genetic constitution. 

The factors which the individual receives from his parents and no 
others are those which he can transmit to his offspring; and if a factor 



presidekt's address. 23 

was received from one parent only, not more than hal£ the offspring, 
on an average, will inherit it. What is it that has so long prevented 
mankind from discovering such simple facts? Primarily the circum- 
stance that as man must have Hvo parents it is not possible quita 
easily to detect the contributions of each. The individual body is a 
doiible structure, whereas the germ-cells are single. Two germ-cells 
unite to produce each individual body, and the ingredients they respec- 
tively contribute interact in ways that leave the ultimate product a 
medley in which it is difficult to identify the several ingredients. When, 
however, their effects are conspicuous the task is by no means impos- 
sible. In part also even physiologists have been blinded by the survival 
of ancient and obscurantist conceptions of the nature of man by which 
they were discouraged from the application of any rigorous analysis. 
Medical literature still abounds with traces of these archaisms, and, 
indeed, it is only quite recently that prominent horse-breeders have 
come to see that the dam matters as much as the sire. For them, 
though vast pecuniary considerations were involved, the old ' homun- 
culus ' theory was good enough. We were amazed at the notions 
of genetic physiology which Professor Baldwin Spencer encountered 
in his wonderful researches among the natives of Central Australia ; 
but in truth, if we reflect that these problems have engaged the atten- 
tion of civihsed man for ages, the fact that he, with all his powers 
of recording and deduction, failed to discover any part of the Mendelian 
system is almost as amazing. The popular notion that any parents 
can have any kind of children within the racial limits is contrary to 
all experience, yet we have gravely entertained such ideas. As I have 
said elsewhere, the truth might have been found out at any period 
in the world's history if only pedigrees had been drawn the right 
way up. If, instead of exhibiting the successive pairs of progenitors 
who have contributed to the making of an ultimate individual, some 
one had had the idea of setting out the posterity of a single ancestor 
who possessed a marked feature such as the Habsburg lip, and showing 
the transmission of this feature along some of the descending branches 
and the permanent loss of the feature in collaterals, the essential 
truth that heredity can be expressed in terms of presence and absence 
must have at once become apparent. For the descendant is not, as he 
appears in the conventional pedigree, a sort of pool into which each 
tributary ancestral stream has poured something, but rather a con- 
glomerate of ingredient-characters taken from his progenitors in such 
a way that some ingredients are represented and others are omitted. 

Let me not, however, give the impression that the unravelling of 
such descents is easy. Even with fairly full details, which in the case 
of man are very rarely to be had, many complications occur, often 
preventing us from obtaining more than a rough general indication of 



24 president's address. 

the system of descent. The nature of these comphcations we partly 
understand from our experience of animals and plants which are 
amenable to breeding under careful restrictions, and we know that 
they are mostly referable to various effects of interaction between 
factors by which the presence of some is masked. 

Necessarily the clearest evidence of regularity in the inheritance 
of human characteristics has been obtained in regard to the descent 
of marked abnormalities of stnicture and congenital diseases. Of the 
descent of ordinary distinctions such as are met with in the normal 
healthy population we know little for certain. Hurst's evidence, that 
two parents both with light-coloured eyes — in the strict sense, meaning 
that no pigment is present on the front of the iris — do not have dark- 
eyed children, still stands almost alone in this respect. With regard 
to the inheritance of other colour-characteristics some advance has been 
made, but everything points to the inference that the genetics of colour 
and many other features in man will prove exceptionally complex. 
There are, however, plenty of indications of system comparable with 
those which we trace in various animals and plants, and we are assured 
that to extend and clarify such evidence is only a matter of careful 
analysis. For the present, in asserting almost any general rules for 
human descent, we do right to make large reservations for possible 
exceptions. It is tantalising to have to wait, but of the ultimate result 
there can be no doubt. 

I spoke of comphcations. Two of these are worth illustrating here, 
for probably both of them play a great part in human genetics. It 
was discovered by Nilsson-Ehle, in the course of experiments with 
certain wheats, that several factors having the same power may co-exist 
in the same individual. These cumulative factors do not necessarily 
produce a cumulative effect, for any one of them may suffice to give 
the full result. Just as the pure-bred tall pea with its two factors for 
tallness is no taller than the cross-bred with a single factor, so these 
wheats with three pairs of factors for red colour are no redder than the 
ordinary reds of the same family. Similar observations have been 
made by East and others. In some cases, as in the Primulas studied 
by Gregory, the effect is cumulative. These results have been used 
with plausibility by Davenpoi't and the American workers to elucidate 
the curious case of the mulatto. If the descent of colour in the cross 
between the negro and the white man followed the simplest rule, the 
offspring of two first-ci'oss mulattos would be, on an average, one 
black : two mulattos : one white, but this is notoriously not so. 
Evidence of some segregation is fairly clear, and the deficiency of real 
whites may perhaps be accounted for on the hypothesis of cumulative 
factors, though by the nature of the case strict proof is not to be had. 
But at pi-esent I own to a preference for regarding such examples as 



president's address. 25 

instances of imperfect segregation. The series of germ-oells produced 
by the cross-bred consists of some with no black, some with full black, 
and others with intermediate quantities of black. No statistical tests 
of the condition of the gametes in such cases exist, and it is likely that 
by choosing suitable crosses all sorts of conditions may be found, 
ranging from the simplest case of total segregation, in which there aro 
only two forms of gametes, up to those in which there are all inter- 
mediates in various proportions. This at least is what general experi- 
ence of hybrid products leads me to anticipate. Segregation is 
somehow effected by the rhythms of cell-division, if such an expression 
may be permitted. In some cases the whole factor is so easily separated 
that it is swept out at once ; in others it is so intermixed that gametes of 
all degrees of purity may result. That is admittedly a crude metaphor, 
but as yet we cannot substitute a better. Be all this as it may, there are 
many signs that in human heredity phenomena of this kind are common, 
whether they indicate a multiplicity of cumulative factors or imper- 
fections in segregation. Such phenomena, however, in no way detract 
from the essential truths that segregation occurs, and that the organism 
cannot pass on a factor which it has not itself received. 

In human heredity we have found some examples, and I believe 
that we shall find many more, in which the descent of factors is limited 
by sex. The classical instances are those of colour-blindness and 
h£emophilia. Both these conditions occur with much gi-eater frequency 
in males than in females. Of colour-blindness at least we know that 
the sons of the colour-blind man do not inherit it (unless the mother 
is a transmitter) and do not transmit it to their children of either 
sex. Some, probably all, of the daughters of the colour-blind father 
inherit the character, and though not themselves colour-blind, they 
transmit it to some (probably, on an average, half) of their offspring 
of both sexes. For since these normal-sighted women have only 
received the colour-blindness from one side of their parentage, only 
half their offspring, on an average, can inherit it. The sons who 
inherit the colour-blindness will be colour-blind, and the inheriting 
daughters become themselves again transmitters. Males with 
normal colour- vision, whatever their own parentage, do not have colour- 
blind descendants, unless they marry transmitting women. There 
are points still doubtful in the interpretation, but the critical fact is 
clear, that the germ-cells of the colour-blind man are of two kinds: 
(i) those which do not carry on the affection and are destined to take 
part in the fonnation of sons ; and (ii) those which do caiTy on the 
colour-blindness and are destined to form daughters. There is evidence 
that the ova also are similarly predestined to form one or other of the 
sexes, but to discuss the whole question of sex-determination is beyond 
my present scope. The descent of these sex-limited affections never- 



26 PRESroENT'S ADDRESS. 

theless calls for mention here, because it is an admirable illustration of 
factorial predestination. It moreover exemplifies that parental polarity 
of the zygote to wliich I alluded in my first Address, a phenomenon 
which we suspect to be at the bottom of various anomalies of heredity, 
and suggests that there may be truth in the popular notion that in 
some respects sons resemble their mothers and daughters their fathers. 

As to the descent of hereditary diseases and malformations, however, 
we have abundant data for deciding that many are transmitted as 
dominants and a few as recessives. The most remarkable collection 
of these data is to be found in family histories of diseases of the eye. 
Neurology and dermatology have also contributed many very instructive 
pedigrees. In great measure the ophthalmological material was 
collected by Edward Nettleship, for whose death we so lately grieved. 
After retiring from practice as an oculist he devoted several years to 
this most laborious task. He was not content with hearsay evidence, 
but travelled incessantly, personally examining all accessible members 
of the families concerned, working in such a way that his pedigrees 
are models of orderly observation and recording. His zeal stimulated 
many younger men to take part in the work, and it will now go on, 
with the result that the systems of descent of all the common hereditary 
diseases of the eye will soon be known with approximate accuracy. 

Give a little imagination to considering the chief deduction from 
this work. Technical details apart, and gi'anting that we cannot 
wholly interpret the numerical results, sometimes noticeably more and 
sometimes fewer descendants of these patients being affected than 
Mendelian formulae would indicate, the expectation is that in the case 
of many diseases of the eye a large proportion of the children, grand- 
children, and remoter descendants of the patients will be affected with 
the disease. Sometimes it is only defective sight that is transmitted; 
in other cases it is blindness, either from birth or coming on at some 
later age. The most striking example perhaps is that of a foiTn of 
night-blindness still prevalent in a district near Montpellier, which 
has affected at least 130 persons, all descending from a single affected 
individual * who came into the country in the seventeenth century. 
The transmission is in every case through an affected parent, and no 
normal has been known to pass on the condition. Such an example 
well serves to illustrate the fixity of the rules of descent. Similar 
instances might be recited relating to a great variety of other conditions, 
some trivial, others grave. 

' The first human descent proved to follow Mendelian rules was that of a 
serious malformation of tKe hand studied by Farabee in America. Drinkwater 
subsequently worked out pedigrees for the same malformation in England. After 
many attempts, he now tells me that he has succeeded in proving that the 
American family and one of h'is own had an abnormal ancestor in common, five 
generations ago. 



I 



president's address. 27 

At various times it has been declared that men are born equal, and 
that the inequality is brought about by unequal opportunities. 
Acquaintance with the pedigrees ol disease soon shows the fatuity of 
such fancies. The same conclusion, we may be sure, would result 
from the true representation of the descent of any human faculty. 
Never sinca Galton's publications can the matter have been in any 
doubt. At the time he began to study family histories even the broad 
significance of heredity was frequently denied, and resemblances to 
parents or ancestors were looked on as interesting curiosities. 
Inveighing against hereditary political institutions, Tom Paine remarks 
that the idea is as absurd as that of an ' hereditary wise man,' or an 
' hereditary mathematician,' and to this day I suppose many people are 
not aware that he is saying anything more than commonly foolish. 
"We, on the contrary, would feel it something of a puzzle if two parents, 
both mathematically gifted, had any children not mathematicians. 
Galton first demonstrated the overwhelming importance of these con- 
siderations, and had he not been misled, partly by the theory of 
pangenesis, but more by his mathematical instincts and training, which 
prompted him to apply statistical treatment rather than qualitative 
analysis, he might, not improbably, have discovered the essential facts 
of Mendelism. 

It happens rarely that science has anything to offer to the common 
stock of ideas at once so comprehensive and so simple that the courses 
of our thoughts are changed. Contributions to the material progress 
of mankind are comparatively frequent. They result at once in 
application. Transit is quickened; communication is made easier; the 
food-supply is increased and population multiphed. By direct applica- 
tion to the breeding of animals and plants such results must even 
flow from Mendel's work. But I imagine the greatest practical change 
likely to ensue from modern genetic discovery will be a quickening of 
interest in the true nature of man and in the biology of races. I have 
spoken cautiously as to the evidence for the operation of any simple 
Mendelian system in the descent of human faculty; yet the certainty 
that systems which differ from the simpler schemes only in degree of 
complexity are at work in the distribution of characters among the 
human population cannot fail to influence our conceptions of life and 
of ethics, leading perhaps ultimately to modification of social usage. 
That change cannot but be in the mam one of simplification. The 
eighteenth century made great pretence of a return to nature, but it 
did not occur to those philosophers first to inquire what nature is; 
and perhaps not even the patristic wi-itings contain fantasies much 
further from physiological tinith than those which the rationalists of 
the ' Encyclopaedia ' adopted as the basis of their social schemes. For 
men are so far from being born equal or similar that to the naturalist 



28 president's address. 

they stand as the very type of a polymorphic species. Even most of 
our local races consist of many distinct strains and individual types. 
From the population of any ordinary English town as many distinct 
human breeds could in a few generations be isolated as there are now 
breeds of dogs, and indeed such a population in its present state is 
much what the dogs of Europe would be in ten years' time but for the 
interference of the fanciers. Even as at present constituted, owing 
to the isolating effects of instinct, fashion, occupation, and social class, 
many incipient strains already exist. 

In one respect civilised man differs from all other species of animal 
or plant in that, having prodigious and ever-increasing power over 
nature, he invokes these powers for the preservation and maintenance 
of many of the inferior and all the defective members of his species. 
The inferior freely multiply, and the defective, if their defects be not 
so grave as to lead to their detention in prisons or asylums, multiply 
also without restraint. Heredity being strict in its action, the conse- 
quences are in civilised countries much what they would be in the 
kennels of the dog-breeder who continued to preserve all his puppies, 
good and bad : the proportion of defectives increases. The increase is 
so considerable that outside every great city there is a smaller town 
inhabited by defectives and those who wait on them. Eound London 
we have a ring of such towns with some 30,000 inhabitants, of whom 
about 28,000 are defective, largely, though of course by no means 
entirely, bred from previous generations of defectives. Now, it is not 
for us to consider practical measures. As men of science we observe 
natural events and deduce conclusions from them. I may perhaps be 
allowed to say that the remedies proposed in America, in so far as they 
aim at the eugenic regulation of marriage on a comprehensive scale, 
strike me as devised without regard to the needs either of individuals 
or of a modern State. Undoubtedly if they decide to breed their 
population of one uniform puritan grey, they can do it in a few 
generations; but I doubt if timid respectability will make a nation 
happy, and I am sure that qualities of a different sort are needed if it 
is to compete with more vigorous and more varied communities. 
Everyone must have a preliminary sympathy with the aims of eugenists 
both abroad and at home. Their efforts at the least are doing some- 
thing to discover and spread truth as to the physiological structure of 
society. The spirit of such organisations, however, almost of 
necessity suffers from a bias towards the accepted and the ordinary, 
and if they had power it would go hard with many ingredients of 
Society that could be ill-spared. I notice an ominous passage in which 
even Galton, the founder of eugenics, feeling perhaps some twinge of 
his Quaker ancestry, remarks that ' as the Bohemianism in the nature 
of our race is destined to perish, the sooner it goes, the happier for 



president's address. 29 

mankind. ' It is not the eugenists who will give us what Plato has called 
divine releases from the common ways. If some fancier with the 
catholicity of Shakespeare would take us in hand, well and good ; but 
I would not trust even Shakespeares meeting as a committee. Let us 
remember that Beethoven's father was an habitual drunkard and that 
his mother died of consumption. From the genealogy of the patriarchs 
also we learn — what may very well be the truth — that the fathers of 
such as dwell in tents, and of all such as handle the harp or organ, 
and the instructor of every artificer in brass and iron — the founders, 
that is to say, of the arts and the sciences— came in direct descent 
from Cain, and not in the posterity of the irreproachable Seth, who 
is to us, as he probably was also in the narrow circle of his own 
contemporaries, what naturalists call a nomen midtcm. 

Genetic research will make it possible for a nation to elect by what 
sort of beings it will be represented not very many generations hence, 
much as a farmer can decide whether his byres 'shall be full of short- 
horns or Herefords. It will be very surprising indeed if some nation 
does not make trial of this new power. They may make awful mis- 
takes, but I think they will try. 

Whether we like it or not, extraordinary and far-reaching changes in 
public opinion are coming to pass. Man is just beginning to know 
himself for what he is — a rather long-lived animal, with great powers 
of enjoyment if he does not deliberately forgo them. Hitherto 
superstition and mythical ideas of sin have predominantly controlled 
these powers. Mysticism will not die out: for those strange fancies 
knowledge is no cure; but their forms may change, and mysticism as 
a force for the suppression of joy is happily losing its hold on the 
modem world. As in the decay of earlier religions Ushabti dolls 
were substituted for human victims, so telepathy, necromancy, and 
other harmless toys take the place of eschatology and the inculcation 
of a ferocious moral code. Among the civilised races of Europe we 
are witnessing an emancipation from traditional control in thought, in 
art, and in conduct which is likely to have prolonged and wonderful 
influences. Eeturning to freer or, if you will, simpler conceptions of 
life and death, the coming generations are determined to get more out 
of this world than their forefathers did. Is it then to be supposed 
that when science puts into their hand means for the alleviation of 
suffering immeasurable, and for making this world a happier place, 
that they will demur to using those powers? The intenser struggle 
between communities is only now beginning, and with the approach- 
ing exhaustion of that capital of energy stored in the earth before man 
began it must soon become still more fierce. In England some of our 
great-grandchildren will see the end of the easily accessible coal, and, 
failing some miraculous discovery of available energy, a wholesale 



30 president's address. 

reduction in population. There are races who have shown themselves 
able at a word to throw off all tradition and take into their service 
every power that science has yet offered them. Can we expect that 
they, when they see how to rid themselves of the ever-increasing 
weight of a defective population, will hesitate? The time cannot be 
far distant when both individuals and communities will begin to 
think in terms of biological fact, and it behoves those who lead 
scientific thought carefully to consider whither action should lead. 
At present I ask you merely to observe the facts. The powers of 
science to preserve the defective are now enormous. Every year 
these powers increase. This course of action must reach a limit. 
To the deliberate intervention of civilisation for the preservation of in- 
ferior strains there must sooner or later come an end, and before long 
nations will realise the responsibility they have assumed in multiplying 
these ' cankers of a calm world and a long peace. ' 

The definitely feeble-minded we may with propriety restrain, as 
we are beginning to do even in England, and we may safely prevent 
unions in which both parties ai'e defective, for the evidence shows 
that as a inile such marriages, though often prolific, commonly produce 
no normal children at all. The union of such social vermin we should 
no more pennit than we would allow parasites to breed on our own 
bodies. Further than that in restraint of marriage we ought not to 
go, at least not yet. Something too may be done by a reform of 
medical ethics. Medical students are taught that it is their duty to 
prolong life at whatever cost in suffering. This may have been right 
when diagnosis was uncertain and interference usually of small effect; 
but deliberately to interfere now for the preservation of an infant so 
gravely diseased that it can never be happy or come fo any good is 
very like wanton cruelty. In private few men defend such inter- 
ference. Most who have seen these cases lingering on agree that 
the system is deplorable, but ask where can any line be drawn. The 
biologist would reply that in all ages such decisions have been made by 
civilised communities with fair success both in regard to crime and 
in the closely analogous case of lunacy. The real reason why these 
things are done is because the world collectively cherishes occult 
views of the nature of life, because the facts are realised by few, and 
because between the legal mind — ^to which society has become accus- 
tomed to defer — and the seeing eye, there is such physiological 
antithesis that hardly can they be combined in the same body. So 
soon as scientific knowledge becomes common property, views more 
reasonable and, I may add, more humane, are likely to prevail. 

To all these great biological problems that modern society must 
sooner or later face there are many aspects besides the obvious ones. 
Infant mortality we are asked to lament without the slightest thought 



president's address. 81 

of what the world would be hke if the majority of these infants 
were to survive. The decline in the birth-rate in countries already 
over-populated is often deplored, and we are told that a nation in 
which populatpon is not rapidly increasing must be in a decline. The 
slightest acquaintance with biology, or even school-boy natural history, 
shows that this inference may be entirely wrong, and that before such 
a question can be decided in one way or the other, hosts of considera- 
tions must be taken into account. In normal stable conditions 
population is stationary. The laity never appreciates, what is so clear 
to a biologist, that the last century and a quarter, corresponding with 
the great rise in population, has been an altogether exceptional period.' 
To our species this period has been what its early years in Australia 
were to the rabbit. The exploitation of energy-capital of the earth in 
coal, development of the new countries, and the consequent poui'ing 
of food into Europe, the application of antiseptics, these are the things 
that have enabled the human population to increase. I do not doubt 
that if population were more evenly spread over the earth it might 
increase very much more; but the essential fact is that under any 
stable conditions a limit must be reached. A pair of wrens will bring 
off a dozen young every year, but each year you will find the same 
number of pears in your garden. In England the limit beyond which 
under present conditions of distribution increase of population is a 
source of suffering rather than of happiness has been reached already. 
Younger communities living in territories largely vacant are very 
probably right in desiring and encouraging more population. Increase 
may, for some temporary reason, be essential to their prosperity. But 
those who live, as I do, among thousands of creatures in a state of 
semi-starvation will realise that too few is better than too many, and 
will acknowledge the wisdom of Ecclesiasticus who said ' Desire not a 
multitude of unprofitable children.' 

But at least it is often urged that the decline in the birth-rate of 
the intelligent and successful sections of the population — I am speaking 
of the older communities — is to be regretted. Even this cannot be 
granted without qualification. As the biologist knows, differentiation 
is indispensable to progress. If population were homogeneous civilisa- 
tion would stop. In every army the officers must be comparatively 
few. Consequently, if the upper strata of the community produce 
more children than will recruit their numbers some must fall into the 
lower strata and increase the pressure there. Statisticians tell us that 
an average of four children under present conditions is sufl&cient to 
keep the number constant, and as the expectation of life is steadily 
improving we may perhaps contemplate some diminution of that number 
without alarm. 



32 president's address. 

In the study of history biological treatment is only beginning to be 
applied. For us the causes of the success and failure of races are 
physiological events, and the progress of man has depended upon a 
chain of these events, like those which have resulted in the ' improve- 
ment ' of the domesticated animals and plants. It is obvious, for 
example, that had the cereals never been domesticated cities could 
scarcely have existed. But we may go further, and say that in tem- 
perate countries of the Old World (having neither rice nor maize) 
populations concentrated in large cities have been made possible by 
the appearance of a ' thrashable ' wheat. The ears of the wild wheats 
break easily to pieces, and the grain remains in the thick husk. Such 
wheat can be used for food, but not readily. Ages before written 
history began, in some unknown place, plants, or more likely a plant, 
of wheat lost the dominant factor to which this brittleness is due, and 
tlie recessive, thrashable wheat resulted. Some man noticed this 
wonderful novelty, and it has been disseminated over the earth. The ori- 
ginal variation may well have occurred once only, in a single genn-cell. 

So must it have been with Man. Translated into terms of factors, 
how has that progress in control of nature which we call civilisation 
been achieved? By the sporadic appearance of variations, mostly, per- 
haps all, consisting in a loss of elements, which inhibit the free 
working of the mind. The members of civilised communities, when 
they think about such things at all, imagine the process a gradual one, 
and that they themselves are active agents in it. Few, however, contri- 
bute anything but their labour; and except in so far as they have 
freedom to adopt and imitate, their physiological composition is that 
of an earlier order of beings. Annul the work of a few hundreds — 
I might almost say scores — of men, and on what plane of civilisation 
should we be? We should not have advanced beyond the mediaeval 
stage without printing, chemistry, steam, electricity, or surgery worthy 
the name. These things are the contributions of a few excessively rare 
minds. Gal ton reckoned those to whom the term ' illustrious ' might 
be applied as one in a million, but in that number he is, of course, 
reckoning men famous in ways which add nothing to universal pi'ogress. 
To improve by subordinate invention, to discover details missed, even 
to apply knowledge never before applied, all these things need genius 
in some degree, and are far beyond the powers of the average man of 
our race; but the true pioneer, the man whose penetration creates a 
new world, as did that of Newton and of Pasteur, is inconceivably 
rare. But for a few thousands of such men, we should perhaps be in 
the Palaeolithic era, knowing neither metals, writing, arithmetic, 
weaving, nor pottery. 

In the history of Art the same is true, but with this remarkable 
difference, that not only are gifts of artistic creation very rare, but 



president's address. 33 

even the faculty of artistic enjoyment, not to speak of higher powers 
of appreciation, is not attained without variation from the common 
type. I am speaking, of course, of the non-Semitic races of modern 
Europe, among whom tlie power whether of making or enjoying works 
of art is confined to an insignificant number of individuals. Apprecia- 
tion can in some degree be simulated, but in our population there is 
no widespread physiological appetite for such things. When detached 
from the centres where they are made by others most of us pass our 
time in great contentment, making nothing that is beautiful, and quite 
unconscious of any deprivation. Musical taste is the most notable 
exception, for in certain races — for example, the Welsh and some 
of the Germans — it is almost universal. Otherwise artistic faculty is 
still sporadic in its occurrence. The cost of music well illustrates the 
application of genetic analysis to human faculty. No one disputes 
that musical ability is congenital. In its fuller manifestation it 
demands sense of rhythm, ear, and special nervous . and muscular 
powers. Each of these is separable and doubtless genetically distinct. 
Each is the consequence of a special departure from the common type. 
Teaching and external influences are powerless to evoke these faculties, 
though their development may be assisted. The only conceivable 
way in which the people of England, for example, oould become a 
musical nation would be by the gradual rise in the proportional numbers 
of a musical strain or strains until the present type became so rare 
as to be negligible. It by no means follows that in any other respect 
the resulting population would be distinguishable from the present one. 
Difficulties of this kind beset the efforts of anthropologists to trace 
racial origins. It nm&t continually be remembered that most characters 
are independently transmitted and capable of such recombination. In 
the light of Mendelian knowledge the discussion whether a race is pure 
or mixed loses almost all significance. A race is pure if it breeds pure 
and not otherwise. Historically we may know that a race like our 
own was, as a matter of fact, of mixed origin. But a character may 
have been introduced by a single individual, though subsequently it 
becomes common to the race. This is merely a variant on the familiar 
paradox that in the course of time if registration is accurate we shall 
all have the same surname. In the case of music, for instance, the 
gift, originally perhaps from a Welsh source, might permeate the 
nation, and the question would then arise whether the nation, so 
changed, was the English nation or not. 

Such a problem is raised in a striking form by the population of 
modern Greece, and especially of Athens. The racial characteristics 
of the Athenian of the fifth century B.C. are vividly described by 
Galton in 'Hereditary Genius.' The fact that in that period a 
population, numbering many thousands, should have existed, capable 
1914. D 



34 president's address. 

of following the great plays at a first hearing, revelling in subtleties of 
speech, and thrilling with passionate delight in beautiful things, is 
physiologically a most singular phenomenon. On the basis of the 
number of illustrious men produced by that age Galton estimated the 
average intelligence as at least two of his degrees above our own, 
differing from us as much as we do from the negro. A few generations 
later the display was over. The origin of that constellation of human 
genius which then blazed out is as yet beyond all biological analysis, but 
I think we are not altogether without suspicion of the sequence of the 
biological events. If I visit a poultry-breeder who has a fine stock of 
thoroughbred game fowls breeding true, and ten years later — that is to 
say ten fowl-generations later — I go again and find scarcely a recognis- 
able game-fowl on the place, I know exactly what has happened. One 
or two birds of some other or of no breed must have strayed in and 
their progeny been left undestroyed. Now in Athens we have many 
indications that up to the beginning of the fifth century so long 
as the phratries and gentes were maintained in their integrity there 
was rather close endogamy, a condition giving the best chance of 
producing a homogeneous population. There was no lack of material 
from which intelligence and artistic power might be derived. Sporadi- 
cally these qualities existed throughout the ancient Greek world from 
the dawn of history, and, for example, the vase-painters, the makers 
of the Tanagra figurines, and the gem-cutters were presumably pur- 
suing family crafts, much as are the actor-families'* of England or 
the professorial families of Germany at the present day. How the 
intellectual strains should have acquired predominance we cannot tell, 
but in an in-breeding community homogeneity at least is not surprising. 
At the end of the sixth century came the ' reforms ' of Cleisthenes 
(507 B.C.), which sanctioned foreign marriages and admitted to citizen- 
ship a number not only of resident aliens but also of manumitted 
slaves. As Aristotle says, Cleisthenes legislated with the deliberate 
purpose of breaking up the phratries and gentes, in order that the 
various sections of the population might be mixed up as much as 
possible, and the old tribal associations abolished. The ' reform ' was 
probably a recognition and extension of a process already begun; but 
is it too much to suppose that we have here the effective beginning 
of a series of genetic changes which in a few generations so greatly 
altered the character of the people? Under Pericles the old law was 
restored (451 B.C.), but losses in the great wars led to further laxity in 
practice, and though at the end of the fifth century the strict rule 
was re-enacted that a citizen must be of citizen-birth on both sides, 
the population by that time may well have become largely mongrelised. 
Let me not be construed as arguing that mixture of races is an 

' For tables of families, see the Supplement to Who's WIto in the Theatre. 



president's address. 35 

evil : far from it. A population like our own, indeed, owes much of 
its strength to the extreme diversity of its components, for they con- 
tribute a corresponding abundance of aptitudes. Everything turns on 
the nature of the ingredients brought in, and I am concerned solely 
with the observation that these genetic disturbances lead ultimately 
to great and usually unforeseen changes in the nature of the population. 

Some experiments of this kind are going on at the present time, 
in the United States, for example, on a very large scale. Our grand- 
children may live to see the characteristics of the American population 
entirely altered by the vast invasion of Italian and other South 
European elements. We may expect that the Eastern States, and 
especially New England, whose people still exhibit the fine Puritan 
qualities with their appropriate limitations, absorbing little of the 
alien elements, will before long be in feelings and aptitudes very notably 
differentiated from the rest. In Japan, also, with the abolition of the 
feudal system and the rise of commercialism, a change in population 
has begun which may be worthy of the attention of naturalists in that 
country. Till the revolution the Samurai almost always married within 
their own class, with the result, as I am informed, that the caste had 
fairly recognisable features. The changes of 1868 and the consequent 
impoverishment of the Samurai have brought about a beginning of 
disintegration which may not improbably have perceptible effects. 

How many genetic vicissitudes has our own peerage undergone! 
Into the hard-fighting stock of mediaeval and Plantagenet times have 
successively been crossed the cunning shrewdness of Tudor states- 
men and courtiers, the numerous contributions of Charles II. and 
his concubines, reinforcing ipeculiar and persistent attributes which 
popular imagination especially regards as the characteristic of peers, 
ultimately the heroes of finance and industrialism. Definitely intellec- 
tual elements have been sporadically added, with rare exceptions, 
however, from the ranks of lawyers and politicians. To this 
aristocracy art, learning, and science have contributed sparse in- 
gredients, but these mostly chosen for celibacy or childlessness. A 
remarkable body of men, nevertheless ; with an average ' horse-power, ' 
as Samuel Butler would have said, far exceeding that of any random 
sample of the middle-class. If only man could be reproduced by 
budding what a simplification it would be ! In vegetative reproduction 
heredity is usually complete. The Washington plum can be divided 
to produce as many identical individuals as are required. If, say, 
Washington, the statesman, or preferably King Solomon, could 
similarly have been propagated, all the nations of the earth could 
have been supplied with ideal rulers. 

HistorianG commonly ascribe such changes as occurred in Athens, 
and will almost certainly come to pass in the United States, to 

l> 2 



36 president's address. 

conditions of life and especially to political institutions. These agencies, 
however, do little unless they are such as to change the breed. 
External changes may indeed give an opportunity to special strains, 
which then acquire ascendency. The industrial developments which 
began at the end of the eighteenth century, for instance, gave a chance 
to strains till then submerged, and their success involved the decay 
of most of the old aristocratic families. But the demagogue who 
would argue from the rise of the one and the fall of the other that 
the original relative positions were not justifiable altogether mistakes the 
facts. 

Conditions give opportunities but cause no variations. For example, 
in Athens, to which I just referred, the universality of cultivated dis- 
cernment could never have come to pass but for the institution of 
slavery which provided the opportunity, but slavery was in no sense a 
cause of that development, for many other populations have lived on 
slaves and remained altogether inconspicuous. 

The long-standing controversy as to the relative importance of nature 
and nurture, to use Galton's ' convenient jingle of words,' is drawing 
to an end, and of the overwhelmingly greater significance of nature 
there is no longer any possibility of doubt. It may be well briefly to 
recapitulate the arguments on which naturalists rely in coming to 
this decision both as regards races and individuals. First as regards 
human individuals, there is the common experience that children 
of the same parents reared under conditions sensibly identical may 
develop quite differently, exhibiting in character and aptitudes a 
segregation just as great as in their colours or hair-forms. Conversely 
all the more marked aptitudes have at various times appeared and not 
rarely reached perfection in circumstances the least favourable for 
their development. Next, appeal can be made to the universal experi- 
ence of the breeder, whether of animals or plants, that strain is 
absolutely essential, that though bad conditions may easily enough 
spoil a good strain, yet that under the best conditions a bad strain 
will never give a fine result. It is faith, not evidence, which encourages 
educationists and economists to hope so greatly in the ameliorating 
effects of the conditions of life. Let us consider what they can do 
and what they cannot. By reference to some sentences in a charming 
though pathetic book, ' What Is, and What Might Be,' by Mr. Edmond 
Holmes, which will be well known in the Educational Section, I may 
make the point of view of us naturalists clear. I take Mr. Holmes's 
pronouncement partly because he is an enthusiastic believer in the 
efficacy of nurture as opposed to nature, and also because he illus- 
trates his views by frequent appeals to biological analogies which help 
us to a common ground. Wheat badly cultivated will give a bad yield, 
though, as Mr. Holmes truly says, wheat of the same strain in similar 



president's address. 37 

soil well cultivated may give a good harvest. But, having witnessed 
the success of a great natural teacher in helping unpromising peasant 
children to develop their natural powers, he gives us another botanical 
parallel. Assuming that the wild buUace is the origin of domesticated 
plums, he tells us that by cultivation the buUace can no doubt be 
improved so far as to become a better bullace, but by no means can 
the bullace be made to bear plums. All this is sound biology; but 
translating these facts into the human analogy, he declares that the 
work of the successful teacher shows that with man the facts are other- 
wise, and that the average rustic child, whose normal ideal is ' bullace- 
hood,' can become the rare exception, developing to a stage corre- 
sponding with that of the plum. But the naturalist knows exactly 
where the parallel is at fault. For the wheat and the bullace are 
both breeding approximately true, whereas the human crop, like jute 
and various cottons, is in a state of polymorphic mixture. The popula- 
tion of many English villages may be compared with the crop which 
would result from sowing a bushel of kernels gathered mostly from the 
hedges, with an occasional few from an orchard. If anyone asks 
how it happens that there are any plum-kernels in the sample at all, 
he may find the answer perhaps in spontaneous variation, but more 
probably in the appearance of a long-hidden recessive. For the want 
of that genetic variation, consisting probably, as I have argued, in 
loss of inhibiting factors, by which the plum arose from the wild form, 
neither food, nor education, nor hygiene can in any way atone. Many 
wild plants are half -starved through competition, and transferred to 
garden soil they grow much bigger; so good conditions might certainly 
enable the bullace population to develop beyond the stunted physical and 
mental stature they commonly attain, but plums they can never be. 
Modern statesmanship aims rightly at helping those who have got sown 
as wildings to come into their proper class ; but let not anyone suppose 
such a policy democratic in its ultimate effects, for no course of 
action can be more effective in strengthening the upper classes whilst 
weakening the lower. 

In all practical schemes for social reform the congenital diversity, 
the essential polymorphism of all civilised communities must be recog- 
nised as a fundamental fact, and reformers should rather direct their 
efforts to facilitating and rectifying class-distinctions than to any futile 
attempt to abolish them. The teaching of biology is perfectly clear. 
We are what we are by virtue of our differentiation. The value of 
civilisation has in all ages been doubted. Since, however, the first 
variations were not strangled in their birth, we are launched on that 
course of variability of which civilisation is the consequence. We can- 
not go back to homogeneity again, and differentiated we are likely 
to continue. For a period measures designed to create a spurious 



38 president's address. 

homogeneity may be applied. Such attempts will, I anticipate, be made 
when the present unstable social state reaches a climax of instability, 
which may not be long hence. Their effects can be but evanescent. 
The instability is due not to inequality, which is inherent and congenital, 
but rather to the fact that in periods of rapid change like the present, 
convection-currents are set up such that the elements of the strata 
get intermixed and the apparent stratification corresponds only roughly 
with the genetic. In a few generations under uniform conditions these 
elements settle in their true levels once more. 

In such equilibrium is content most surely to be expected. To the 
naturalist the broad lines of solution of the problems of social dis- 
content are evident. They lie neither in vain dreams of a mystical and 
disintegrating equality, nor in the promotion of that malignant indi- 
vidualism which in older civilisations has threatened mortification of 
the humbler organs, but rather in a physiological co-ordination of the 
constituent parts of the social organism. The rewards of commerce 
are grossly out of proportion to those attainable by intellect or industry. 
Even regarded as compensation for a dull life^ they far exceed the 
value of the services rendered to the community. Such disparity is an 
incident of the abnormally rapid growth of population and is quite 
indefensible as a permanent social condition. Nevertheless capital, 
distinguished as a provision for offspring, is a eugenic institution; and 
unless human instinct undergoes some ptx)found and improbable 
variation, abolition of capital means the abolition of effort; but as in 
the body the power of independent growth of the parts is limited and 
subordinated to the whole, similarly in the community we may limit the 
powers of capital, preserving so much inequality of privilege as 
corresponds with physiological fact. 

At every turn the student of political science is confronted with 
problems that demand biological knoi' ledge for their solution. Most 
obviously is this true in regard to education, the criminal law, and 
all those numerous branches of policy and administration which are 
directly concerned with the physiological capacities of mankind. 
Assumptions as to what can be done and what cannot be done to 
modify individuals and races have continually to be made, and the 
basis of fact on which such decisions are founded can be drawn only 
from biological study. 

A knowledge of the facts of nature is not yet deemed an essential 
part of the mental equipment of politicians ; but as the priest, who 
began in other ages as medicine-man, has been obliged to abandon 
the medical parts of his practice, so will the future behold the school- 
master, the magistrate, the lawyer, and ultimately the statesman, 
compelled to share with the naturalist those functions which are 
concerned with the physiology of race. 



EEPOPxTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SOIENCK 



Seismological Investigations. — Nineteenth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turnee (Chairman), 
Professor J. Perry {Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Mr. F. W. Dyson, Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, 
Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, Professor C. G. 
Knott, Sir J. Larmor, Professor E. Meldola, Mr. W. E. 
Plummbr, Dr. E. A. Sampson, Professor A. Schuster, Mr. 
J. J. Shaw, and Dr. G. W. Walker. {Brawn up hy the 
Chairman.) 

[Plate I.] 

Contents. 

PAGE 

I. General Notes, Registers, Visitors, Stations 41 

II. Seismic Activity in 1911 44 

III. Distribution of Earthquake Centres 44 

IV. Discussion of Results from Different Seismographs 4G 

V. Comparison of Films for Idll 54 

VI. Comparison of Milne and Galitzin Instruments 57 

VII. Present Value of the Milne Instrument 62 

VIII. Correction of the Tables for P and S 63 

IX. Discussion in Azimuth . . .64 

I. — General Notes. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed with a grant of 60L 

The death of John Milne, in July 1913, creates a situation of 
some difficulty and anxiety. He organised a world-wide seismological 
service with very little financial help from others. In many of the 
outlying stations the instnimental equipment was provided either by 
himself or by one of his friends, and the care of it has been gener- 
ously undertaken by a volunteer who is often busily engaged in other 
work. The collation of results was in the early years undertaken by 
Milne himself, with the able help of Shinobu Hirota. Of late years 
a subsidy of 200L a year from the Government Grant Fund allowed 
of paid assistants; and Shinobu Hirota thus obtained a well-deserved 
official position; but for many years the only salary he received was 
paid from Milne's own pocket. It is by no means certain that tbe 
volunteer services at the stations, and the subsidy from the Govern- 
ment Grant Fund which makes it possible to keep running the 
central station at Shide, can be long continued; and it seems in 
any case very improbable that they can be rendered permanent. 
But a much more serious difficulty is the want of a salary for a 
Director or Superintendent of the whole British network of stations, 
who can give undivided attention to the valuable results which they 
have accumulated and to which they are daily adding. The salary of 



42 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

a competent Director, with the requisite mathematical knowledge, 
cannot be put lower than 500L or 6001. a year, and there is at 
present no prospect of obtaining even this endowment. The super- 
intendence has, of course, been hitherto provided voluntarily by Milne 
himself; and a certain amount of volunteer attention is available for 
the present. But seismology is developing so rapidly that the whole- 
hearted attention of at least one English mathematician should be 
devoted to it; and if an endowment for a British Director could be 
obtained this would surely be the most direct method of doing 
justice to a new and fascinating science which was nurtured by an 
Englishman. The negative result of previous appeals to the Govern- 
ment does not encourage the hope of their taking any action, and 
the chief hope thus lies in the direction of private benefaction. 
Is it too much to hope that some generous benefactor will provide a 
firm footing for seismology ? 

The present state of affairs is as follows: — The Shide Observatory 
is rented from Mrs. Milne at 20L a year. The work of the Shide 
station and the collation of results from other stations is being 
done by Mr. J. H. Burgess, who assisted Professor Milne in' the later 
years of his life, especially after the return of Shinobu Hirota to 
Japan. At the time of Professor Milne's death the work of collation 
was in arrear; and in order to bring it up to date assistance is 
being temporarily rendered by Mr. S. W. Pring (who had already 
considerable knowledge of the work) and his daughter. The general 
superintendence is undertaken by the Chairman of this Committee, 
partly by correspondence and partly by personal visits to Shide (on 
September 20-21, January 17-20, March 29-April 2, and May 9-11). 

Registers. Card Catalogue System. Monthly Bulletins. — The 
form of the Circulars has been changed. Up to the present the in- 
formation supplied by each individual station has been printed separ- 
ately, thus leaving the formal collation of results to others. But 
since a good deal of collation was actually done at Shide in order 
to eliminntfi accidental tremors from the records, it seemed desirable 
to render this work generally available at the cost of a slight 
extension. The collation was foraierly done in a large book with 
ruled columns, one double page being devoted to each month. In 
place of this a card catalogue system has been adopted. The 
information supplied by the stations is copied on to cards, a separate 
card for each day. A cabinet of twelve drawers (one for each calendar 
month) has been made, each drawer divided into 32 partitions (4 x 8) 
corresponding to the days of the month (with 1 — 4 over), and the 
cards are slipped into the proper partition as they are copied off. 
When all the records have been received for the month (and the 
stations have been asked kindly to send their records each month) it 
is easily seen by comparison of the different cards in any partition 
which are the important quakes and which are microseisms or 
accidental tremors. For the first few months of 1913 details wei'e 
printed for all disturbances recorded at moi'e than four stations; but 
experience quickly showed that much of this information was of 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



43 



comparatively little value, the records for small quakes being liable 
to errors of various kinds; and from April 1913 onwards a chart 
has been printed showing merely that such and such a quake has 
been observed at a particular station without further details, except 
in the case of a really large earthquake. It is, of course, difficult to 
draw a satisfactory line between large earthquakes and small, but a 
practical procedure was based on the following figures given in the 
April Bulletin : — 



Month 


Number of Stations recording an Earthquake : 


5 to 10 


11 to 20 


21 to 30 


31 to 40 

2 

1 

3 

10 

16 


41 to 50 


Over 50 


January 

February 

March .... 

April .... 


3 
5 

9 


5 

5 

9 

13 


3 

5 

7 
6 


4 

2 
4 


2 

1 
3 
3 


Total 


23 32 


21 


10 


9 



According to this table, if attention is confined to those earthquakes 
recorded at thirty-one stations at least, we should get a hundred of 
them in a year; and it was thought sufficient to give full details for 
these. It should be remarked that the stations are no longer Milne 
stations only — the list has been extended to include all those stations 
which send their records to Shide; and it is hoped that this compre- 
hensive collation of results will be found useful. Undoubtedly a 
comparison with tabular theoretical results would increase its useful- 
ness, and it is hoped to undertake such a comparison from January 
1914; but to attempt this for 1913 would have seriously delayed 
publication (already considerably in arrear), and indeed was scarcely 
possible until a tentative discussion such as is given later in the present 
Eeport had been carried out. 

Notation. — One other change will be made in January 1914. The 
symbols Pj, Po, P3, &c., were introduced by Milne, and have been 
used by him throughout his work, althouigh he assented to the change 
to P, S, L, &c., as determined at the Manchester Meeting, 1911, of 
the International Seismological Association. It seemed only a proper 
mark of respect to complete the year of Milne's death (1913) in his 
notation ; but the change to the adopted system will be made from the 
beginning of 1914. 

Visitors. — ^The station at Shide continues to attract a number of 
visitors, many of them with only a limited knowledge of seismology; 
iheir visits naturally make inroads on the time of the assistant-in- 
charge, but it seems undesirable to discourage them at the present 
juncture. The visits of seismologists have naturally been affected by 
Milne's death; and in the consequent disorganisation the visitors' book 
was for a time not regularly posted; but we have had the pleasure 
of seeing at Shide Mr. J. J. Shaw of West Bromwich, Mr. E. F. 
Norris of Guildford, Mr. J. Pound and Mr. S. B. Round of 



44 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Birmingham, Mr. L. F. Eichardson of Eskdalemuir, and Mr. J. E. 
Orombie of Aberdeen. 

II. — Seismic Activity in 1911. 

The visit of the British Association to Australia makes it necessary 
to have the greater part of this Eeport in proof at an earher date than 
usual. The list of origins for 1911, in continuation of those given in 
previous Eeports, is not completed at this date ; but it is hoped to add 
it at the end of the Eeport before it is finally printed off for 
distribution. 

III. — Distribution of Earthquake Centres. 

Study of the information collected by Milne in previous Eeports has 
suggested a new form of the map which he has usually printed 
showing the distribution of large earthquakes. On some of these 
maps he has shown Libbey's Circle, and on others a cycle of his 
own running through the chief earthquake centres. 

On scrutiny of the distribution of centres not thus accounted for, 
the existence of a curve of secondary disturbance was suggested, 
with the suggestive feature of enclosing most of the land on the earth's 
surface — skirting especially the Western coast of North America and 
the Eastern coast of Asia. Adjustments by trial and error of these 
two curves showed that it was not difficult to make them great cii'cles 
cutting at right angles; but not easy to make them account for all 
the striking facts. More or less by accident, the third gi'eat circle 
cutting both at right angles was di'awn, and immediately several 
striking geographical features fell into line. Further work on this 
system of three great circles suggested after many trials a system 
symmetrical with respect to the earth's axis, the points of intersection 
being at about 55° (accurately tan -i V2) from the poles; and there 
was little trouble iu fixing the approximate longitudes at 25° ± 60° n 
East. 

A system of three great circles cutting at right angles divides the 
surface of the sphere into eight equilateral right-angled triangles. If 
we project each of these on a tangent plane at its centre, we get 
an octahedron surrounding the sphere, and we can unwrap it into a 
plane in various ways. The particular plan of the accompanying map 
is adopted in order to bring out the striking symmetry, both seismo- 
logical and geogi'aphical, of the earth as thus represented, a symmetry 
only slightly disguised by the one-sidedness of the water covering. 
[We can imagine the distribution made quite symmetrical, and then 
the upper right-hand corner dipped slightly more under the water; but 
we will neglect this point for a moment.] 

Six of the triangles are easily recognised, the other two have 
been divided by their median lines in order to show the symmetry 
while keeping the figm^e compact ; but ABC and CBD could be detached 
from AC and CD, and joined along CB placed in a vertical position, 
thus keeping the symmetry at the expense of a little detachment. 

Let us consider the triangle EFK, which is chiefly Asia. India lies 
nearly on the median line, pointing to the apex of the triangle; and just 



Dritish Association, dith Bei^ort, Australia, 1914.] 



[Plate I, 




Illustrating the "Report on Seismological Investigations. 



[To /ace page 44. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 45 

above India Tibet, the highest land in the world, occupies nearly the 
centre of the triangle. The side KE runs through a well-known 
series of earthquake centres skirting the coast, of which perhaps the 
most important are at E (Japan) and S (Borneo), one at the extremity 
and the other near the middle point. The continuation of KE is EO, 
since the angles FEK and FEO, though they are only 60° on the 
plane projections, are 90° on the sphere; and since there is a notable 
centre U (Alaska) near the middle of EG, we may perhaps consider 
S and U as corresponding points of strain. 

The side KF is not so conspicuous a line of earthquakes at present, 
though the point F (Crete) is a familiar region, and corresponding 
to S we may take R, the middle point of FK, as representing earth- 
quakes in the Indian Ocean. But apart from modern records, the 
geographical features of this line EF, viz., the Eed Sea, the Grecian 
Archipelago, and the Adriatic, are strongly suggestive of crumpling 
into folds at some time in the past. Gontinuing the line along FC, 
there is an active centre near the middle point T which is not far 
from Iceland; so that S, E, V have corresponding points in R, F, T; 
the former are at present the stronger, but this may not have been 
always so. 

The apex G is not an earthquake centre, but near it, and sym- 
metrically disposed on the sides GD, GA, are the Galifornian and 
West Indian regions. The symmetry of the whole arrangement round 
the point V (close to Tomsk) will be complete if we may put two 
Antarctic centres at the points P and Q which are in latitude — 53° and 
longitudes 56° and 115° East. Milne assigned two Antarctic regions 
near these as a result of observations made during the voyage of the 
' Discovery ' (March 14, 1902, to November 28, 1903), but it is doubt- 
ful whether the material is sufficient to locate them exactly. 

As regards the remainder of the map, the symmetrical disposition 
of South Africa and Australia is noteworthy; but as we go northwards 
from them the symmetry disappears, the upper half of the African 
triangle being land, that of the Australian water (though much of it 
not very deep). Superposed on the arrangement symmetrical, about 
the line CK there is at least one unsymmetrical character which may 
be roughly described as a division into land and water hemispheres, 
and as such has been often noted. In the present diagram the salient 
points of this contrast are: — 

(a) Land in the triangle FGK, water in the triangle GDE. 

(b) Water in the middle of land in the triangle AGF, land in the 
middle of water in EKL. 

(c) The absence of land corresponding to South America, on the 
line GD. If a bathy-orographical map be consulted it will, however, 
be found that there is a shallow in this part of the ocean, not very 
different from South America in shape. It is conceivable that a mere 
shift of the earth's centre of gravity might uncover this ' image ' of 
South America. 

In a future Report it is hoped to show the actual distribution of 
observed earthquakes on this map; but this will take some little time. 



46 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — I9l4. 



IV. — Discussion of Resvlts from Different Seismographs. 

The card catalogue system introduced at Shide for records from 
January 1913 onwards facilitates the comparison of results from 
different instruments. The following discussion is only preliminary, and 
tJie unit of time adopted (O'l m. or 6 sec.) is not small enough to 
do justice to the best instruments. But it is as small as can reasonably 
he adopted for the Milne instruments, and the main object of the 
discussion is to bring out the comparative attainments of the Milne 
seismographs as compared with modern and much more sensitive 
apparatus. 

From the beginning of 1912, the weekly Bulletins issued from 
Pulkovo give epicentres for the large earthquakes, determined by 
Galitzin's method for a single station. Adopting these as correct 
and using the table printed by G. W.. Walker on p. 54 of his mono- 
graph on 'Modern Seismology,' or by Galitzin in his ' Vorlesungen 
iiber Seismometrie, ' p. 137, we can deduce from the times recorded at 
Pulkovo for either P or S, the time of the eartihquake itself. Re- 
applying the table we can deduce the theoretical times of arrival of 
P and S at other stations, for comparison with their records. For 
tliis purpose the distances of the stations from the epicentre were read 
to whole degrees from a globe, which again is a method unsuitable to 
refined investigation, but sufficiently accurate for the present pre- 
liminary examination. 

As an example, the times recorded for the earthquake of 1913, 
January 11, were as follows: — 

P S 

h. m. s. h. m. s. 
13 29 45 13 40 9 
Subtract .... 12 3G 22 54 



Time at epicentre 



13 17 



13 17 15 



The distance of Florence from the adopted epicentre (6° N. , 117° E.) 
was read off as 98°, and the calculated and observed times were : 



ForP 



C 
h. m. 
13 311 



I 



0-C 





h. m. I m. 

13 30-2 I -0-9 



ForS 





C 


h. 


m. 


13 


42-7 



o 

h. m. 
13 35 



0-C 

m. 

-7-7 



These differences 0- 
five earthquakes: — 



-C were collected and discussed for the following 



Date 


Adopted Epicentre 


A for 
Pulkovo 


Adopted 
Time 


1913, January 11 . . . 
1913, March 23 ... . 
1913, April 30 ... . 
1913, May 18 ... . 
1913, June 22 ... . 


6-0 N., 117-0 E. 
26-3 N., 143-3 E. 
.50-2 N., 176-3 E. 
26-3 N., 143-7 E. 
60-1 N., 178-1 E. 


o 

83 
78 
67 
79 
66 


h. m. 
13 17-2 
20 47-2 
13 34-4 
2 9-7 
13 50-3 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



47 



Table I. 
134 Errors of P for Seismografhs other than Milne's. 



Distance from Epiceatre Summary 
0° _ 40° - 80° - 90° - 100°- 130° (Corrected) 


Large Errors . 


— 


— 


m. 
+ 10-3 
+ 10-1 ' 
+ 9-2 


m. 
+ 10-6 
+ 10-4 


j 


— 


m. m. 

+ 5-5 to 51 
5-0 to 4-6 
4-5 to 4-1 
40 to 3-6 
3-5 to 31 
30 to'2-6 
2-5 to 2-1 
2-0 to 1-6 

+ 1-5 to 1-1 


1 
1 




2 


2 

7 

14 
4 
1 

1 
2 


! 

2 
1 


. . 


+ 10 

0-9 

0-8 

0-7 

0-6 

0-5 

0-4 

0-3 

0-2 

+0-1 

00 

-01 

0-2 

0-3 

0-4 

0-5 

0-6 

0-7 

0-8 

0-9 

-10 

-1-1 

-1-2 


T 

1 

1 

2 

I 

2 

1 

1 

i z 

1 


1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
3 
2 
6 
4 
4 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 


1 
1 

3 

2 
4 
5 
2 

1 
1 


1 

T 
1 

1 

1 

3 

2 
4 

2 

1 

2 

1 


§ 
o 


2 

2 
3 
3 
1 
4 
6 
8 
11 
14 
9 
5 
4 

3 
1 


2 
1 



1 


1 Large Errors . 


1 


- 3-3 

- 4-2 
-14-2 
-24-8 


-2-3 
-3-3 

-50 


-3-4 




— 



48 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 



In Table I. the differences are grouped under distances from epi- 
centre, all instruments other than Milne being grouped together. 

Errors greater than 6 in. — The five large positive residuals are as 
follows : — 





Instru- 




Errors 


Dist. from 


Observatory 


ment 


Date 


P 


S 


Epicentre 








m. 


m. 




Triest .... 


AV 


1913, Jan. 11 


+ 10-6 


+ 7-4 


95 


Triest .... 


W 


1913, Ma3' 18 


+ 10-4 




96 


Triest .... 


W 


1913, June 22 


+ 10-3 


— 


83 


Czernowitz . 


Ma. 


1913, May 23 


+ 10-1 


+9-5 


89 


Pompeii 


O.A. 


1913, June 22 


+ 9-2 


— 


88 



The difference between the times of arrival of P and S being near 
10 m. it is possible that some of these are mistakes of P for S. But 
in the case of Czemowitz, a mistake of 10 m. in both P and S seems 
probable. It is safer to omit these cases as anomalies than to attempt 
to correct them. 

Errors. <6 m. and >1 m. — With the exception of a couple near 
the epicentre these do not develop until near 90°. Between 90° and 
100°, however, they outnumber the normal errors given in the body of 
the table. They are doubtless due to the fact that a reflected wave 
lias been mistaken for the direct wave. The fact that the first reflected 
effect PR is often more pronounced than P in the case of distant earth- 
quakes is duly not^d in Walker's monogi'aph (p. 41) ; it may not, how- 
ever, be realised that it is so often mistaken for P in the published 
records of sensitive instruments. Beyond 100° from the epicentre 
no times for P were coiTectly given at all for the five earthquakes 
here examined. It is not intended to ignore the fact that these differ- 
ences \vill change with distance from epicentre, but for the present 
rough review we will neglect this change. The median is 3"75 m. 
or 3 m. 45 s. The mean of the differences from this is it 0"53 m. But 
it does not seem clear that some of the differences which may be faulty 
P readings should be included. If these are excluded the median is' 
3"8 m. ; the mean is 3"87 m. ; and the mean of the differences from 
the mean is ± 0"35 m. 

Normal Errors. — Coming now to the main part of Table I., if we 
take the eiTors as they stand (assuming the time-table for P con-ect 
throughout) the mean of the 87 differences is - 0'07 m. or -4 s. 
But there is a systematic run about the differences as may be seen 
from the following means for the separate columns: — 



40° 



80° 



90° 



-f013 



m. 
-001 



-Oil 



— 100° 

m. 

-0-27 



The process adopted in the previous work does not justify any 
great refinement of correction; but we may fairly correct the different 
columns by the quantities 



0° — 


40° 


— 


80° 


— 


90° 


- 100 


m. 




m. 




m. 




m. 



-01 



00 



-fOl 



-fO-3 



ON SKISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



49 



and then the errors are distributed as in the last column. The mean 
is now +0"014: m. or +0'8 s. and the mean of the errors is ± 0'31 m., 
very close to the mean of the errors 0'35 m. obtained above for the 
reflected wave. A considerable part of this mean error may be due 
to the errors of reading distances from the epicentre, and to the error 
of assumed position of the epicentre itself. 

Large Negative Readings. — The eight negative readings are prob- 
ably due to accidental air tremors just preceding the quake; these 
call for no special remark here except that they seem to be pretty 
clearly separated off from the normal readings ; even making a generous 
allowance for accidental error in the latter. It will be seen that the 
numerically smallest (-2"3m.) is a full minute away from the out- 
side error (-l"2m.) included among possible normal readings. The 
details may be given here in case the observatories care to examine 
the records : — 





Instru- 




Errors 


Dist. from 


Observatory 


ment 


Date 


P S 


Epicentre 








m. m. 




Lemberg 


B.O. 


Jan. 11, 1913 


- 3 3 — 


88 


Lemberg 








B.O. 


Mar. 23, 1913 


- 50 — 


87 


Lemberg 








B.O. 


April 30, 1913 


-14-2 — 


79 


Lemberg 








B.O. 


June 22. 1913 


- 4-2 -3-9 


78 


Aachen • 








W. 


April 30, 1913 


-24-8 — 


80 


Paris . . 








— 


Mar. 23, 1913 


- 3-4 -0-7 


98 


Ksara . 








. — 


Mar. 23, 1913 


- 2-3 — 


90 


Batavia 








W. 


Mar. 23, 1913 


- 33 — 


47 



Coming now to S, two large positive errors have already been 
mentioned as associated with large positive errors in P, viz., -f9'5 m. 
at Czernowitz on 1913, March 23, and +7-4m. at Triest on 1913, 
January 11, as also one considerable negative error of - 3"9 m. at 
Lemberg on June 22, 1913. These are omitted from further notice. 
Two large negative errors are 



Observatory 


Machine 


Date 


P 


S 


A 


Tiflis . 


G 


1913, Jan. 11 


+0-2 


-8-1 


73< 


Florence . 


A 


1913, Jan. 11 


-0-9 


-7-7 


98" 



The former is due to some unknown mistake; the latter is probably 
a mistake of S for PE^. These are also omitted from further notice. 
Two positive errors of smaller amount as follows: — 

Observatory 
B,iverview .... 
Heidelberg .... 



Date 


P 


S 


A 


1913, June 22 


-0-3 


+4-5 


94° 


1913, June 22 


+0-1 


+ 4-7 


80° 



are omitted as quite anomalous, 
in Table II. 



The remaining errors are grouped 



1914. 



50 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Table II. 

Errors of S for Seismographs other than Milne's. 
(Unit 01m. or 6 s.) 





Distance from Epicentre 




Errors 


0° 


40° 80° 


130° 


+2-1 to +2-5 





. . 


1 





+ 1-6 to +2-0 


1 





3 


— 


+ 1-1 to +1-5 


2 


3 


1 


— . 


+0-6 to +1-0 


1 


3 


1 


— 


+0-1 to +0-5 


1 


4 


3 


- — 


—0-4 to 0-0 


2 


10 


9 


— 


-00 to -0-5 


1 


4 


12 


— 


-1-4 to -1-0 


— 


3 


12 


— 


-1-9 to -1-5 


_ 


2 


7 


. — 


-2-4 to -2-0 


— 


1 




— . 


-2-9 to -2-5 


— 


— 




— 


Mean 


+0-5 


-0-2 


-0-5 





It would liei-eby appear that while the tables for P are fauiy 
accurate, those for S are sensibly in error. The amount of error 
cannot be assigned more than very roughly by the present method, 
because the error for Pulkovo comes differently into the various earth- 
quakes. But it would appear that the times of arrival of S at 20° 
distance and at 100° distance from the epicentre are relatively erro- 
neous by something like a whole minute. The error is apparently 
not complicated in the case of S by any reflection phenomenon ; the 
residuals for P are definitely grouped about two separate maxima, 
but for S this is not so. The first group (0°-40°) is too small to 
show a decided maximum ; but the position of the maximum is clearly 
Tuarked in the other two by the numbers given in the table. As a 
rough expedient the following corrections have been applied: — 



Correction 



Distance from Epicentre 

15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105» 

-0-3 -0-2 -01 00 -fOl -fO-2 -f03 -fO-4 +0-5 -fO-6 



the correction for 15° being applied to distances between 10° and 
20°, and so on. The corrected errors are then distributed as follows : — 



c 


»" - 


Distance from Epicentre 
40° - 80° - 130° All 


+2-8 to +3-2 
-f 2-3 to +2-7 
+ 1-8 to -!-2-2 
-f- 1-3 to -f 1-7 
+0-8 to -f 1-2 
-f 0-3 to -f 0-7 
-0-2 to -f 0-2 
-0-7 to -0-3 


1 
2 
2 

2 




_ 

1 
6 
4 
11 
2 


1 
3 

2 

6 
13 
12 


1 

3 



4 

8 

12 

24 

16 


-1-2 to -0-8 


1 




4 10 


15 


-1-7 to -1-3 


— 




2 1 


3 


-2-2 to -1-8 


— 




1 ; — 


1 


Totals . 

1 


8 


31 48 


87 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 51 

The mean of the errors is ± 073 m., and though there is a sHght 
tendency to increase from the second group to the third, the material 
is fairly homogeneous. Now, comparing this with the mean for P, 
viz. ± 0'31 m., it is clear that we are dealing with a much less 
definitely marked phenomenon, as is indeed well known. Part of 
each of these mean errors is due to errors of reading, &c. ; and this 
part should be approximately the same in both. If we were to calcu- 
late and remove it, the ratio between the two, already greater than 
2 to 1, would be sensibly increased. 

In determining A from P and S, the superior accuracy of P is there- 
fore rendered more or less useless by the uncertainty of S. Galitzin's 
azimuthal method of determining the epicentre has thus obvious 
advantages ; if the epicentre is well determined from the azimuths 
at several stations, and if the time of the catastrophe is determined 
from the Ps at these stations, we should appear to have the material 
in the best shape for improving the tables oi P and S, especially the 
latter. 

But this is a digression from the present investigation, which is 
primarily concerned with the performance of the Milne instruments. 

Putting aside for the present any question of correcting the tables 
for S, and therefore the position of the epicentre (as determined from 
Pulkovo), and consequent correction of the calculated times, it is clear 
that we can compare the performance of the Milne pendulums with 
other instruments on a common basis (though not the ultimate basis) 
by collecting their records for the same earthquakes in the same way. 
This is done in the following Table III., which corresponds to 
Table I. 

It will be seen — 

(a) That there are 5 large positive errors and 8 large negative 
errors, for which no special explanation can be given. In Table T. 
there are 8 negative errors, no positive. 

(b) That in 6 + 5 + 10 + 5 = 26 cases, S has presumably been read 
in place of P. With other instruments there were only 5 such cases. 

(c) That in at least 17 cases a reading has been made which can 
be attributed to a reflected wave. There are, moreover, 9 readings 
intermediate between these and the normal readings, which are extreme 
cases of one or the other. The line of demarcation is not so sharp as 
before. Similarly there are 5 doubtful negative readings. 

(d) In the middle part of the table have been collected within the 
same limits as before what may be fairly regarded, as normal readings. 

They number 25 in all. They do not of themselves suggest 
any corrections to the table for P, but we might use the same correc- 
tions as before. It is simpler, however, to restrict attention to the 
second and largest group, the mean of the errors for which is ± 0'4 m. 
If, however, we include in this the 'doubtful' +l'8m., +l*4m., 
+ 1'2 m., and — I'O m., — 1'2 m., the mean of the errors rises to 
' ± 0"6 m. For other instruments this mean was ± 0'31 m. 

The most significant fact is perhaps that of the whole 05 
readings-only 25 at a severe scrutiny,- and at most {i.e., including 

K 2 



52 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Table III. 
95 Errors of P for Milne Seismographs in 1913. 



Distance from Epicentre 
Error 0° — 40° — 80° — 90° — 100° — 130° 


Large 
Positive 

Transferred 

to S 


— 


4-18-7 
4-15-3 

(6) 


-f39-4 


4-40-7 
-f250 


— 


— 


(5) 


(10) 


(5) 


1 


PRx 


— 


4-4-3 
4-3-3 


= ' '!! 


(6) 




Doubtful 


— 


-F2-9 
4-2-7 
4-1-8 
4-1-4 
4-1-2 


I 


4-2-8 
4-2-0 
-M-4 


4-20 


— 


m. 
+0-9 
4-0-8 
4-0-7 
4-0-6 
4-0-5 
4-0-4 
4-0-3 
-FO-2 
+0-1 

0-0 
-0-1 
-0-2 
-0-3 
-0-4 
-0-5 
-0-6 
-0-7 
-0-8 
-0-9 


1 
1 

2 


1 

1 

1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 


1 
1 

1 


1 


1 

1 


Doubtful 


-1-2 


-1-0 
-1-2 


— -1-9 


-1-0 


— 


Large 

Negative 


— 


- 3-4 

- 5-8 
-10-1 
-35-3 


i 
— 1 -5-4 

1 

1 ' 


-12-4 
-17-5 
-25-4 


j 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



53 



all those marked doubtful) only 39, can be regarded as true readings 
of P; say 40 per cent, at most. With the other machines there are 
87 out of 134, or 65 per cent. 

Coming now to S, and correcting the results (which include those 
transferred from P) as for other instniments, we find 12 large errors ; 
the others are distributed as below : — 



Table IV. 
38 Errors for 8 in Milne Seismograp7i3 in 1913. 





Distance from Epicentre 




0° — 40° — 80° — 130° All 


m. m. 










+ 3-3 to +3-7 


— 


1 


1 


2 


+2-8 to +3-2 


— 


— 


— 





+ 2-3 to +2-7 


— 


— 


3 


3 


+ 1-8 to +2-2 





1 


1 


2 


+ 1-3 to +1-7 


— 




1 


1 


+0-8 to +1-2 


— 


1 


2 


3 


+0-3 to +0-7 


2 


2 


2 


6 


—0-2 to +0-2 


— 


3 


3 


6 


-0-7 to -0-3 


— 


2 


5 


7 


-1-2 to -0-8 


— 





2 


2 


-1-7 to -1-3 


— 


2 


2 


4 


-2-2 to -1-8 


— 





1 


1 


-2-7 to -2-3 




1 


— 


1 



The mean of the errors ia ± I'l m. ; for other instruments it was 
± 0'73 m. The ratio of these is about the same as in the case of P. 
But it will be seen that there are acceptable readings of S in 38 cases, 
whereas for the same earthquakes there are only 39 of P at most. 
It is usually considered that the Milne instruments show P but not S. 
The evidence here tabulated points to the conclusion that S is shown 
at least as well as P. It is true that the five earthquakes considered 
are large ones; but it might reasonably be argued that P should 
therefore have the better chance of asserting itself. It seems probable 
that in some cases P could be recovered from the records when it was 
realised that the reading formerly given was that of S. The important 
point is that without any great difficulty it can be settled when 
we have an S reading, for the cases of doubt are few. We may now 
give the 12 large errors excluded as mistakes; they are +35'2m., 
+ 11-9 m., +10-3 m., +9"lm., +8'7m., +8*6 m., the smallest of 
which exceeds the maximum error ( + 3'5 m.) accepted as S by over 5 m. ; 
and on the negative side we have — 4'4 m. , — 4"4 m. , — 5'1 m. , — 8'0 m. , 
+ ll'8m., and — 14'2m. Here the separation is not so marked; but 
there is a full 2 m. interval. Some or all of these negative errors may 
be readings of PEi, but the two largest, which both occur on January 11 
(Toronto — 11"8 m. and Stonyhurst — 14'2 m.), are supported by 
several other readings and probably refer to a preliminary shock. As 
the performance of the Milne pendulums is the main point under 



54 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



investigation, not only were the above five earthquakes used, but also 
five others in 1911 as follows : — 





Date 


Adopted Epicentre 


Adopted Time 


I. . . . 
II. ... 
III. 

IV. ... 
V. ... 


1911, July 4 
1911, July 12 
1911, Aug. 16 
1911, Oct. 14 
1911, Dec. 16 


39°0N., 71-4 E. 
27-0 N., 116-0 E. 
190 S., 140-0 E. 
33-5 N., 82-5 E. 
12-0 N., 101-8 W. 


h. m. s. 

13 33 33 

4 9 7 

22 38 51 

23 24 1 
19 13 51 



For these earthquakes Pulkovo epicentre determinations were not 
available, but the results from Galitzin instruments at Eskdalemuir are 
published in the ' Geophysical Journal,' and have been adopted for 
use. The computations were kindly made by Mr. A. E. Young, 
formerly Deputy Surveyor-General of the Malay Survey, who is at 
present working at the Oxford University Observatory; and in this 
instance greater care was taken, Mr. Young calculating the distances 
trigonometrically (instead of reading them from a globe) and using 
the tunes and tables to seconds of time in the computations, though 
in giving the results the unit O'lm. has been considered sufficient. 



V. — Comparison of Films for 1911. 

The chief object in using this additional material was as follows. 
It was thought that some of the errors of the Milne instruments might 
be due to faulty readings of the records, susceptible of correction. To 
test the general accuracy of such readings the different stations Vv'ere 
invited to send their films for the year 1911 to Shide, and many 
of them have responded. Some had bound up their films in such a 
way that transmission was undesirable; but films for 1911 have been 
received at Shide from Cape Town, Cork, Toronto, San Fernando, 
Sydney, Helwan (Egypt), Victoria, Ascension, Perth, Seychelles, 
Eskdale, Guildford, and Colombo, and have been systematically 
examined at Shide by Mr. Burgess and Mr. Pring, who have had 
much experience in reading the Shide films. It was thought advisable 
to make this examination quite independently, before knowing 
whether the revised readings would suit the calculated facts better ; and 
indeed the calculations were made at Oxford, so that the Shide readings 
were made in ignorance of the tabular result either before or after. 
On comparing the old and new readings with expectation, it does not 
appear that the new afford any systematic improvement on the old. 
The actual figures for the above five earthquakes are as follows (the 
quantities given being differences from expectation, calculated as already 
indicated). They apply entirely to the phase P, the phase S being 
seldom read from the Milne records. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



65 



Table V. 

Coinparison of Original and Revised Readings of Varimis Films jor the 

Phase P. 



Ascension. 

Quake. Orig. Rev. 

II —5-5 Not read 

III +51 +51 



T. 

II. 

III. 

V. 



Cape Town 

. -0-9 

. +2-3 

. +6-3 

. +5-5 



+0-2 
+ 2-9 
+5-8 
+ 5-1 



Helwan. 

Readings for Jan. and Feb. confirmed 
former results so consistently that the 

super- 



soriitmy 
fluous. 



was discontinued as 



Perth. 



III. 
V. 



I. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 



+3-5 

+24 



San Fernando. 

. -0-2 

. +5-9 

. +6-5 

. -0-3 



+ 3-5 

+ 2-5 



-30 
+ 6-6 

+21-7 
-0'7 



Quake. 

I. 

II. 
III. 

V. 



Seychelles. 

Orig. 

. +60 

. +00 

. . +1-5 

. {37-0) 



Rev. 
Not read 
-10 
+ 1-5 
(340) 

For V. epicentre is so distant that tables 
fail. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 



Sydney. 



+2-8 
-4-5 
+ 1-7 
+9-6 



-14-4 
-41-9 
-13-2 

+ 9-2 



For II. an earlier quake is confirmed by 
Alipore. For III. see Toronto. 

Toronto. ! 

I +101 -14-4 

II + 4-9 + 41 

III + 9-7 -14-3 

V - 0-3 - 11 

For III. sec Sydney. 

Victoria. 
V - 01 - 01 

Films not sent for other earthquakes. 



After consideration of the above figures, it was decided to apply 
no corrections at all, but to accept the original readings as they stand, 
and in Table VI. these are compared with calculated values. The table 
corresponds to Table III. except that A was now used in km., and 
the grouping is therefore a little different. 

There is room for some difference of opinion as to the 17 records 
marked doubtful; but the 12 + 13 + 15 + 3 + 4 = 47 readings in the body 
of the table are probably normal. We thus get at least 47 but not 
more than 64 normal readings out of 108. These figures are better than 
the 1913 figures and encourage the hope that on the whole 50 per cent, 
of the recorded readings for P may be normal ; but the percentage 
cannot be higher than this. 

One feature of the records seems to demand fui-ther investigation. 
There is a suggestion that the readings are divisible into two groups 
separated by about a whole minute; and this applies also to the 
results for 1913, though they are scarcely numerous enough to declare 
it independently. It will be seen that the records — 0'4 m. and — 0'5 m. 
are not represented in either table, thus creating an appearance of 
separation. But this may be purely accidental. 

Coming now to S, Table VII. has been formed in the 
Bame manner as before, adopting the same corrections to the tables 
for time of S. There are three consistent observations of S at A 
= 15,000 kms. for which the tables are scarcely available but wei'e 



56 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Table VI. 
108 Errors of P for Milne Seismographs in 1911. 



Distance from Epicentre in kms. 
- .5000 — 9000 - 10000 - 11000 - 13000 over 


Large Errors . 


m. 
+ 17-2 


m. 
+22-1 
+ 16-1 


— 




— 


— 


S . . . 


(2) 


(6) 


(1) 


(3) 


(0) 


— +10-8? 

— + 9-7? 

— + 8-5? 


PRi . . . 


— 


+4-5 
+3-3 

+2-6 
+2-6 


+4-4 
+4-3 

+4-2 


+6-1 


+6-3 

+5-2 
+4-9 


+5-9 +5-2 
+6-7 +5-1 
+5-5 +4-4 
+53 +3-9 


Doubtful . 


+ 1-7 
+ 1-2 
+ 10 
+ 10 


+1-7 
+ 1-7 
+ 1-5 
+ 1-5 


+ 1-5 
+ 1-5 
+ 10 


— 


+2-8 +30 — 
+2-3 1 +24 — 
+10 +14 — 

( 


+0-9 
+0-8 
+0-7 
+0-6 
+0-5 
+0-4 
+0-3 
+0-2 
+0-1 
00 
-01 
-0-2 
-0-3 
-04 
-0-5 
-0-6 
-0-7 
-0-8 
-0-9 
-10 
-11 
-1-2 
-1-3 
-1-4 
-1-5 


1 

1 

1 
1 

2 

1 
2 

1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 

3 

1 
1 

1 


1 

T = 

2 — 

1 — 

2 — 

2 — 
2 — 

1 z 

1 - 

1 — 


1 
1 

1 

z 


1 
1 

1 


Large Errors . 


-430 


-3-6 
-4-5 

-4-7 


-4-8 -3-7 


— 


-5-5 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



57 



provisionally extended. It seems clear that an even larger correction is 
necessary at this distance than has been assumed. In calculating 
the mean error these observations have been omitted, and the mean 
error is then ± 1"1 m. as before. Including them as they stand 
raises it to ± 1'2 m. 



Table VH. 
36 Errors for S for Milne Seismographs in 1911. 







Distance from 


Epicentre in kms. 




c 


> — 


5000 - 9000 - 


lOOOO - 11000 - 16000 - All 


+ 2-8 to +3-2 










1 







__ 


1 


+2-3 to +2-7 


— 




1 


1 




— 





2 


+ 1-8 to +2-2 


1 




1 


— 




— 





2 


+ 1-3 to +1-7 


— 




— 


— 




— 


— 





+0-8 to +1-2 


— 




— 


2 




1 


— 


3 


+0-3 to +0-7 


— 




3 


2 




1 


— 


6 


-0-2 to +0-2 


— 




I 


3 










4 


-0-7 to -0-3 


— 




3 


— 




1 


— 


4 


-1-2 to -0-8 


4 




2 


— 




1 


— 


7 


— 1-7 to -1-3 


— 




1 


1 




— 


(1) 


2 


-2-2 to -1-8 


— 




1 










(2) 


1 


-2-7 to -2-3 


— 




1 


— 




— 


• 


1 



In addition there are three large positive errors ( + 9"9m., +7"8m. 
and +7'8m.) and four large negative ( — 5'2m., — 5'8m., — 6"7m. 
and -S'l m.), which may be reflected waves. The percentage is 
slightly less than before, but, putting 1911 and 1913 together, we 
have 36 + 39 = 75 tolerably certain S readings as against 47 + 25 = 72, 
or possibly 64 + 39 = 103 P readings. The fact that S is as often 
I'eadable as P on Milne seismograms, at any rate for large eai'thquakes, 
seems to be thus fairly well established. 

VI. — Comparison of Milne and Galitzin Instruments. 

To the information conveyed by the above discussion the following 
may be added. At Eskdalemuir Observatory various seismographs have 
been m.ounted side by side for comparison, and Mr. G. W. Walker 
made very careful and thorough comparisons of the relative advan- 
tages as indicated in his book already referred to. It seemed desirable 
at the present juncture to have a formal report on the comparison of 
the Milne instrument with at least one other; and the Galitzin seemed 
the best to select as standard of comparison. Application was there- 
fore made to the Superintendent of the Meteorological Office, and he 
kindly sent the following report, to which the names of L. F. 
Richardson and L. H. G. Dines are attached. 

Comparison betiveen the Milne and the Galitzin types of Seismographs. 

It is convenient to treat the question under several different 
aspects, and a brief description of the two instruments may usefully 
precede the rest. 

It is unnecessary to say much about the Milne instrument. 
Extreme lightness and compactness characterise it, and no simpler 



58 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

method of optical registration could well be devised. No expensive 
lenses are needed, and, with the exception of a few parts of the 
mechanism, no specially high-class work is required in manufacture. 
The whole of the apparatus is self-contained and does not take up 
much floor-space. It does not require a continuously darkened room 
in which to work. Two pendulums to record both N.S. and E.W. 
movemients can be installed in the same case and record on the same 
drum. 

The Galitzin instrument, on the other hand, is a very much more 
complicated affair. It is designed to follow a somewhat elaborate 
mathematical theory, and high-class workmanship and accuracy are 
needed in its construction. Its pendulum is shorter than the Milne 
and much heavier — say, seven kilograms. It is hung by two steel 
wires (Zollner system), and has no pivot at all in some cases. Pro- 
vision, however, is made on the pendulum and frame for a steel point 
and cup to be inserted if required. The supporting wires might, with 
advantage, be made of tungsten if corrosion were feared. At the outer 
end of the boom are fixed to the frame four pow^erful horseshoe 
magnets. Between the poles of one pair of these moves a set of wire 
coils fixed to the boom and coupled in series with a delicate galvano- 
meter placed in any convenient position elsewhere. Between the 
other pair is a large copper plate, also fixed to the boom, and this last 
acts as a magnetic damper. The magnets can be adjusted as desired 
to vary the magnetic field between the poles. 

The galvanometer is of the moving coil type, and has a long period 
of oscillation when undamped. This galvanometer is an excellent 
piece of work and is electrically damped so that it can be rendered 
just aperiodic. With the whole instrument in normal workin_g it is 
necessary that the undamped periods of both pendulum and galvano- 
meter should be the same, and that they both should be damped just 
to the limit of aperiodicity. 

The optical registration consists of a collimator with a fine slit 
powerfully illuminated. The beam is reflected from a min'or on the 
galvanometer and thence to the recording dram, whei^e a cylindrical 
lens condenses the line of light into a point on the paper. 

The two pendulums for recording N.S. and E.W. movements are 
under entirely separate covers, and in a more refined installation two 
separate drums are also used; but it is possible to use one dram only 
and arrange the spots of light from the two galvanometers side by 
side. 

A good deal of floor space is required, and the room in which the 
recording parts are placed must be kept dark. 

The galvanometers and recording drum may be placed in a separate 
room altogether; and, in fact, are better so placed. The presence of 
the attendant is likely to disturb the pendulum if he brings his weight 
near the pillar on which it stands. The recording part of the 
apparatus is quite unaffected by disturbances in the room in which it 
is placed. 

For a further description of the Galitzin instrament see 
(1) ' Modern Seismology, ' by G. W. Walker, F.E.S., chapters 2 and 3. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 59 

(2) The catalogue supplied by H. Masing, St. Petersburg, the 
makers of the pendulum and recording part of the instrument. 

(3) ' Ueber ein neues Aperiodisches Horizontalpendel mit galvano- 
metrischer Fernregistrierung, ' by Prince B. Galitzin. (4) 'Ueber 
einen neuen Seismographen fin- die Vertikalkomponente der Boden- 
bevvegung, ' by Prince B. Galitzin. (6) 'Die electromagnetische 
Registriermethode, ' by Prince B. Galitzin, Academy of Sciences, 
St. Petersburg. 

The Galitzin recorder for vertical movements operates electrically 
in exactly the same manner as the horizontal instrument, and a similar 
magnetic damper is fitted to it. The room in which the pendulum 
is placed must be maintained as far as possible at a uniform tempera- 
ture, as the change in the elasticity of the spring which supports the 
pendulum causes excessive wandering if the temperature changes by 
even as little as 0.5 per cent. 

Comparative cost. — A Galitzin installation is much more expensive 
than a corresponding Milne one. Two horizontal pendulums complete 
with galvanometer and one recording drum cost at least 148Z., while 
the pendulum for vertical movements with galvanometer and drum 
costs at least llOL 

This does not exhaust the expensiveness of the instruments, since 
about six times as much sensitive paper is required for one Galitzin 
recording drum as for one modern Milne drum for two pendulums. 
It is customary to run the paper at three centimetres per minute, and 
unless the optical arrangements were improved it would be hardly 
feasible to run it at much less speed without losing a good deal. 
Under these circumstances the cost in paper alone of one recorder is 
about 33L per annum. 

Attention required. — The Milne instrument does not require more 
than ordinary skilled attention. If the operator be used to handling 
delicate instruments little more is required. Of the Galitzin instrument 
the same may be said as far as the ordinary routine is concerned, but 
the greater complexity of the apparatus means a greater number of 
things liable to go wrong, and sooner or later it is almost certain 
to happen that highly skilled attention is necessary. Both types of 
instrument require periodical standardisation, but while in the Milne 
type this is quite a simple process, in the Galitzin it is quite otherwise. 
A certain amount of auxiliary apparatus is required, such as telescopes 
and scales, and two persons are necessary to make simultaneous obser- 
vations of the pendulum and galvanometer; when these have been 
made the constants of the instrument can be determined. Prince 
Galitzin has worked out formulae for this purpose. 

The whole process has in general to be gone through twice for each 
instrument, and it is a lengthy operation, taking probably about two 
working days. A certain measure of observational skill is required to 
take the necessary readings accurately, as well as a fair working know- 
ledge of mathematics to deal with the results when obtained. 

It would be possible to simplify the process somewhat more 
than has at present been done, and reduce it largely to routine; but 



60 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

a Galitzin installation must always require a greater measure of 
skilled attention to run it successfully than is the case with the 
simpler types of instruments. 

It is difficult to estimat-6 what is the minimum of mathematical 
and physical knowledge that must be possessed by an assistant in order 
to maintain successfully a Galitzin installation. A working know- 
ledge of algebra is essential, arid probably with this as a basis an 
intelligent operator could learn the rest of the routine with the aid 
of computing-forms. But without a knowledge of higher mathematics, 
and particularly elementary differential equations, it is impossible to 
understand the meaning of the formulae by which the constants are 
determined. 

Results obtainable. — ^The Milne type of instrument is very sensitive 
as a mere seismoscope. With the exception of very faint movements 
indeed, some record of a distant quake can always be obtained by it ; 
this is due to the absence of damping and almost entire absence of 
solid friction ; by altering the period of oscillation of the boom 
it can be made particularly sensitive to any wave-period desired. 
The instrument at Eskdalemuir Observatory has at present a period 
of about eighteen seconds, and this corresponds approximately 
with the wave periods from very faint and I'emote shocks. For 
waves of this type the Milne instrument leaves some record of 
almost any earthquake that affects the Galitzin instrument; but 
whereas the latter gives a trace that approximately follows the actual 
movements of the ground, the trace from the former has little re- 
semblance to it. Maximum movements on the Milne record may 
or may not coincide with the maximum movements of the ground : 
it depends on the type of the earth movements and on the period of 
the pendulum. By damping slightly, a more faithful record can be 
obtained, and by making the pendulum actually dead beat a moderately 
close agreement will prevail between the actual earth movements and 
those worked out from the record. This can be established theoreti- 
cally, but Prince Galitzin has also conducted experiments which show 
that theory and practice are in close agi'eement. See Professor 0. G. 
Knott's book on ' The Physics of Earthquake Phenomena,' chapter 5, 
Unfortunately the reduction in the scale of the record which accom- 
panies damping renders the Milne pendulum very insensitive when 
damped. For some months an oil damper has been fitted to one of the 
Milne pendulums at Eskdalemuir; the ratio of successive elongations 
is approximately 2:4. The results obtained are disappointing for the 
reason given above. 

If any satisfactory means could be found of increasing the magnifi- 
cation optically even by a moderate amount, the damped Milne 
pendulum should be capable of yielding good results, and the greater 
simplicity of standardisation should be another point in its favour. 

Turning to the Galitzin type of machine, as an instrument of 
precision it may safely be said to be ahead of all others. The inter- 
pretation of its records is not a very simple matter, but by those 
prepared to spend the time a vast amount of information can be 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 61 

obtained. The scale of magnification varies widely with different wave- 
periods, being in general approximately 800 as a maximum and for 
periods of about fourteen seconds, and falling off for either longer or 
shorter periods. 

The preliminary tremors of a distant earthquake can be examined 
particularly well, and individual impulses analysed. An experienced 
observer can analyse these preliminary phases from the shape and 
general appearance of the record far more easily than can be done in 
the case of the undamped Milne record. See ' Modern Seismology,' 
by G. W. Walker, F.R.S., chapter 7, for fuller information on this 
point. 

It is probably safe to say that a full and rigid investigation into 
the theory of these instruments has not yet been published, and the 
possibilities of deducing complicated formulae in that direction are vast. 
The high degree of accuracy that in favourable circumstances has been 
obtained in locating epicentres, using the records from a single station 
only, is sufficient to demonstrate the excellence of the instrument as 
at present used. It would be well to state here that, though the 
Galitzin record does not represent the ground motion accurately in 
many cases, yet in the case of the first movement of the first 
phase P of an earthquake the movements on the N.S. and E.W. 
records will be proportional to the actual earth movements provided 
that the two pendulums and galvanometers are in correct adjustment 
and have the same undamped period. Hence the azimuth can in 
favourable circumstances be accurately and easily determined, though 
to work out the actual earth movements would be a complicated 
matter. 

One point worthy of mention in which the Galitzin instrument 
differs from most or perhaps all others is the absence of trouble 
arising from the wandering of the pendulum. However the latter may 
wander, the zero of the galvanometer is unaffected. The scale value 
may be altered slightly if the pendulum be far from the middle 
position, but this can easily be corrected from time to time. This 
quality renders the instrument useless for determining slow changes in 
tilt, as can' be done with other types. 

Mention has been made above of varying scale value; this intro- 
duces another limitation. For very short periods the magnification 
is very small, being about 110 for one-second period and varying 
directly as the period for lesser values. 

Hence rapid vibrations will leave no record, and this may be 
the explanation of the fact that small local earthquakes are not 
recorded on this type of instrument. 

Owing to the high degree of magnification and great sensitivity, 
some trouble is experienced from disturbances due to high winds, 
and from experience at Eskdalemuir it would seem desirable to house 
the pendulum in a small sheltered building rather than a large exposed 
one. Heavy weights moving in the vicinity cause trouble, as with any 
other sensitive instruments ; but the records so produced being of definite 
character can be readily traced to their origin, and are immaterial if not 



62 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 



too frequent. Occasional traffic along a neighbouring road would not 
cause much confusion on the record. 

A curve is shown attached giving the magnification of movement 
in both tlie Mihie and Gahtzin types. It refers solely to the case 







Gn! ^ziaadjusf-ed so 


ittat fhe Dtnau'd.'^ ^S. 






/ 


and galvanometer ha e fhe samepenod 
of2-^-7secs.andar, both damped io 
as to bejusn oenodic 


\ i 




/ 






\ 




1 


/ 


• 








II / 












1 / 












■-S / 


Qmori, jusf s 


beriodic. Undamned 


nenoa Itisecs ' ' 




•—...^ morion of tip ofhcom mai^mfied 60 times op^icallv 


' 


/ 


^^^ 


^~---___^ 


! 


/ „. 


p..-n;a !74 <(zz -r 


; / \ : 



of a long-continued series of uniform waves; but it is noteworthy that 
in the Milne type it cannot be applied to any other kind of motion and 
may be considerably in error even one or two minutes after the 
commencement of the series. 

In the Galitzin type, however, the free motion dies away much 
more rapidly. 

VII. — Present Vahie of the Milne Instrument. 

We may summarise the present situation as follows: — 

(a) The Milne instrument is undamped, but for one purpose — viz., 
the determination of times of arrival of P and S — this does not matter. 
There has been an idea that S (or Pa) is not easy to read on Milne 
records; but S has often been read in mistake for P, and when these 
readings are counted properly S seems to be identifiable as often as P. 
On the other hand, the absence of damping makes the readings of 
maximum of uncertain significance. 

(b) The time scale of the Milne instrument is small and its magni- 
fication is also small. Both might be increased with advantage, and 
it seems probable that then the times of arrival of P and S could 
be read as well as on most other instruments. 

(c) The present wide dispersion of Milne stations niakes the records 
of great value. Most of the modern instruments are in Europe. For 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 63 

an earthquake in Europe they are distributed in various azimuths 
(not quite a complete circuit even then), but for distant quakes they 
cluster in the same azimuth and give no material for discussion in 
azimuth (see Section VIII.). The Milne stations, however, especially 
those in Australia, can supply this information. 

It is clear, then, that the usefulness of the Milne instruments is 
by no means at an end, as the perfection of modern seismographs 
(especially the Galitzin instrument) might at first suggest. And it 
should not be difficult to extend it considerably. 

(a) It can be ia))iped effectually. Mr. J. J. Shaw, of West Brom- 
wich, has done this electro-magnetically with an aluminium plate 
in place of the Galitzin copper plate, which is too heavy for the light 
Milne boom. At present, however, he has not obtained simultaneously 
sufficient magnification to give the damping effect: damping is 
chiefly of use for following the movements of the long waves, and the 
scale should be big enough to show them clearly. Mr. Shaw is still 
at work on the instrument, and hopes to obtain the requisite magnifi- 
cation. 

(b) There should be little difficulty in increasing the magnification 
moderately both in movement and in time scale, though it may 
not be easy to settle which is the very best way of doing it. The 
experiments being made by various observers should at least give us 
a feasible plan. 

(c) Meanwhile if special attention is paid to getting good time 
determinations, and if the films are carefully read with a lens, the times 
of arrival of P and S for Milne stations should enable us to correct 
the tables for considerable distances from the epicentre where the 
European stations all agree and are all in error owing to their con- 
gestion in azimuth. (See next Section.) 

VIII. — Correction of the Tables for P and S. 

Recurring to the discussion of Section IV., it was shown that the tables 
for both P and S were sensibly in error, and the question arises how far 
they can be corrected. The main facts are these : — 

(a) The tables for small values of A are sensibly correct. This is 
shown by the agreement of determinations of epicentres from Pulkovo 
and Eskdalemuir, quoted by G. W. Walker in his monograph (p. 65). 
From each station the azimuth a and the distance A can be determined ; 
and from the two azimuths a and a.^ the epicentre can be determined 
without reference to A at all.^ This is a modern advance, the importance 
of which is not easily over-estimated. If then the values of A determined 
from the P and S tables agree (to a fraction of a degree) with those found 
from the azimuths, the tables must be fairly correct. The value of A 
is about 20°. 

(li) But this single example may give quite a wrong impression of 
the accuracy with which an epicentre is at present determined. _ At 
greater distances we gradually lose the accordance between these stations. 
Thus, on January 4, 1912, Pulkovo gives 175° E., 49°'5 N., and Eskdale- 

' See letter of Galitzin aud Walker in iV^oittre for September 5^ 1912. 



64 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

muir 177° E., 51° N. ; on July 9 Pulkovo gives 30°-3 E., 2°-l N., and Eskdale- 
muir 33°-9 E. and 5°-3 N. ; and at greater distances still the discordance 
may be 5° or even 10°. The azimuths may still be good, though as the 
azimuthal lines do not meet so sharply, the determination becomes less 
definite ; and, moreover, it must be remembered that actual errors in 
the adjustment of the booms become of greater importance. We have 
nothing to set against the clear evidence ofiEered in Section IV. that the 
tables for S are in error, though since the errors there found are only 
relative, we may add a constant to them all, substituting, for instance, for 

Error at 15° 35° 55° 75° 95° 115° 

m. m. m. m. m. m. 

—0-3 —0-1 +0-1 +0-3 +0-5 +0-7 

the revised values 

0-0 +0-2 +0-4 +0-6 +0-8 +1-0 

so that the error is small near the epicentre. 
Similarly the errors for P might be written — 

Error at 15° 35° 55° 75° 95° 115° 

m. m. m. m. m. m. 

0-0 0-0 +0-1 +0-2 +0-4 +0-6 

if we determine to keep the error small near the epicentre. In this case 
it seems possible that the revised tables just published by the K.G. Landes- 
antalt fiir Meteorologie und Geodynamik in Zagreb (Agram) might supply 
information which would determine the unknown arbitrary constant. 
The errors of the Galitzin tables indicated by Zagreb at the above points 
are 

m. m. m m. m. m. 

+0-1 +0-1 0-0 +0-1 +0.2 +0-3 

Difference +0-1 +0-1 —0-1 -0-1 -0-2 -0-3 

The differences do not, however, remain constant, even approximately. 
The present comparison indicates larger errors for values of A greater 
than 75° than the Zagreb tables admit. 

It thus appears that the moment is not yet come to suggest corrections 
to the tables which are likely to meet with general acceptance. It seems 
better to retain the old tables until a much greater mass of material has 
been discussed, and the old tables will accordingly be used for the com- 
parisons made at Shide at any rate for the observations of 1914. The 
discussion of some 100 earthquakes should provide corrections approxi- 
mating to definitive ones. Meanwhile, the best available corrections 
to the tables from the material above discussed, incorporating the in- 
formation derived from the next section, are given at the end of the next 
section. 

IX. — Discussion in Azimuth. 

If the receiving stations are arranged in azimuth (A) round the epi- 
centre, then 

(a) Assuming the velocity of transmission constant in all azimuths, 
any error (8) of position of the epicentre will give rise to an error 

c + e cos (A — Aq) 

in the observed times at the stations : where Aq is the azimuth in which 
the epicentre is erroneously displaced ; A is the azimuth of the receiving 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 65 

station ; c is the eiTect of the displacement (8) on P or S, as the case may 
be, at the distance of tlie receiving station ; and c is a constant depending 
on the position of Pnlkovo, or other station from which the epicentre is 
determined. 

(b) If the velocity of transmission varies with the azimuth, then, if the 
velocity in azimuth A is not the same as in azimuth A + 180°, there will 
be a first-order harmonic which will be mixed up with that just written, 
due to the error in position of epicentre ; and it may be difficult to separate 
the two. If, however, the velocity is the same for A and A + 180°, then 
we may look for a second-order harmonic to represent the variation. It 
will be seen from what follows that there are no trustworthy indications 
of such terms from the material now discussed. The material is insufficient 
to pronounce definitely against the existence of such terms, especially 
with small coefficients ; but it is apparently sufficient to discredit any 
large term of the kind. For instance, Milne suggested a velocity N. 
and S. sensibly less, in the case of the large waves, from the velocity 
E. and W. (Eighteenth Report, § v). No such difference can be detected 
in the velocities for P and S. 

We will first give in some detail the results for a single earthquake, 
that of 1913, January 11, adopted epicentre 6° N., 117° E. The residuals 
for P, when corrected for distance from epicentre as in Section IV., and 
arranged in azimuth measured from the N. point round the epicentre in 
the direction N., E., S., W., are as shown in Table VIII. 

We see at a glance the better distribution of the Milne pendulums ; 
most of the modern pendulums are in Europe and appear in the same 
azimuth-class 300°— 330°. Were it not for the Milne instruments we 
should have very scanty material for an azimuth discussion ; and yet 
this is one of the most favourable cases. The inferiority of the Milne 
instrument suggests giving a smaller weight to its records, but it will be 
seen that we should gain very little thereby. Taking the simple means 
as in the last column and filling in vacant terms by simple interpolation 
(in brackets), we can make a very rough harmonic analysis, obtaining 

-1-6 + 7-5 cos (A-330°) + 2-7 cos 2 (A - 70°). 
Treating the S observations in the same way, we get Table IX. 

The material for discussion in azimuth is even more scanty and un- 
certain than before ; but, analysing it for what it is worth, we get 

- 1-2 -f 8-0 cos (A - 332°) + 4-7 cos 2 (A - 177°). 

Now, considering the nature of the material and of the process used, 
it is somewhat remarkable that the results from P and S should accord 
so well in indicating a correction to the epicentre. The direction is in 
azimuth 331° say, and as the azimuth of Pulkovo is 330°, it is pretty 
clear that the estimated A for Pulkovo is in error, owing doubtless to 
the errors of the tables. The amount of displacement is not so easy to 
assess. In the above simple process we have treated all stations, at 
whatever distance from the epicentre, alike. A displacement of the 
epicentre of 1° will, however, alter the times of arrival of P by 16 s. near 
the epicentre, by 5^ s. at 90°, and by less still at greater distances. Never- 
theless, on calculating the alterations for the actual distances, the mean 

1914. 



F 



66 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



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ON PETSMOLOfiTOAL TNVESTTGATTONS. 



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68 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

for the difEerent groups was found to be nearly constant at about 8 s. 
Since tlie coefficient (8 units of 0-1 m.) means 48 s., we may take it that 
the epicentre is about 6° wrong. As regards direction, note that the 
observed times for receiving stations on the side of the epicentre remote 
from Pulkovo are too small ; so that the epicentre must be moved nearer 
to them and further from Pulkovo. The observed S-P at Pulkovo, viz. 
10 m. 24 s., does not correspond (as indicated by the present tables) to an 
epicentral distance of 83°-5, but to a distance of 89°-5. 

Turning to S, we find the average value of 1° to be about 13 s. The 
first harmonic of S thus indicates a displacement of 48713 or 3°-7. We 
may regard this as a satisfactory confirmation of the magnitude of the 
error, which may be put at about 5°. 

The second harmonics in both cases are small, and the phases are 
quite discordant. We may fairly say that there is no evidence of a varia- 
tion in velocity of an elliptic type. 

As regards other earthquakes analysed for azimuth the following 
notes will suffice : — 

1913, March 14. Epicentre 11° N., 123° E., distant 82° from Pulkovo. 

Of nearly same type as that of 1913, January 11, but distribution of 
stations not so good. The numbers in the 30° divisions for P are 

1100121114 33 5 

and the harmonic expression is (in units of 0-1 m.) 

+ 0-2 + 5-0 cos (A — 302°) + 4-0 cos 2 (A — 36°). 

For S the number of stations are 

1100060002 24 3 

and the harmonic expression is 

_.. 7.8 + 14-5 cos (A — 345°) — 4-2 cos 2 (A — 7°). 

In spite of the broken nature of the series, the indication of 
an error of about 4° or 5° in A is tolerably plain. The azimuth 
of Pulkovo is 330°, and the magnitudes of the displacement assigned 
by the P observations may be put at 30°/8 = 3°-8. 

„ S „ „ „ 87°/13 = 6°-7. 

There is some indication of a second order term, but it cannot be 
regarded very seriously. 

1913, March 23. Epicentre 26° N., 143° E., distant 18° from Pulkovo. 

The only available observations between azimuths 0° and 210° are 
two Milne observations of P and one Milne of S. There seems no 
advantage in making even a rough estimate. 

1913, April 30. Epicentre 50° N ., 176° E., distant 67° from Pidkovo. 
Number of observations in the separate groups 

forP 42001000313 14 
forS 43100100121 10 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 69 

Harmonic expressions 

from P + 2-1 + 2-7 cos (A — 207°) + 3-6 cos 2 (A - 73°) 
from S + 0-5 + 11-0 cos (A - 235°) + 2-6 cos 2 (A — 160°) 

Azimuth of Pulkovo being 342°, the mean direction of displacement 
(azimuth 220° say) is nearly at right angles to the direction of Pulkovo, 
and cannot be wholly explained by an error of tables. The small com- 
ponent in the line joining epicentre to Pulkovo is in the opposite direction 
to that previously noted. 

1913, June U. Epicentre 43° N., 26° E., distant 11° from Pulkovo. 

There are unfortunately no observations of S from azimuth 90° to 
270°, so that we cannot make any analysis. The mean results for the 
other azimuths are 

Azimuth 270°— 300°— 330°— 0°— 30°— 60°— 90° 

Mean +1 — 4 —2—4+40 

No observations 4 4 11 2 2 1 

which suggest a displacement in the opposite direction to that of January 11 
and March 14, and in the same direction as the component of April 30. 
The numbers for P are 

1412001043 11 2 

and the harmonic expression is 

+ 2-1 + 2-8 cos (6 - 165°) + 1-6 cos 2 (0 - 111°) 

The azimuth of Pulkovo being 7°, the small displacement indicated is 
nearly radial and in the opposite direction to those of January 11 and 
March 14. 

Hence, so far as this evidence goes, the error of S-P is about 30 s. at 
85°, diminishes at lesser distances, and changes to a small negative value. 
The corrections needed by the Galitzin tables would seem to be approxi- 
mately as follows : — 

45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105° 

s. s. s. s. s. s. s. 

0-1-3 -8 -15 -24 

_8 -11 -14 -17 -24 -35 -50 

-8-11 -13 -14 -16 -20 -20 

-t-13 +18 +24 +28 +31 +42 -f52 

the correctiou to A being expressed in units of 0°'l. 



A 


= 15° 


25° 


35° 




s. 


s. 


s. 


Correction P 


-= 








Correction S 


-+5 





-4 


Correction (S-P) 


=+5 





-4 


Correction A 


= -5 





+6 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. — Thirteenth Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. In. Shaw (Chairman), 
Mr. E. Gold (Secretary), Messrs. C. J. P. Cave and W. H. 
Dines, Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Sir J. Larmoe, Professor 
J. E. Petavel, Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. 

A MEETING of the Joint Committee was held in the rooms of the Eoyal 
Meteorological Society on May 5, 1914. It was decided to allocate the 
grant from the British Association towards the expense of investigations 
with pilot balloons over the ocean to be undertaken by the Secretary 
on the journey to Australia, via the Cape of Good Hope. An 



70 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

additional grant was made from the funds of the Royal Meteorological 
Society to enable simultaneous observations to be made by Dr. W. 
Eosenhain, of the National Physical Laboratory, on the journey via 
the Suez Canal. A report on the observations is in preparation and 
will be pubHshed in due course. 

The report by Mr. G. I. Taylor on the observations which he made 
on board the Scotia in 1913, referred to in the Committee's report last 
year, has been pubHshed in the official account of the results of the 
Scotia Expedition, issued by the Board of Trade. The results which 
Mr. Taylor obtained throw much light on the formation of fog and 
on the propagation of heat through the atmosphere by means of eddies. 
He found generally that thick fogs were associated with a large increase 
in the temperature of the air in a vertical direction, while light fogs 
occurred when the increase was small. 

The Committee records with regret the death during the year of 
Mr. Douglas Archibald, who was one of the earliest investigators of 
the upper air by means of kites, and had served on the Committee 
since its appointment at Glasgow in 1901. 

The Committee asks for reappointment, with a grant of 25Z. 



Radiotelegraphic Investigations. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir Oliver Lodge (Chairman) , Dr. W. H. 
EccLES (Secretary), Mr. Sidney G. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, 
Professor A. S. Eddington, Dr. Erskine-Murray, Professors 
J. A. Fleming, G. W. 0. Howe, and H. M. Macdonald, 
Sir H. Norman, Captain H. E. Sankey, Professor A. 
Schuster, Dr. W. N. Shaw, and Professor S. P. Thompson. 

The past year has been occupied mainly by the designing, printing, 
and distribution of books of forms for recording observations, by the 
enrolment of observers, and by the preliminary work in connection with 
the observations to be made during the forthcoming solar eclipse. 

I. Collection of Ordinary Daily Statistics. 

We have obtained the cordial support of many Government Depart- 
ments of the British Empire and of other countries. In the British 
Empire the Navy has taken forms sufficient to distribute to about 
120 ships. The Post Office has sent forms to nine stations. The 
Government of Canada have undertaken to get statistics from four 
stations on the Pacific Coast. The South African Government have 
authorised the collection of statistics at Cape Town and Durban. The 
Australian Government have brought eight stations into the scheme, and 
the New Zealand Government and the Indian Government each several 
stations. The Colonial Office has kindly circularised other of the 
Colonies, and of these the following have already replied favourably, and 
have had supplies of forms despatched to them : — 

Falkland Islands. Zanzibar. British Guiana. 

Bahamas Somaliland. Jamaica. 

Trinidad. Fiji. Sierra Leone. 

Ceylon. Gold Coast. 



ON RADIOTELEGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS. 71 

The Government, of Norway have agreed to have statistics collected 
at four stations; the United States Government at five; in Germany 
the Telegraphs Versuchsamt is making observations at Berlin, and 
there are some Eussian Government stations likely to co-operate. 

The following Companies are taking a prominent part in the collec- 
tion of statistics : The Marconi International Marine Communication 
Company, Ltd., have already twenty-three ships at work; the Marconi 
Company of Canada have thirteen stations at work on the East Coast of 
Canada, in Newfoundland and on the Great Lakes; the American Mar- 
coni Company have put fifteen land stations (between Alaska and the 
Gulf of Mexico) to work, and several ships; the Federal Wireless Tele- 
graph Company of America have started observations at their San 
Francisco station ; the Gesellschaft fur drahtlose Telegraphie will put a 
considerable number of stations to work as soon as forms have been 
translated, and they have the intention of establishing a small prize 
scheme amongst their operators for the best series of obsei-vations. At 
the Slough station the Anglo-French Wireless Company started obser- 
vations which will be continued by the Galletti Company ; while the 
English Mai'coni Company are doing the like at Chelmsford. 

With regard to Eussia, the language difficulty was likely to prove 
formidable, but the Editor of the Eussian ' Journal of Wireless Tele- 
graphy ' has arranged that the forms be translated into Eussian and 
that the collection of statistics be urged upon readers of his Journal. 
The Societe Eusse de T^l^graphes et T6l6phones sans Fil have agreed 
that the forms, when translated, shall he used at a number of the 
stations under the control of the Company in Eussia. 

Among private experimenters of note we have obtained the support 
of several gentlemen abroad, who will doubtless have to be mentioned 
in subsequent reports. There are also a number of Professors in the 
British Isles and in the Colonies helping, and about sixty-one amateurs. 
Of these there are thirty-six in England, two in Scotland, six in Ireland, 
and one in Wales. 

A considerable number of completed forms have already come to 
hand and a start has been made on the analysis. 

II. Observations to he made during the Eclipse of August 21, 1914. 

The central line of the eclipse passes across Norway, Sweden, the 
Baltic, Central Eussia, the Black Sea, and Persia, to the coast of India. 
Accordingly, the Governments of Noi'way, Sweden, Eussia, and India 
have been approached. The Noi-wegian Government have generously 
placed practically all their stations at the disposal of the Committee ; 
tlie Swedish Government have agreed that the observations they wish to 
make on their own behalf shall be made in accord with the pi-ogramme 
of the Committee, to whom copies will be supplied ; and the Eussian 
Government will set a number of stations to work, but the number and 
position of these have not yet been settled. The Soci6t6 Eusse will place 
their high-power station at St. Petersburg at the disposal of the Com- 
mittee, and the Gesellschaft fiir drahtlose Telegraphie is also willing 
to allow two or three large stations to come into the scheme. This 



72 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Company will enact tHat observations on the day of the eclijose shall be 
compulsory in many of its stations in the Baltic and in Germany. The 
Indian Government have agreed to help also. In Western Europe the 
transmission of special signals is not of such great importance as in 
the districts nearer the central line of the eclipse, but some observa- 
tions ought to be instituted on signals in that part of the world. The 
Marconi Company have kindly expressed their willingness to aid the 
Committee by transmitting from certain high-power stations a few 
special signals, if desired, at times to be arranged by the Committee. 

Many private observers in different parts of the world have signified 
their wilUngness to make a special effort on the day of the ecliiDse. It 
has been explained to the authorities in the United States, Canada, 
Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand, that although there is not 
much likelihood of the effects of the eclipse being perceived in their 
territories, yet they will be advised of the programme of the Com- 
mittee, in order that they may, if they will, determine precisely whether 
there is, or is not, any effect. Since it seemed important to enlist the 
sympathies of as large a number as possible ol skilled observers on the 
Eastern boundaries of GeiTnany, Austria, and Hungary, the Editor of 
the ' Jahrbuch fiir drahtlose Telegraphie ' was asked, and has agreed, 
to seek German-speaking observers, conduct all preliminary corre- 
spondence with them, translate forms and get them printed and dis- 
tributed, and to collect the forms. It has recently been arranged that a 
large proportion of this work may be shared with the International 
Commission of Brussels. 

In addition to all this welcome assistance, we are especially glad 
to report that the Board of the Admiralty have agreed to co-operate on 
an extensive scale. 



The Belatiovfi hciv>een this Commiliee and llie lulcrnational 
Commission of Brussels. 

As a member of the British Section of the International Commission, 
the Secretary was made a delegate to the recent Conference in Brussels, 
and there suggested that it might be to the advantage of both organisa- 
tions, especially when requesting assistance from Government Depart- 
ments or Companies, or even private experimenters, that a public 
announcement should be made showing that the aims of the two bodies 
are different, that there is room for both, that there is little danger of 
any Government or Company or private experimenter being asked to 
do the same thing twice, or to favour one to the detriment of the other ; 
and that if on any occasion there were overlapping, then the two 
organisations should endeavour to coi-operate. The International 
Commission therefore drew up and passed the following resolution : — 

' La Commission Internationale de T.S.F.S., ayant pris connais- 
sance du but des travaux du ' ' Committee for Radio-telegraphic Investi- 
gation of the British Association," estime que les travaux des deux 
organisations ont des objets diff brents. 

' La Commission Internationale de T.S.F.S. se propose, en effet, de 
faire des recherches qui portent principalement sur les mesures quantita- 



ON RADIOTELEGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS. 73 

tiives se rapportant h remission, k la propagation et h la reception des 
ondes eleclriques. 

' L'Association Britannique a decide, de son c6t6, de recueillir, de 
classer et de commenter les resultats des observations susceptibles de 
faii'e ressortir les relations entre les ph^nomenes geophysiques et la 
propagation des ondes electriques. II entre egalement dans ses vues de 
dresser la statistique et de faire 1 'etude des phenomfenes anormaux et des 
perturbations atmospheriques. 

' En consequence, si les champs d'activite des deux organisations 
viennent a avoir des points communs, la Commission Internationale de 
T.S.P.S. engage ses adherents a preter eventuellement le concours le 
plus complet i la " British Association." ' 

At a meeting of the British Association Committee on May 8, 1914, 
the following resolution was adopted: — 

' That the Eadiotelegraphic Investigation Committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science take cognisance of the 
resolution adopted by the Commission Internationale de Telegraphie sans 
Fils Scientifique at the recent conference in Brussels, and desire to 
affirm that they find themselves in full accord with the definitions, as 
expresse^l in the resolution, of the differences between the aims and 
methods of the researches promoted by the two organisations ; while, 
in regard to those researches in which the two bodies both take an 
active interest, this Committee warmly welcome and value highly the 
offer of co-operation, and gladly undertake to give all assistance in 
their power. ' i 

The Committee has expended up to the present in office expenses, 
printing, and distribution of forms, the sum of 144L 

[Note. — The following communication was circulated to Members of the Com- 
mittee by the Secretary on behalf of the Chairman in December, 1914 : — 

The war has naturally had a very direct effect on radiotelegraphic investi- 
gations. About August 1 last, private wireless telegraph stations throughout 
the Empire were nearly all dismantled or taken possession of by military authori- 
ties, while naval and other Government stations stopped all merely scientific 
observing. The radiotelegraphic stations in Russia, Germany, and neighbouring 
countries doubtless discontinued the filling up of our forms as soon as mobilisa- 
tion began. A few stations in India, Australia, Canada, the West Indies, and 
the United States are, however, still at work. In the last-named country about 
thirty stations are making observations. 

The Committee's programme for the collection of statistics three days a week 
in all parts of the English-speaking world and in a few other countries was 
planned to embrace one complete round of the seasons. The fact that the pro- 
gramme has been interrupted after only three months of really full work 
diminishes greatly the scientific value of such statistics as have been collected. 
It also implies considerable financial loss. A large batch of forms was distri- 
buted to our Navy in July : in clearing for action these forms would probably 
be wasted. The Gei-man edition was distributed in June. The Russian edition 
also was probably distributed before the outbreak of war. 

The extensive scheme of special observations projected for the occasion of 
the solar eclipse failed almost completely in the countries in which the eclipse 
was visible. A small amount of work was done in Norway and Sweden. All 
the necessary forms had been printed, and some had been circulated before the 
war started". The financial loss to the Committee in this re.spect exceeds a 
hundred pounds. 



74 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

The day-by-day statistics collected in the period April to July are now being 
analysed. The conclusions drawn from these observations will, it may be 
hoped, have some scientific value of their own, and in any case they should yield 
information which may guide the Committee, when the time comes, to further 
attacks on the problems concerned. A similar thought may be set down as 
consolation for the eclipse failure. 

In October last, at a special meeting summoned by the Inspector of Wireless 
Telegraphy at the General Post OflBce, where it happened that the Committee 
were represented by Dr. Erskine-Murray and the Secretary, the Committee were 
asked to draw up for the Home Office a list of gentlemen distributed over the 
British Isles who would be veiling, if and when called upon, to assist the 
police by acting as voluntary experts in wireless telegraphy. The police cannot 
in general be expected to possess sufficient technical knowledge to discriminate 
between dangerous radiotelegraphic apparatus and other apparatus. Co-operation 
with the police authorities in each locality by someone possessing technical 
knowledge will help to prevent blunders and may assist in detecting illicit 
traffic. Accordingly gentlemen whose names appear in the address book of the 
Committe.e have been written to, and lists of voluntary experts have been sup- 
plied to the Home Office.] 



Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Px-ofessor H. H. Turner {Chair- 
man), Dr. W. G. DuFFiELD {Secretary), Eev. A. L. Cortie, 
Dr. F. W. Dyson, and Professors A. S. Eddington, H. F. 
Newall, J. W. Nicholson, and A. Schuster, appointed to 
aid the ivork of Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. 

The Committee records with great sorrow the death of its former 
Chairman Sir David Gill, whose name has always been so prominently 
associated with scientific enterprises connected with the Southern 
Hemisphere. Professor H. H. Turner has been appointed Chairman 
in his place. 

The Secretary has great pleasure in reporting that the following 
letter has been received from the Commonwealth Authorities in re- 
sponse to further representations regarding the desirability of erecting 
a Solar Observatory within the Commonwealth: — 

Commonwealth Offices, 

72 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

March 10, 1914. 
Dear Dr. Duffield, 

With reference to previous correspondence in regard to the estab- 
lishment of a Solar Observatory in Australia, I desire to inform you 
that I have now received a memorandum from the Commonwealth 
Government advising that in the scheme for the organisation of services 
in connection with the Seat of Government at Canberra, provision 
has been made for the establishment amongst general astronomical 
studies of a section to be devoted to solar physics in particular. 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) R. Muieiie.\d Cotjjns. 
Dr. Geoffrey Duffield, 

University College, Beading. 

The Committee records its great satisfaction at the promise of the 



ON ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA. 75 

institution of Solar Research in Australia — an end for which it has 
worked since its appointment at the Dublin Meeting of the Association 
in 1908. The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth has consented 
to receive a deputation of overseas astronomers with regard to the 
nature of the solar work which should be undertaken in Australia. 



The Calculation of Mathematical Tables.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman) , 
Professor J. W. Nicholson (Secretary), Mr. J. R. Airey, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Sir George Greenhill, Professor 
B. W. HoBSON, Professor Alfred Lodge, Professor 
A. E. H. Love, Professor H. M. Macdonald, and Professor 
A. G. Webster. 

The grant given to the Committee during the past year has been ex- 
pended on the calculation of the Logarithmic Bessel Functions, for which 
it was specially allocated. In the present report are Tables of the functions 
Yo(a;) and Yi(a;), whose significance was explained on page 29 of the last 
report. These proceed from argument x = 0-02 to a; = 15-50, at 
intervals of 0-02, and are correct to six significant figures. 

Some further Tables of the functions G„(a;) are also included, for 
varying order n of the functions. These are incomplete at present. The 
Committee is proceeding with the further calculation of the functions 

Yo(x), Yg(x), on the same scale as the present Tables of Yq 

and Yi. 

The Committee desires to ask for a further grant of 301. during the 
coming year, to be allocated to this work. 

Some Tables calculated by Mr. Doodson, of the University of Liverpool, 
are given at the end of the report. They deal with the functions of 
type J,i + x{x), where n is a positive or negative integer. A considerable 
demand for these Tables exists at present. Mr. Doodson is continuing 
this work, and it is suggested that his name be added to the Committee. 
The previous requisition that a large number of copies of the report 
(about 100) should be placed in the hands of the Secretary for distribution 
is repeated, as the demand for these Tables from physicists is increasing. 

Tables of the Neumann Functions Yo(a;) and Y,(a;) or Bessel Functions of 

the Second Kind. 

The second solution of Bessel's differential equation 

has been given in several forms — G„(x), Y„(x), K„(x), &c. Tables 
of Go(a?) and G.(x) for values of x from 0-01 to 16-00 by intervals of 0-01 
were published in the report for 1913. 

Short Tables of the Yo(a;) and Yi(a;) functions defined by 
Yo(a;) = J,{x) . log.x + (|)' - (1 + i) (|)'/ 2 



I 2 



+(i+i+^)(l)y3!^-. 



16 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Y,{z) = J,{x) . log,x - Jo{x)lx - I + (1 + ^) (|)'/1 ! 2 ! 

-(!+* + *) (|//2!3! + ... 

have been calculated by B. A. Smitb for x = 001 to 1-00 and 10 to 
10-2 to four places of decimals, and by J. R. Airey for x — 0-1 to 16-0 
to seven places. 

The following Tables have been computed from the relation 

Y„(a;) = (log 2 - y) J„(a;) - G„(x) 

and verified by the method of differences. 

The interpolation formulae for other values of the argument are 

Y.(x±*) = [l - *" ±1 ...]y.(x)+ [:FJ + ^^...]Y,W 



y,(. ± i, = [1 T * - * (1 - j„) . .] Y,(.) + [± A - 4 . .] Y,W. 





Tables of the Neumann Cylinder Functions. 




X 


Yo(x) 


Y^[x) 


X 


Yo(a;) 


Y,[x) 


002 


-3-911532 


-50-044118 


0-76 


-0-099484 


-1-569515 


04 


-3-217189 


-25-074360 


0-78 


-0-068482 


-1-530927 


006 


-2-809980 


-16-766014 


0-80 


-0-038237 


-1-493705 


008 


-2-520090 


-12-620908 


0-82 


-0-008725 


-1-457735 


010 


-2-294335 


-10-139907 


0-84 


+ 0-020080 


-1-422912 


012 


-2-109042 


-8-490185 


0-86 


+ 0-048199 


-1-389144 1 


014 


-1-951600 


-7-314934 


0-88 


+0 075652 


-1-356346 1 


016 


-1-814487 


-6-435818 


0-90 


+ 0-102458 


-1-324442 i 


018 


-1-692861 


-5-753809 


0-92 


+ 0-128635 


-1-293362 1 


0-20 


-1-583421 


-5-209517 


0-94 


+0-154198 


-1-263043 


0-22 


-1-483817 


-4-765173 


0-96 


+0-179162 


-1-233429 


0-24 


-1-392318 


-4-395614 


0-98 


+0-203539 


-1-204467 


0-26 


-1-307611 


-4-083430 


1-00 


+ 0-227344 


-1-176110 


0-28 


-1-228681 


-3-816195 


1-02 


+ 0-250588 


-1-148315 


030 


-1-154725 


-3-584806 


1-04 


+0-273280 


-1-121042 


0-32 


-1-085096 


-3-382440 


1-06 


+0-295433 


-1-094256 


0-34 


-1-019269 


-3-203886 


1-08 


+ 0-317054 


-1-067922 


0-36 


-0-956809 


-3-045093 


1-10 


+0-338152 


-1042011 


0-38 


-0-897355 


-2-902869 


1-12 


+ 0-358737 


-1-016496 


0-40 


-0-840601 


-2-774662 


114 


+0-378815 


-0-991350 


0-42 


-0-786288 


-2-658408 


1-16 


+0-398393 


-0-966551 


0-44 


-0-734196 


-2-652423 


1-18 


+ 0-417479 


-0-942079 


0-46 


-0-684132 


-2-455317 


1-20 


+0-436078 


-0-917912 


0-48 


-0-635932 


-2-365931 


1-22 


+ 0-454197 


-0-894033 


0-50 


-0-589450 


-2-283297 


1-24 


+ 0-471841 


-0-870426 


0-62 


-0-544561 


-2-206594 


1-26 


+0-489016 


-0-847076 


0-54 


-0-501152 


-2135127 


1-28 


+ 0-505726 


-0-823970 


0-56 


-0-459125 


-2-068299 


1-30 


+ 0-521976 


-0-801094 


0-58 


-0-418392 


-2-005598 


1-32 


+0-537771 


-0-778438 


0-60 


-0-378875 


-1-946580 


1-34 


+ 0-553115 


-0-755991 


0-62 


-0-340507 


-1-890861 


1-36 


+ 0-568012 


-0-733743 


0-64 


-0-303222 


-1-838105 


1-38 


+0-582466 


-0-711687 


0-66 


-0-266965 


-1-788017 


1-40 


+ 0-596481 


-0-689814 


0-68 


-0-231685 


-1-740338 


1-42 


+ 0-610060 


-0-668116 


070 


-0-197337 


-1-694840 


144 


+ 0-623207 


-0-646589 


0-72 


-0-163878JI 


-1-651320 


1-46 


+ 0-635926 


-0-625226 


0-74 


-0-131272 


-1-609599 


1-48 


+ 0-648217 


-0-604021 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



77 





Neumann Cylinder Functions— 


-continued. 




X 


Yo(^) 


Y,(a-) 


X 

2-68 


Yo(a;) 


Y,(^) 


1-50 


+ 0-660086 


-0-582971 


+0-714906 


+0-397539 


1-52 


+ 0-671537 


-0-662070 


2-70 


+ 0-706843 


+ 0-408760 


1-54 


+ 0-682570 


-0-541317 


2-72 


+ 0-698557 


+ 0-419757 


1-56 


+0-693190 


-0-520706 


2-74 


+ 0-690054 


+0-430529 


1-58 


+ 0-703399 


-0-500237 


2-76 


+ 0-681338 


+0-441073 


1-60 


+ 0-713200 


-0-479905 


2-78 


+0-672413 


+0-451389 


1-62 


+0-722596 


-0-459710 


2-80 


+0-663284 


+0-461474 


1-64 


+0-731590 


-0-439650 


2-82 


+ 0-653955 


+0-471327 


1-66 


+0-740183 


-0-419723 


2-84 


+0-644432 


+0-480947 


1-68 


+ 0-748380 


-0-399929 


2-86 


+0-634719 


+0-490331 


1-70 


+0-756181 


-0-380266 


2-88 


+0-624821 


+0-499477 


1-72 


+0-763591 


-0-360734 


2-90 


+ 0-614742 


+0-508385 


1-74 


+ 0-770612 


-0-341333 


2-92 


+0-604487 


+0-517054 


1-76 


+ 0-777245 


-0-322063 


2-94 


+ 0-594061 


+0-525482 


1-78 


+0-783495 


-0-302924 


2-96 


+ 0-583469 


+ 0-533667 


1-80 


+ 0-789363 


-0-283916 


2-98 


+0-572716 


+0-541608 


1-82 


+0-794853 


-0-265040 


3-00 


+0-561806 


+ 0-549305 


1-84 


+0-799966 


-0-246297 


3-02 


+0-550745 


+0-556756 


1-86 


+0-804705 


-0-227687 


3-04 


+0-539538 


+ 0-563960 


1-88 


+0-809074 


-0-209212 


3-06 


+0-528189 


+0-570917 


1-90 


+0-813075 


-0190874 


, 3-08 


+ 0-516703 


+0-577625 


1-92 


+0-816710 


-0-172672 


3-10 


+0-505085 


+0-584083 


1-94 


+ 0-819982 


-0-154608 


312 


+0-493341 


+0-590291 


1-96 


+0-822895 


-0-136685 


3-14 


+ 0-481475 


+0-596249 


1-98 


+0-825451 


-0118904 


316 


+0-469493 


+0-601955 


2-00 


+0-827652 


-0101266 


318 


+0-457399 


+0-607408 


202 


+0-829602 


-0083773 


3-20 


+0-445198 


+0-612620 


204 


+0-831004 


-0-066427 


3-22 


+0-432896 


+0-617559 


206 


+0-832161 


-0-049231 


3-24 


+0-420498 


+0-622254 


208 


+0-832974 


-0-032186 


3-26 


+0-408008 


+0-626696 


210 


+0-833449 


-0015294 


3-28 


+ 0-395431 


+0-630885 


212 


+ 0-833587 


+0-001443 


, 3-30 


+0-382774 


+0-634820 


214 


+0-833392 


+0-018022 


3-32 


+ 0-370040 


+0-638501 


216 


+ 0-832867 


+0-034441 


3-34 


+ 0-357236 


+0-641929 


2-18 


+ 0-832016 


+0-050698 


3-36 


+ 0-344365 


+0-645103 


2-20 


+0-830841 


+0-066791 


3-38 


+0-331433 


+0-648024 


2-22 


+0-829345 


+ 0-082717 


3-40 


+0-318446 


+0-650691 


2^24 


+0-827533 


+0098473 


3-42 


+0-305407 


+0-653106 


2-26 


+0-825407 


+0-114058 


3-44 


+ 0-292323 


+0-655269 


2-28 


+0-822972 


+0129470 


3-46 


+0-279198 


+0-657180 


2-30 


+0-820230 


+0-144705 


3-48 


+0-266038 


+0-658840 


2-32 


+0-817185 


+0-159762 


3-50 


+0-252846 


+0-660249 


2-34 


+0-813841 


+0-174637 


3-52 


+ 0-239629 


+0-661408 


2-36 


+0-810201 


+0-189329 


3-54 


+0-226392 


+0-662318 


2-38 


+ 0-806269 


+0-203836 


3-56 


+0-213138 


+ 0-662980 


2-40 


+0-802048 


+0-218154 


3-58 


+0-199874 


+0-663395 


2-42 


+0-797544 


+0-232281 


360 


+ 0186604 


+0-663564 


2-44 


+0-792758 


+0-24621,5 


3-62 


+0173333 


+0-663487 


2-46 


+ 0-787696 


+0-259954 


3-64 


+0160066 


+0-663166 


2-48 


+ 0-782362 


+0-273495 


3-66 


+ 0-146808 


+0-662602 


2-50 


+0-776758 


+0-286837 


3-68 


+0-133564 


+0-661797 


2-52 


+0-770889 


+0-299976 


3-70 


+0-120338 


+0-660752 


2-54 


+0-764760 


+0-312910 


3-72 


+0-107135 


+0-659468 


2-56 


+ 0-758374 


+0-325637 


3-74 


+0-093961 


+0-657947 


2-58 


+0-751736 


+0-338156 


3-76 


+0-080819 


+0-656190 


2-60 


+ 0-744850 


+ 0-350464 


3-78 


+0-067715 


+0-654199 


2-62 


+ 0-737719 


+ 0-362558 


3-80 


+0-054653 


+0-651976 


2-64 


+0-730349 


+ 0-374436 


3-82 


+0-041637 


+0-649523 1 


2-66 


• +0-722743 


+0-386097 


384 


+0028673 


+0-646841 , 



78 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Neumann Cylinder Functions ^co-atinxied. 



X 


Yo(a;) 


Y,(^) 


X 


Yo(:r) 


Yi(a-) 


3-86 


+0015765 


+0-643933 


5-04 


-0-512543 


+0-172467 


3-88 


+0002917 


+ 0-640800 


506 


-0-516883 


+ 0-161621 


3-90 


-0009866 


+0-637444 


6-08 


-0-519004 


+0-160656 


3-92 


-0022579 


+0-633868 


5-10 


-0-521905 


+0-139577 


3-94 


-0035219 


+0-630073 


5-12 


-0-624587 


+0-128687 


3-96 


-0047781 


+0-626063 


6-14 


-0-627048 


+0-117590 


3-98 


-0 060260 


+0-621839 


6-16 


-0-529290 


+0-106591 


4-00 


-0072653 


+0-617404 


6-18 


-0-531312 


+0-095594 


402 


-0 084955 


+0-612760 1 


6-20 


-0-533114 


+0 084602 


404 


-0097162 


+0-607909 


5-22 


-0-634696 


+ 0073619 


406 


-0109270 


+0-602855 


6-24 


-0-536059 


+0062650 


4.08 


-0121275 


+0-597600 


5-26 


-0-637202 


+0051700 


4.10 


-0133172 


+0-592146 


5-28 


-0-638127 


+0-040771 


4-12 


-0144959 


+0-586497 


5-30 


-0-638833 


+0029867 


4-14 


-0156631 


+0-580656 


5-32 


-0-639322 


+0-018994 


4-16 


-0-168184 


+0-574623 


6-34 


-0-639593 


+0-008154 


4-18 


-0179615 


+0-568403 


5-36 


-0-639648 


-0002660 


4-20 


-0190919 


+0-562000 


5-38 


-0-639488 


-0013412 


4-22 


-0-202093 


+0-555415 


6-40 


-0-539112 


-0024128 


4-24 


-0-213134 


+0-648652 


5-42 


-0-638523 


-0034796 


4-26 


-0-224038 


+0-541715 


6-44 


-0-637721 


-0-045411 


4-28 


-0-234802 


+0-534605 


5-46 


-0-536707 


-0-055970 


4-30 


-0-245422 


+0-527327 


6-48 


-0-536482 


-0066468 


4-32 


-0-255894 


+0-519884 


6-50 


-0-634048 


-0-076903 


4-34 


-0-266216 


+ 0-512279 


6-52 


-0-532406 


-0-087270 


4-36 


-0-276384 


+ 0-504515 


6-54 


-0-630558 


-0-097566 


4-38 


-0-286395 


+0-496596 1 


6-66 


-0-628504 


-0107786 


4-40 


-0-296247 


+0-488525 ; 


5-58 


-0-526247 


-0-117929 


4-42 


-0-305936 


+0-480306 j 


6-60 


-0-523788 


-0-127990 


4-44 


-0-315458 


+0-471943 ! 


5-62 


-0-521128 


-0-137965 


4-46 


-0-324812 


+0-463438 


6-64 


-0-518270 


-0-1478.52 


4-48 


-0-333995 


+0-464795 


6-66 


-0-515215 


-0-157646 


4-50 


-0-343003 


+0-446018 


5-68 


-0-511964 


-0-167345 


4-52 


-0-351834 


+0-437112 


5-70 


-0-508521 


-0176946 


4-54 


-0-360487 


+0-428078 


5-72 


-0-504887 


-0-186443 


4-56 


-0-368957 


+0-418921 


6-74 


-0-501064 


-0-196836 


4-68 


-0-377243 


+0-409646 


6-76 


-0-497066 


-0-205120 


460 


-0-385342 


+0-400255 


5-78 


-0-492861 


-0-214293 


4-62 


-0-393252 


+0-390753 


5-80 


-0-488484 


-0-223350 


4-64 


-0-400971 


+0-381144 


5-82 


-0-483927 


-0-232290 


4-66 


-0-408497 


+0-371430 


6-84 


-0-479194 


-0-241110 


4-68 


-0-415828 


+0-361617 


6-86 


-0-474284 


-0-249806 


4-70 


-0422961 


+0-351708 


5-88 


—0-469202 


-0-258375 


4-72 


-0 429895 


+0-341706 


5-90 


-0-463949 


-0-266815 


4-74 


-0-436629 


+0-331617 


6-92 


-0-468629 


-0-275123 


4-76 


-0-443160 


+0-321444 


6-94 


-0-462945 


-0-283297 


4-78 


-0-449486 


+0-311191 


5-96 


-0-447199 


-0-291333 


4-80 


-0-455607 


+0-300862 


5-98 


-0-441293 


-0299229 


4-82 


-0-461520 


+0-290461 


600 


-0-435231 


-0-306982 


4-84 


-0-467225 


+0-279992 


602 


-0-429015 


-0-314690 


4-86 


-0472719 


+0-269459 


6-04 


-0-422648 


-0-322051 


4-88 


-0-478003 


+0-258867 


6-06 


-0-416134 


-0-329363 


4-90 


-0-483074 


+0-248219 


608 


-0-409474 


-0-336622 


4-92 


-0-487931 


+0-237519 


6-10 


-0-402674 


-0-343527 


4-94 


-0-492574 


+0-226772 


612 


-0-396735 


-0-350376 


4-96 


-0-497002 


+0-215981 


6-14 


-0-388660 


-0-357066 


4-98 


-0-501213 


+0-205161 


616 


-0-381463 


-0-363595 


5-00 


-0-505208 


+0-194286 


618 


-0-374117 


-0-369961 


602 


-0-508984 


+ 0-183390 


6-20 


-0-366666 '\ 


-0-^76164 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



79 



Neumann Cylinder Functions — continued. 



X 


Yo(a!) 


Yi(a;) 


X 


Yo(^) 


Yi(x) 


6-22 


-0-359072 


-0-382201 


7-40 


+0-174739 


-0-416299 


6-24 


-0-351369 


-0-388069 


7-42 


+0 183019 


-0-411604 


6-26 


-0-343550 


-0-393768 


7-44 


+0-191203 


-0-406760 


6-28 


-0-335619 


-0-399295 


7-46 


+0-199288 


-0-401770 


6-30 


-0-327579 


-0-404649 


7-48 


4-0-207272 


-0-396635 


6-32 


-0-319434 


-0-409828 


7-50 


+0-215153 


-0-391359 


6-34 


-0-311187 


-0-414832 


7-52 


+0-222926 


-0-385943 


6-36 


-0-302842 


-0-419657 


7-54 


+0-230589 


-0-380390 


6-38 


-0-294402 


-0-424305 


7-56 


+0-238140 


-0-374702 


6-40 


-0-285871 


-0-428773 


7-58 


+0-245577 


-0-368882 


6-42 


-0-277253 


-0-433060 


7-60 


+0-252895 


-0-362933 


6-44 


-0-268550 


-0-437165 


7-62 


+0-260093 


-0-356857 


6-46 


-0-259767 


-0-441086 


7-64 


+0-267168 


-0-350657 


6-48 


-0-250908 


-0-444824 


7-66 


+0-274118 


-0-344335 


6-50 


-0-241976 


-0-448377 


7-68 


+0-280941 


-0-337895 


6-52 


-0-232974 


-0-451743 


7-70 


+0-287633 


-0-331339 


6-54 


-0-223907 


-0-454924 


7-72 


+0-294193 


-0-324670 


6-56 


-0-214778 


-0-457917 


7-74 


+0-300619 


-0-317890 


6-58 


-0-205592 


-0-460723 


7-76 


+0-306909 


-0-311003 


6-60 


-0-196351 


-0-463340 


7-78 


+0-313059 


-0-304012 


6-62 


-0187059 


-0-465768 


7-80 


+0-319068 


-0-296919 


6-64 


-0177721 


-0-468008 


1 7-82 


+0-324935 


-0-289727 


6-66 


-0168340 


-0-470058 


7-84 


+0-330657 


-0-282440 


6-68 


-0-158920 


-0-471918 


7-86 


+0-336232 


-0-275061 


6-70 


-0-149465 


-0-473589 


7-88 


+0-341659 


-0-267593 


6-72 


-0139978 


-0-475069 


7-90 


+0-346935 


-0-260038 


6-74 


-0-130463 


-0-476360 


7-92 


+0-352060 


-0-252399 


6-76 


-0-120925 


-0-477461 


7-94 


+0-357031 


-0-244681 


6-78 


-0-111366 


-0-478372 


7-96 


+0-361846 


-0-236886 


6-80 


-0-101791 


-0-479093 


7-98 


+0-366505 


-0-229018 


6-82 


-0-092203 


-0-479626 


8-00 


+0-371007 


-0-221079 


6-84 


-0-082607 


-0-479969 


8-02 


+0-375348 


-0-213073 


6-86 


-0-073006 


-0-480123 


8-04 


+0-379529 


-0-205003 


6-88 


-0-063403 


-0-480090 


8-06 


+0-383548 


-0-196873 


6-90 


-0-053804 


-0-479868 


8-08 


+0-387404 


-0-188686 


6-92 


-0-044211 


-0-479460 


8-10 


+0-391095 


-0-180445 


6-94 


-0-034627 


-0-478865 


812 


+0-394621 


-0172152 


6-96 


-0-025057 


-0-478085 


8-14 


+0397981 


-0-163812 


6-98 


-0-015504 


-0-477120 


8-16 


+0-401173 


-0-155429 


7-00 


-0-005973 


-0-475972 


8-18 


+0-404198 


-0-147005 


702 


+0-003533 


-0-474640 


8-20 


+0-407053 


-0-138543 


704 


+0-013011 


-0-473126 


8-22 


+0-409739 


-0-130048 


7-06 


+0-022457 


-0-471431 


8-24 


+0-412255 


-0-121522 


708 


+0-031867 


-0-469557 


8-26 


+0-414600 


-0-112969 


7-10 


+0-041238 


-0-467504 


8-28 


+0-416773 


-0-104392 


7-12 


+0-050566 


-0-465274 


8-30 


+0-418775 


-0-095795 


7-14 


+0-059848 


-0-462868 


8-32 


+0-420605 


-0087181 


716 


+0-069080 


-0-460288 


8-34 


+0-422262 


-0-078553 


7-18 


+0-078258 


-0-457534 


8-36 


+0-423747 


-0-069914 


7-20 


+0-087380 


-0-454609 


8-38 


+0-425059 


-0-061269 


7-22 


+0096442 


-0-451514 


8-40 


+0-426198 


-0-052621 


7-24 


+0-105440 


-0-448250 


8-42 


+0-427164 


-0-043972 


7-26 


+0114371 


-0-444820 


8-44 


+0-427957 


-0-035326 


7-28 


+0-123231 


-0-441225 


8-46 


+0-428577 


-0-026687 


7-30 


+0-132018 


-0-437467 


8-48 


+0-429024 


-0-018058 


7-32 


+0-140729 


-0-433548 


8-50 


+0-429299 


-0-009442 


7-34 


+0149359 


-0-429470 


8-52 


+0-429402 


-0-000843 


7-36 


+0-157907 


-0-425234 


8-54 


+0-429333 


+0-007737 


7-38 1 


+0166368 


-0-420843 


8-66 


+0-429093 


+0016293 



80 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I9l4. 



Neumann Cylinder Fimctions — continued. 



X 


Y„(a;) 


Yi(^) 


X 


Yo{«) 


Y,(x) 


8-58 


+0-428682 


' +0-024823 


9-76 


+0-152558 


+0-380212 


8-60 


+ 0-428100 


+0 033324 


9-78 


+0-144931 


+0-382406 


8-62 


+0-427349 


+ 0-041792 


9-80 


+0-137263 


+0-384445 


8-64 


+0-426428 


+ 0-050223 


9-82 


+0-129555 


+0-386327 


8-66 


+0-425340 


+ 0-058615 


9-84 


+0-121811 


+ 0-388053 


8-68 


+ 0-424084 


+0-066964 


9-86 


+0-114034 


+0-389622 


8-70 


+ 0-422662 


+0075268 


9-88 


+0-106227 


+0-391034 


8-72 


+ 0-421074 


+ 0-083524 


9-90 


+0-098393 


+0-392288 


8-74 


+ 0-419321 


+ 0-091728 


9-92 


+0-090536 


+0-393385 


8-76 


+ 0-417405 


+0-099876 


9-94 


+0-082659 


+0-394323 


8-78 


+0-415327 


+0-107966 


9-96 


+0-074764 


+0-395104 


8-80 


+0-413087 


+0-115996 


9-98 


+0-066856 


+0-395727 


8-82 


+0-410687 


+ 0-123962 


10-00 


+0 058936 


+0-396193 


8-84 


+ 0-408129 


+0131860 


10-02 


+0-051009 


+0-396500 


8-86 


+ 0-405413 


+ 0-139689 


1004 


+0-043077 


+0-396650 


8-88 


+ 0-402542 


+0-147445 


10-06 


+ 0-035144 


j +0-396643 


8-90 


+ 0-399516 


+ 0-155126 


1008 


+0027213 


+0-396479 


8-92 


+0-396338 


+0-162728 


10-10 


+ 0-019286 


+0-396158 


8-94 


+0-393008 


+ 0-170249 


10-12 


+0011367 


+ 0-395681 


8-96 


+0-389528 


+0-177686 


1014 


+0-003460 


+0-395049 


8-98 


+ 0-385901 


+0185036 


10-16 


-0004434 


+0-394262 


9-00 


+ 0-382127 


+0-192297 


10-18 


-0012310 


+0-393320 


9-02 


+0-378209 


+ 0-199465 


10-20 


-0-020165 


+0-392224 


9-04 


+ 0-374149 


+0-206539 


10-22 


-0 027998 


+0-390975 


9-06 


+ 0-369948 


+ 0-213517 


10-24 


-0-035804 


+0-389574 


9 08 


+0-365609 


+0-220394 


10-26 


-0043580 


+0388021 


910 


+0-361133 


+ 0-227169 


10-28 


-0-061323 


+0-386318 


912 


+ 356523 


+ 0-233840 


10-30 


-0-059031 


+ 384466 


914 


+ 0-351781 


+0-240404 


10-32 


-0 066701 


+ 0-382464 


916 


+ 0-346908 


+ 0-246858 


10-34 


-0074329 


+0 380316 


9-18 


+ 0-341907 


+0-253201 


10-36 


-0081912 


+ 0-378020 


9-20 


+0-336780 


+ 0-259430 


10-38 


-0089449 


+ 0-375680 


9-22 


+ 0-331530 


+0-265644 


10-40 


-0096935 


+0-372996 


9-24 


+0-326159 


+ 0-271539 


10-42 


-0104367 


+0-370269 


9-26 


+0-320670 


+ 0-277414 


10-44 


-0-111744 


+ 0-367400 


9-28 


+ 0-315064 


+0-283167 


10-46 


-0-119063 


+0364392 


9-30 


+ 0-309344 


+ 0-288795 


10-48 


-0-126319 , 


+0-361245 


9-32 


+ 0-303513 


+ 0-294297 


10-50 


-0133511 


+ 0-357961 


9-34 


+0-297673 


+0-299672 


10-52 


-0140637 


+0-354541 


9-36 


+0-291527 


+0-304917 


10-54 


-0-147692 


+0-360987 


9-38 


+ 0-285377 


+0-310030 


10-56 


-0-154676 


+0-347302 


9-40 


+ 0-279126 


+ 0-315009 


10-58 


-0-161683 


+ 0-343486 


9-42 


+ 0-272778 


+ 0-319853 


10-60 


-0-168414 


+0-339541 


9-44 


+ 0-266334 


+ 0-324561 


10-62 


-0-175164 


+0-335469 


9-46 


+ 0-259796 


+0-329131 


10-64 


-0-181832 


+0-331271 


9-48 


+ 0-253169 


+0-333661 


10-66 


-0-188414 


+0-326950 


9-50 


+ 0-246455 


+0-337850 


10-68 


-0-194909 


+0-322608 


9-52 


+0-239656 


+ 0-341996 


10-70 


-0-201314 


+0-317947 


9-54 


+0-232776 


+0-345999 


10-72 1 


-0-207626 


+0-313268 


9-56 


+0-225817 


+0-349856 


10-74 


-0-213844 


+0-308474 


9-58 


+0-218783 


+0-363667 


10-76 


-0-219964 


+0-303566 


9-60 


+0-211675 


+0-357131 


10-78 


-0-225985 i 


+0-298547 


9-62 


+0-204498 


+0-360546 


10-80 


-0-231905 


+0-293419 


9-64 


+ 0197264 


+0-363811 


10-82 


-0-237722 


+0-288185 


9-66 


+0-189947 


+ 0-366926 


10-84 


-0-243433 


+ 0-282846 


9-68 


+ 0182578 


+0-369890 


10-86 


-0-249035 


+0-277405 


9-70 


+0-175152 


+0-372701 


10-88 


-0-254528 


+0-271864 


9-72 


+0-167671 


+0-375359 


10-90 


-0-259909 


+0-266225 


9-74 


+0-160139 


+0-377862 ! 


10-92 1 


-0-265176 


+0-260491 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



81 



Neumann Cylinder Functions — continued. 



X 


Yo(x) 


Y,(x) 


X 


YoCo!) 


YiW 


10-94 


-0-270328 


+0-254665 


12-12 


-0-332007 


1 -0-155112 


10-96 


-0-275362 


+0-248748 


1214 


t -0-328841 


-0-161460 


10-98 


-0-280277 


+0-242743 


12-16 


-0-325550 


-0-167733 


1100 


-0-285071 


1 +0-236653 


12-18 


-0-322133 


-0173929 


11-02 


! -0-289743 


i +0-230480 


12-20 


-0-318593 


-0180046 


11-04 


-0-294290 


+0-224228 


12-22 


; -0-314932 


-0-186082 


11-06 


-0-298711 


' +0-217898 


12-24 


-0-311150 


-0-192034 


1108 


-0-303005 


+0-211492 


12-26 


-0-307251 


\ -0197899 


1110 


-0-307170 


+0-205014 


12-28 


-0-303235 


-0-203676 


11-12 


-0-311205 


+ 0-198467 


12-30 


-0-299104 


, -0-209364 


11-14 


-0-315109 


+0191853 


12-32 


-0-294861 


-0-214959 


1116 


-0-318879 


+0-185175 


12-34 


; -0-290507 


1 -0-220460 


11-18 


-0-322515 


+0-178435 


12-30 


i -0-286043 


-0-225864 


11-20 


-0-326016 


+0-171637 


12-38 


-0-281473 


-0-231170 


11-22 


-0-329380 


+0-164783 


12-40 


! -0-276797 


-0-236376 


11-24 


-0-332607 


+0-157875 


12-42 


-0-272018 


-0-241479 


11-26 


-0-335695 


+0-150917 


12-44 


-0-267139 


-0-246478 


11-28 


-0-338643 


+0-143912 


12-46 


-0-262160 


-0-251372 


11-30 


-0-341451 


+0-136862 


12-48 


-0-257084 


-0-256158 


11-32 


-0-344118 


+0-129771 


12-50 


-0-251914 


-0-260834 


11-34 


-0-346642 


+0-122640 


12-52 


-0-246652 


-0-265399 


11-36 


-0-349023 


+0-115473 


12-54 


-0-241299 


—0-269851 


11-38 


-0-351261 


+0-108274 


12-56 


-0-235859 


-0-274189 


11-40 


-0-353354 


+0-101044 


12-58 


-0-230333 


-0-278412 


11-42 


-0-355302 


+0093786 


12-60 


-0-224723 


-0-282517 


11-44 


-0-357105 


+0-086504 


12-62 


-0-219032 


—0 286503 


11-46 


-0-358762 


+0 079200 


12-64 


-0-213263 


-0-290369 


11-48 


-0-360273 


+0-071878 


12-66 


-0-207418 


-0-294114 


11-50 


-0-361637 


+0-064540 


12-68 


-0-201500 


—0-297737 


11-52 


-0-362854 


+0-057189 


12-70 


-0195510 


-0-301235 


11-54 


-0-363924 


+0-049828 


12-72 


-0189451 


-0-304608 


11-56 


-0-364847 


+0-042460 


12-74 


-0-183326 


-0-307855 


11-58 


-0-365623 


+0-035088 


12-76 


-0-177138 


—0-310974 


11-60 


-0-366251 


+0-027715 


12-78 


-0-170888 


—0-313965 


11-62 


-0-366731 


+0020344 


12-80 


-0-164580 


-0-316827 


11-64 


-0-367065 


+0-012977 


12-82 


-0-158216 


—0-319558 


11-66 


-0-367251 


+0-005617 


12-84 


-0151799 


-0-322158 


11-68 


-0-367289 


-0-001732 


12-86 


-0-145331 


—0-324626 


11-70 


-0-367181 


-0009068 


12-88 


-0138815 


—0-326961 


11-72 


-0-366927 


-0-016387 


12-90 


-0-132253 


—0-329163 


11-74 


-0-366526 


-0023688 


12-92 


-0125649 


—0-331231 


11-76 


-0-365979 


-0-030967 


12-94 


-0119005 


—0-333163 


11-78 


-0-365288 


-0038221 


12-96 


-0112323 


—0-334960 


11-80 


-0-364451 


-0-045447 


12-98 


-0-105607 


—0-336622 


11-82 


-0-363470 


-0-052643 


1300 


-0-098859 


-0-338147 


11-84 


-0-362345 


-0-059807 


13-02 


-0-092082 


—0-339536 


11-86 


-0-361078 


-0-066935 


13-04 


-0-085279 


—0-340787 


11-88 


-0-359668 


-0074024 


1306 


-0078452 


—0-341901 


11-90 1 


-0-358117 


-0081071 


13-08 


-0-071604 


—0-342878 


11-92 


-0-356426 


-0-088075 , 


13-10 


-0064738 


-0-343717 


11-94 ' 


-0-354595 


-009503i? 


13-12 


-0057856 


—0-344418 


11-96 


-0-352625 


-0-101939 


13-14 


-0-050962 


—0-344981 


11-98 


-0-350517 1 


-0-108795 


13-lG 


-0044058 


-0-345406 


12-00 


-0-348273 i 


-0-115596 


13-18 


-0037147 


—0-345694 


12-02 


-0-345894 I 


-0-122340 


13-20 


-0-030231 


—0-345843 


12-04 


-0-343380 ' 


-0129024 


13-22 


-0-023314 


-0-345855 


12-06 


-0-340733 


-0-135645 


13-24 


-0016398 


—0-345729 


1208 


-0-337955 


-0-142202 


13-26 


-0 009485 


—0-345466 


1210 


-0-336046 1 


-0148692 


13-28 


-0-002580 


—0-345067 


I'JU. 










n 



82 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Neumann Cylinder Functions — continued. 



X 


Yo(.r) 


Yi{x) 


X 


Yo(a;) 


Y,{x] 


1330 


+0004316 


-0-344531 


14-42 


+0-299680 


-0-129889 


13-32 


+0-011201 


-0-343858 


14-44 


+0-302216 


-0-123694 


13-34 


+0-018070 


-0-343050 


14-46 


+0-304628 


-0-117459 


13-36 


+0-024922 


-0-342107 


14-48 


+0-306914 


-0-111185 


13-38 


+0-031753 


-0-341029 


14-50 


+0-309075 


-0-104876 


13-40 


+0-038562 


-0-339817 


14-52 


+0-311109 


-0-098534 


13-42 


+0-045345 


-0-338472 


14-54 


+0-313016 


-0092161 


13-44 


+0-052100 


-0-336994 


14-56 


+0-314795 


-0-085760 


13-46 


+0-058824 


-0-3.35386 


14-58 


+0-316446 


-0-079334 


13-48 


+0065515 


-0-333645 


14-60 


+0-317968 


-0-072886 


13-50 


+0072169 


-0-331775 


14-62 


+0-319362 


-0-066417 


13-52 


+0-078785 


-0-329776 ! 


14-64 


+0-320625 


-0-059931 


13-54 


+0085359 


-0-327649 


14-66 


+0-321759 


-0-053429 


13-56 


+0-091890 


-0-325395 


14-68 


+0-322762 


-0-046915 


13-58 


+0-098374 


-0-323014 


14-70 


+0-323635 


-0-040392 


13-60 


+0-104809 


-0-320508 ' 


14-72 


+0-324378 


-0-033861 


13-62 


+0-111193 


-0-317879 ' 


14-74 


+0-324990 


-0027326 


13-64 


+0-117524 


-0-315127 


14-76 


+0-325471 


-0-020788 


13-66 


+0-123798 


-0-312254 


14-78 


+0-325821 


-0-014251 


13-68 


+0-130013 


-0-309261 


14-80 


+0-326041 


-0-007717 


13-70 


+0-136167 


-0-306150 ' 


14-82 


+0-326130 


-0-001189 


13-72 


+0-142258 


-0-302922 


14-84 


+0-326088 


+0 005330 


13-74 


+0-148283 


-0-299577 


14-86 


+0-325917 


+0-011839 


13-76 


+0-154241 


-0-296118 


14-88 


+0-32,5615 


+0-018334 


13-78 


+0-160128 


-0-292547 


14-90 


+0-325183 


+0024813 


13-80 


+0-165942 


-0-288865 


14-92 


+0-324622 


+0-031274 


13-82 


+0-171681 


-0-285073 


14-94 


+0-323932 


+0-037714 


13-84 


+0-177344 


-0-281173 


14-96 


+0-323114 


+0044130 


13-86 


+0-182928 


-0-277167 


14-98 


+0-322167 


+0-050519 


13-88 


+0-188430 


-0-273056 


15-00 


+0-321093 


+0-056880 


13-90 


+0-193849 


-0-268843 


15-02 


+0-319893 


+0063210 


13-92 


+0-199183 


-0-264529 


15-04 


+0-318566 


+0-069507 


13-94 


+0-204430 


-0-260116 


15-06 


+0-317113 


+0-075767 


13-96 


+0-209587 


-0-255606 


15-08 


+0-315535 


+0081989 


13-98 


+0-214653 


-0-251001 


15-10 


+0-313833 


+0-088171 


1400 


+0-219627 


-0-246303 


1512 


+ 0-312008 


+0094309 


14-02 


+0-224505 


-0-241513 


15-14 


+0-310061 


+0-100401 


14-04 


+0-229286 


-0-236634 


15-16 


+0-307993 


+0-106445 


1406 


+0-233969 


-0-231668 


15-18 


+0-305804 


+0-112439 


14-08 


+0-238553 


-0-226617 


15-20 


+0-303496 


+0-118380 


14-10 


+0-243034 


-0-221483 


15-22 


+0-301069 


+0-124266 


14-12 


+0-247411 


-0-216268 


15-24 


+0-298525 


+0-130095 


14-14 


+0-251684 


-0-210975 


15-26 


+0-295865 


+0-135865 


14-16 


+0-255850 


-0-205605 


15-28 


+0-293091 


+0-141573 


14-18 


+0-259908 


-0-200161 


15-30 


+0-290203 


+0-147217 


14-20 


+0-263856 


-0-194645 


15-32 


+0-287203 


+0-162796 


14-22 


+0-267693 


-0-189059 i 


15-34 


+0-284092 


+0-158306 


14-24 


+0-271418 


-0-183406 ! 


15-36 


+0-280871 


+0163746 


14-26 


+0-275029 


-0-177688 ! 


15-38 


+0-277542 


+0-169113 


14-28 


+0-278525 


-0-171907 


15-40 


+0-274107 


+0-174406 


14-30 


+0-281905 


-0-166066 


15-42 


+0-270567 


+0-179624 


14-32 


+0-285167 


-0-160167 


15-44 


+0-266923 


+0-184763 


14-34 


+0-288311 


-0-154213 


15-46 


+0-263177 


+0-189822 


14-36 


+0-291335 


-0-148205 


1548 


+0-259330 


+0194799 


14-38 


+0-294239 


-0-142147 


15-50 


+0-255385 


+0-199691 


14-40 


+0-297021 


-0136041 









ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



83 



The Neumann G Functions. 

The Neumann Functions Gr„(a;) of order greater than unity are of 
frequent occurrence in physical problems, such as the diffraction of light, 
pressure of radiation, &c. Tables of the functions have been found from 
those of Go(a;) and Gi(a;) by {a) direct calculation and (6) logarithmic 
computation from the recurrence formula 

G„.i(a?) = - ^M - G-i(^) 

X 

and verified in the case when x is an integer by the relation 
Jn(«) G„„(x) - J„+i(a;) G„(a;) = . 

X 

The Bessel Functions J„(x) for positive integral values of n and x have 
been given by Meissel for x = 1 to a; = 24. 

The Tables may be used to calculate G„(x) for other values of the 
argument x by employing the following formula : 



G„(x + h) = G„(a;) + h g G„(x) - G„,,(x)1 

A^rrn(n_-2)_iJci„(.)+lG,„,(.)] + 



-ffl 





Tables 


of the Neumann Functions. 


G„(a^)- 




G«(a-) 


.T= 0-1 


0-2 


0-3 


0-4 


0-5 


m = 
1 
2 


+ 2-40998 
+ 1014570 


+ 1-69820 
+ 5-22105 


+ 1-26806 
+ 3-60200 


+0-95194 
+ 2-79739 


+0-69825 
+2-31138 
+ 8-54729 



G„(ar) 


x= 0-6 


0-7 


0-8 


0-9 


1-0 


w = 

1 
2 
3 


+0-48461 
+ 1-97982 
+ 6-11479 


+0-29950 
+ 1-73298 

+4-65188 


+0-13635 
+ 1-53647 
+ 3-70481 


-0-00884 
+ 1-37150 
+ 3-05663 


-0-13863 
+ 1-22713 
+ 2-59289 
+ 9-14442 



G„(a-) 


a;= 11 


1-2 


1-3 


1-4 


1-6 


» = 
1 
2 
3 


-0-25473 
+ 1-09660 

+ 2-24855 
+ 7-07994 


-0-35827 
+0-97568 
+ 1-98440 
+ 5-63900 


-0-45009 
+0-86161 
+ 1-77565 
+4-60192 


-0-53076 
+0-75264 
+ 1-60597 
+3-83584 


-0-60075 
+0-64765 
+ 1-46429 
+ 3-25711 

1 



Gr{x) 


x= 1-6 


1'7 


1-8 


1-9 


2-0 


n = 
1 
2 
3 
4 


-0-66041 
+0-54597 
+ 1-34287 
+2-81121 
+ 919916 


-0-71004 
+0-44725 
+ 1-23622 
+2-46149 
+ 7-45141 


-0-74995 
+0-35133 
+ 1-14032 
+ 2-18271 
+6-13537 


-0-78040 
+0-25825 
+ 1-05224 
+ 1-95700 
+5-12776 


-0-80170 
+0-16813 
+0-96982 
+ 1-77152 
+4-34473 



G Z 



84 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1914. 





Tables of the Neumann Functions. G„(a') — continued. 




Qnix) 


a;= 2-1 


2-2 


23 


2-4 


2-5 


n = 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


-0-81413 

+0-08118 
+0-89144 
+ 1-61681 
+ 3-72802 


-0-81805 
-000234 
+0-81592 
+ 1-48583 
+ 3-23634 


-0-81379 
-0-08212 
+0-74238 
+ 1-37322 

+ 2-83993 
+ 8-50480 


-0-80176 
-0-15785 
+0-67022 
+ 1-27488 
+2-51698 
+ 711504 


- 0-78237 
-0-22921 
+0-59900 
+ 1-18761 
+ 2-25126 ! 
+ 601643 



Qn(x) 


x= 2-6 

-0-75607 
-0-29588 
+0-52847 
+ 1-10891 
+ 2 03056 
+ 5-13897 


2-7 


2-8 


2-9 


80 


n «= 
1 
2 
■ 3 
4 
6 
6 


-0-72336 
-0-35756 
+0-45849 
+ 1-03682 
+ 1-84554 
+4-43145 


-0-68474 
-0-41398 
+0-38904 
+0-96974 
+ 1-68899 
+ 3-85593 


-0-64075 
-0-46486 
+0-32015 
+0-90645 
+ 1-55526 
+ 3-38393 


-0-59195 
-0-51000 
+0-25196 
+ 0-84594 
+ 1-43992 
+ 2-99385 
+ 8-53959 



Gn{T) 

M = 

1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 


a;= 81 


8-2 

-0-48232 
-0-58231 
+ 011837 
+0-73028 
+ 1-25090 
+2-39697 
+ 6-23963 


3-3 

-0-42269 
-0-60924 
+0 05345 
+0-67403 
+ 1-17206 
+216732 
+ 5-39557 


3-4 


8-5 


-0-53894 
-0-54920 
+ 0-18462 
+0-78742 
+ 1-33942 
+ 2-66914 
+ 7-27071 


-0-36068 
-0-62991 
-0-00986 
+0-61832 
+ 110100 
+ 1-97228 
+ 4-69982 


-0-29692 
-0-64432 
-007127 
+0-56287 
+ 103619 
+ 1-80557 
+ 4-12257 



G-.(a-) 


x= 3-6 


3-7 
-0-16662 


3-8 


8-9 


40 


« - 


-0-23202 


-0-10132 


-0-03672 


+0-02661 


1 


-0-65250 


-0-65451 


-0-65049 


-0-64060 


-0-62506 


2 


-013048 


-0-18717 


-0-24104 


-0-29180 


-0-33914 


3 


+0-50752 


+ 0-45217 


+0-39676 


+0-34133 


+ 0-28592 


4 


+0-97635 


+0-92041 


+0-86751 


+0-81691 


+ 0-76802 


5 


+ 1-66214 


+ 1-53791 


+ 1-42957 


+ 1-33439 


+ 1-25012 


6 


+3-64070 


+ 3-23611 


+ 2-89452 


+2-60460 


+ 2-35728 


'7 


— 


+ 8-95757 


. + 7-71102 


+ 6-67976 


+5-82172 



G„(*) 


:«= 4-1 

1 


4-2 


4-3 


4-4 


4-5 


n = 

\ 1 


+008811 
-0-60412 


+0-14726 

-0-57807 


+0-20357 
-0-54726 


+0-25657 
-0-51203 


+0-30584 
-0-47281 


2 


-0-38281 


-0-42254 


-0-45811 


-0-48931 


-0-51598 


3 

4 
6 
6 
7 
8 


+0-23065 
+0-72034 
+ 117490 
+214526 
+6-10391 


+0-17566 
+0-67348 
+ 1-10715 
+ 1-96260 
+4-60029 


+0-12111 
+0-62710 
+ 1-04558 
+ 1-80449 
+ 3-99020 


+0-06721 
+0-58095 
+0-98908 
+ 1-66694 
+3-55714 
+9-65122 


+001416 
+ 0-53486 
+0-93670 
+ 1-54669 
+3-18781 
+ 8-37095 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



85 



Tables of the Neumann Functions. G„(a;) — continued. 



Qn(x) 

n = 


x= 4-6 
+0-35101 


4-7 


4-8 


4-9 
+0-45876 


5-0 


+0-39174 


+0-42773 


+0-48462 


1 


-0-43000 


-0-38406 


-0-33547 


-0-28470 


-0-23226 


2 


-0-53797 


-0-55517 


-0-56751 


-0-57496 


-0-57752 


3 


-0-03780 


-0-08842 


-0-13746 


-0-18466 


-0-22976 


4 


+0-4886G 


+ 0-44229 


+0-39569 


+0-34885 


+0-30182 


5 


+0-88765 


+0-84125 


+0-79694 


+0-75421 


+0-71266 


G 


+ 1-44101 


+ 1-34761 


+ 1-26460 


+ 1-19036 


+ 112351 


7 


+ 2-87150 


+ 2-59946 


+ 2-36457 


+ 216095 


+ 1-98376 


8 


+ 7-29834 


+ 6-39546 


+ 5-63205 


+ 4-98377 


+4-43101 



Gn(x) 


x= 6-1 


5-2 
+0-52033 


5-8 


5-4 


5-5 


n = 


+0-50517 


+0-53005 


+0-53433 


+0-53325 


1 


-017866 


-012439 


-006998 


-001591 


+0-03732 


2 


-0-57523 


-0-56817 


-0-55645 


-0-54023 


-0-51968 


3 


-0-27251 


-0-31266 


-0-34999 


-0-38426 


-0-41527 


4 


+0-25464 


+0-20741 


+0-16024 


+011327 


+ 06666 


5 


+0-67194 


+0-63175 


+0-59186 


+0-55207 


+ 0-51223 


6 


+ 1-06289 


+ 1-00750 


+0-95647 


+0-90908 


+0-86467 


7 


+ 1-82897 


+ 1-69324 


+ 1-57374 


+ 1-46811 


+ 1-37432 


8 


+ 3-95783 


+ 3-55123 


+ 3-20058 


+ 2-89712 


+ 2-63361 


9 


— 


+ 9-23362 


+ 8-08839 


+ 711596 


+ 6-28707 



G„(xy 


X ^ 5-6 


5-7 


n = 


+0-52691 


+ 0-51547 


1 


+ 0-08923 


+013937 


2 


-0-49505 


-0-46657 


3 


-0-44283 


-0-46678 


4 


+0-02058 


-002478 


5 


+0-47224 


+0-43200 


6 


+0-82270 


+0-78268 


7 


+ 1-29069 


+ 1-21574 


8 


+2-40402 


+ 2-20335 


9 


+ 5-57794 


+4-96911 


10 


— 


1 — 



5-8 


6-9 


6-0 


+0-49911 


+0-47810 


+0-45270 


+0-18729 


+0-23260 


+0-27491 


-0-43453 


-0-39925 


-0-36106 


-0-48697 


-0-50328 


-0-51561 


-0-06923 


-0-11256 


-015455 


+0-39148 


+0-35066 


+0-30954 


+0-74419 


+0 70689 


+0-67046 


+ 1-14823 


+ 1-08709 


+ 1-03137 


+ 2-02740 


+ 1-87264 


+ 1-73607 


+ 4-44461 


+ 3-99125 


+ 3-59816 


— 


— 


+ 9-05841 



Ct„(x) 


X- 6-5 


7-0 


1 
7-5 


8-0 


8-5 


ti = 


+0-27213 


+0-04076 


-0-18428 


-0-35111 


-0-42444 


1 


+0-43054 


+0-47543 


+0-40704 


+ 0-24828 


+004111 


2 


-0-13965 


+ 09507 


+0-29282 


+ 0-41318 


+0-43411 


3 


-0-51648 


-0-42110 


-0-25087 


-004169 


+0-16318 


4 


-033710 


-0-4.5602 


0-49351 


- 0-44445 


-0-31892 


5 


+0-10159 


-0-10006 


-0-27555 


-0-40275 


-0-46334 


(> 


+0-49339 


+0-31307 


+0-12612 


-0-05900 


-0-22619 


7 


+0-80929 


+0-63676 


+ 0-47734 


+0-31426 


+ 0-14402 


8 


+ 1-24969 


+0-96044 


+0-76491 


+0-60895 


+ 0-46340 


9 


+ 2-26687 


+ 1-55854 


+ 1-15447 


+ 0-90364 


+0-72826 


10 


+ 5-02780 


+ 3-04723 


+ 2-00582 


+ 1-42424 


+ 1-07879 


11 





+ 7-14782 


+ 4-19437 


+2-65697 


+ 1-81008 


12 




. 





+ 5-88241 


+3-60612 


13 


— 






— 


+ 8-37191 



86 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 





Tables of the Neumann Functions. G„(a;) — oontinued. 




G„(a;) 


x= 90 


9-5 


10-0 


10-5 


11-0 


n = 


-0-39260 


-0-26894 


-008745 


+0-10608 


+0-26522 


1 


-0'16386 


-0-31915 


-0-39115 


-0-36710 


-0-25715 


2 


+0-35619 


+0-20175 


+000922 


-0-17600 


-0-31198 


3 


+0-32216 


+0-40410 


+0-39484 


+0-30005 


+0-14370 


4 


-014141 


+0-05347 


+0-22769 


+0-34746 


+0-39036 


5 


-0-44786 


-0-35907 


-0-21269 


-0-03532 


+0-14020 


6 


-0-35621 


-0-43144 


-0-44038 


-0-38110 


-0-26291 


7 


-002709 


-0-18591 


-0-31576 


-0-40022 


-0-42701 


8 


+0-31408 


+0-15747 


-000169 


-0-15253 


-0-28056 


9 


+0-58544 


+ 0-45112 


+0-31306 


+0-16780 


+0-01893 


10 


+0-85681 


+0-69729 


+0-56519 


+0-44018 


+0-31153 


11 


+ 1-31859 


+ 1-01685 


+0-81733 


+0-67064 


+0-54749 


12 


+2-36640 


+ 1-65763 


+ 1-23293 


+0-96497 


+0-78344 


13 


-+4-99180 


+317058 


+2-14171 


+ 1-53501 


+ 1-16185 



Gn{x) 


x= 11-5 


12-0 


12-5 


13-0 


13-& 


,1 = 


+0-35379 


+0-35380 


+0-26894 


+0-12285 


-0-04724 


1 


-0-09102 


+008969 


+0-24165 


+0-33000 


+ 0-33619 


2 


-0-36962 


-0-33885 


-0-23028 


-007208 


+0-09705 


3 


-003755 


-0-20264 


-0-31534 


-0-35217 


-0-30743 


4 


+0-35003 


+0-23753 


+0-07892 


-009046 


-0-23369 


5 


+0-28105 


+0-36100 


+0-36584 


+0-29651 


+0-16895 


6 


-0-10564 


+0-06330 


+0-21376 


+0-31854 


+0-35883 


7 


-0-39128 


-0-29770 


-0-16064 


-0-00247 


+0-15001 


8 


-0-37070 


-0-41061 


-0-39367 


-0-32120 


-0-20326 


9 


-0-12448 


-0-24979 


-0-34326 


-0-39285 


-0-39092 ! 


10 


+0-17587 


+003593 


-0-10063 


-0-22275 


-0-31796 ' 


11 


+0-43034 


+0-30968 


+0-18226 


+0-05016 


-0-08013 ' 


12 


+0-64738 


+0-53181 


+0-42140 


+0-30763 


+0-18737 


13 


+0-92073 


+ 0-75394 


+0-62684 


+0-51778 


+0-41324 



G (x) 


x= 14-0 


14-5 


15-0 


15-5 


16-0 1 

1 


H = 


-019979 


-0-29893 


-0-32274 


-0-26805 


-0-15050 


1 


+0-26177 


+0-12730 


-0-03310 


-0-18031 


-0-27956 


2 


+0-23719 


+0-31648 


+0-31833 


+0-24478 


+0-11555 


3 


-019400 


-003999 


+0-11799 


+0-24348 


+0-30845 


4 


-0-32033 


-0-33303 


-0-27113 


-0-15053 


+000012 


6 


+0-01095 


-0-14375 


-0-26259 


-0-32117 


-0-30839 


6 


+0-32815 


+0-23390 


+009607 


-0-05667 


-0-19286 


7 


+0-27032 


+0-33732 


+0-33945 


+0-27730 


+0-16375 


8 


-0-05783 


+0-09179 


+0-22075 


+0-30713 


+0-33614 


9 


-0-33641 


-0-23603 


-010398 


+003975 


+0-17239 


10 


-0-37470 


-0-38480 


-0-34553 


-0-26098 


-0-14220 1 


11 


-0-19887 


-0-29472 


-0-35672 


-0-37649 


-0-35014 


12 


+0-06218 


-0-06237 


-0-17766 


-0-27340 


-0-33925 


13 


+0-30548 


+0-19149 


+007246 


-004683 


-0-15873 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 87 

Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order. 
The solution of the equation 

dx^ I X- J 

being taken in the symbolical form 

As- "• + Be^ 



"--■(-ii)" 



X 

yields as standard functions of real quantities 

a / \ n + \ ( \ d\" mix 

\ X dxj X 

with E„(x) = X" '^ ( - ^ ^^y I" '" = C" (a;) - i S„ (x) 

as an important associated function. 

The functions (E„ [x) f = (S„ (x) y + (C„ (.*;) y- 

(E,:{x)y = (>ij{x)y-^{c„'(x)y 

are of importance, and have been tabulated with S„ (x), C„ {x), and their 
derivatives S„' (x), C„' {x). 

The connection with Bessel Functions is apparent from the differential 
equation, giving 

S„ (x) = s/ \vx J„ y 1 [x) 

From the differential equation, we obtain 

X 

S,/(x) = S„_i(x)-^'S„(x) 

X 

with corresponding formulse for C,,' {x), E,,' (a;). 

By elimination of S,/ (x), we get the recurrence formula 

^n.Ax)^—^- S„(a;)-S„_,(x). 



88 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 





Bessel Functions of Half-infegral 


Order. 




M 


S„(l) 


C„(l) 


[E„(l)]* 


n 






•8414710 


•5403023 


1-0 


1 


•3011687 


1-3817733 


2^0 


1 


2 


•0620351 


3-005018 


13-0 


2 


3 


•0090066 


16-64331 


2770 


3 


4 


•0010110 


112-8982 






5 


•0000926 


999-4403 






6 


•0000072 


10880-95 






7 


•0000005 


140452-8 







n 


S„'(l) 


C '(1) 


[E,.'(l)]' 


n 





•5403023 


—8414710 


1-0 





1 


•5403023 


—8414710 


10 


1 


2 


•1770986 


-5-828262 


340 


2 


3 


•0350153 


-46-32493 


2146-0 


3 


4 


•0049625 


-434-9494 






5 


•0005482 


-4884-304 






6 


-0000496 


-64286-23 






7 


-0000038 


-972289-0 









1 

2 

3 
4 



Log. [S„(l)] 



Log.[C„(l)J 



1-9250391 
1-4788098 
2-7926371 
3 9545600 
3-0047580 



1-7326308 

•1404368 

•5569074 

1-2212399 

2-0526869 



Log.[E„(X)]2 

•0000000 

•3010300 

11139434 

24424798 



n Log. [S„'(l)] 


Log. [C»'(l)] 


Log. [E„'(l)]-' 

•0000000 

•0000000 

1-5314789 

3-3310297 


n 



1 
o 

3 



1 
2 

3 

4 


1 •7326368 
i-7326368 
i-2482150 
2-5442579 
3-6957021 


1-9250391 
1-9250391 
-7655390 
1-6658147 
2-6384387 



n 



S„(2) 


Cn{2) j 


[E«(2)]» 


n 


•9092974 


—•4161468 


1-000000 





1 


•8707955 


•7012240 


1-250000 


1 


O 


•3968959 


1-4679828 


2-312500 


•r* 


3 


•1214442 


2-968733 


8-828125 


3 


4 


•0281588 


8-922583 


79-61328 


4 


5 


•0052703 


37-18289 


1382-567 


5 


6 


•0008281 


195-5833 






7 


•0001122 


1234-109 






8 


•0000134 


9060-232 






9 


•0000014 


75777-86 






10 


•0000001 


710829-4 







ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



89 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 



n 



S„'(2) 


C,.'{2) 


[E'''(2)]' 
1-0000000 


n 




-•4161468 


-•9092974 


1 


•4738997 


-•7667588 


-8125000 


1 


2 


•4738997 


-•7667588 


•8125000 


2 


3 


•2147296 


-2-985117 


8957031 


3 


4 


■0651266 


-1487643 


2213125 


4 


5 


•0149829 


-8403464 


7061^821 


5 


6 


•0027861 


-549^5671 






7 


•0004354 


-4123-797 






8 


•0000587 


-3500682 






9 


•0000070 


-3319401 






10 


■0000007 


-3478369^ 







n 



Log. [S„(2)] 


Log. [C„(2)] 
1-6192466 


Log. [E„(2jP 


n 



1-9587060 


•0000000 


1 


i-9399162 


1-8458568 


•0969100 


1 


2 


1-5986767 


•1667210 


•3640817 


2 


3 


10843767 


•4725711 


•9458684 


3 


4 


2-4496139 


•9504906 


1-9009855 


4 


5 


3-7218386 


r5703431 


\ 3-1406862 


5 


6 


4-9180733 


22913318 







n 


Log. [S„'(2)] 


Log. [C„'(2)] 
L9587000 


Log. [E„'(2)]» 
•0000000 


n 






i-6192466 


1 


r67568C4 


1-8846588 


1^9098234 


1 


2 


1^6756864 


1-8846588 


1-9098234 


2 


3 


1-3318919 


•4749613 


-9521642 


3 


4 


2-8137585 


1-1724988 


2-3450059 


4 


5 


2-1755970 


1-9244583 


3-8489167 


5 


G 


3-4449957 


2-7400207 







n 



S„(3) 


C,.(3) 


^_ [En(3)]* 


1 
n 




■1411200 


-■9899925 


] 0000000 


1 


1-03703-25 


-•1888775 


11111111 


1 


2 


•8959125 


•80111.50 


1 4444444 





3 


•4561550 


1-5240692 


2^530864 


3 


4 


■1684491 


2-755040 


7-618656 


4 


5 


•0491924 


6-741070 


45^44444 


5 


6 


•0119231 


21-96221 


482-3389 


6 


7 


•0024745 . 


88-42851 






8 


■0004495 


420-1803 






9 


■0000726 


2292-593 






10 


■0000106 


14099-58 






11 


•0000014 


96404-45 






12 


■0000002 


725001-2 




1 



90 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 



n 


S„'(8) 


C,/(3) 


[E„'(3)]2 


n 





-•9899925 


-•1411200 


1-0000000 





1 


-■2045575 


-•9270333 


-9012346 


1 


2 


•4397575 


-•7229542 


•7160494 


2 


3 


•4397575 


-•7229542 


•7160494 


3 


4 


■2315561 


-2149326 


4^673220 


4 


5 


■0864617 


-8^480070 


71^91907 


5 


6 


•0253460 


-37^18335 


1382-602 


6 


7 


•0061492 


-184-3710 






8 


•0012759 


-1032052 






9 


•0002316 


-6457-600 






10 


•0000374 


-4470500 






11 


•0000054 


-3393834 






12 


•0000007 


-2803600- 







n 


Log. [S„(3)] 


Log. [C„(3)] 


Log.[En(3)P 


n 





i-1495886 


i9956319 


•0000000 





1 


•0157924 


r2761801 


-0457574 


1 


2 


1-9522656 


19036949 


-1597008 


2 


3 


1-6591125 


•1830046 


-4032688 


3 


4 


r2264687 


•4401289 


-8818784 


4 


5 


2-6918984 


•8287288 


1-6574808 


5 


6 


2^0763909 


1-3416761 


2-6833523 


6 


7 


3-3934926 


19465923 







n 


Log.[S«'{3)l 


Log-[C„'(3)] 


Log. (E„'(3)]2 


n 






1-9956319 


i-1495886 


'0000000 


1 


i-3108155 


1-9670954 


1-9548378 


1 


2 


1-6432133 


1-8591108 


1-8549430 


2 


3 


1-6432133 


1-8591108 


1-8549430 


3 


4 


1-3646563 


•3323022 


-6696163 


4 


5 


2-9368240 


■9283995 


1-8568440 


5 


6 


2-4039119 


r 5703485 


3-1406973 


6 


7 


3-7888217 


2-2656927 







n 


S„(4) 


C„(4) 


[E„(4)? 


n 





-•7568025 


-•6536436 


1-0000000 





1 


•4644430 


-•9202134 


10625000 


1 


2 


11051347 


-•0365164 


1-2226562 


2 


3 


•9169754 


•8745679 


1-6057129 


3 


4 


■4995723 


15670102 


2-705093 


4 


5 


•2070622 


2-6512051 


7071763 


5 


6 


•0698487 


57238037 


32-76681 


6 


7 


•0199460 


15-95116 


254-4398 


7 


8 


•0049490 


54-09304 


2926-056 


8 


9 


•0010870 


2139442 






10 


•0002144 


9621421 






11 


•0000384 


4837-302 






12 


•0000063 


26862-34 






13 


•0000009 


162989-8 






14 


•0000001 


1073329- 







ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



91 



Bessel Functions of Half -integral Order — continued. 



71 


S"'(4) 


C„'(4) 


[En'(i)7 


)i 





—6536436 


+ •7668025 


10000000 





1 


-•8729132 


-•4235903 


-9414062 


1 


2 


-0881244 


-•9019552 


•8212891 


2 


3 


•4174032 


-•6924423 


•6537018 


3 


4 


•4174032 


-•6924423 


•6537018 


4 


5 


•2407446 


-1 •746996 


3109954 


5 


6 


•1022891 


-5-934501 


35^22876 


6 


7 


•0349431 


-2219072 


4924293 


7 


8 


•0100481 


-92-23491 


8507279 


8 


9 


•0025032 


-427-2815 






10 


•0005511 


-2191-411 






11 


•0001088 


-12340-44 






12 


•0000195 


-75719-73 






13 


•0000032 


-5028647 






U 


•0000005 


-3593662^ 







71 


Log. [S„(4)] 


Log. [C„{4)] 


Log. [En(4)]-' 


71 





18789825 


1-8153410 


-0000000 





1 


16669324 


1-9638885 


-0263289 


1 


2 


00434153 


2-5624884 


•0873043 


2 


3 


1-9623577 


1-9417935 


•2056678 


3 


4 


1-6985983 


01950719 


-4321823 


4 


5 


1-3161007 


•4234433 


•8495276 


5 


6 


2-8441582 


•7576848 


1-5154341 


6 


7 


2-2998566 


12027922 


2-4055851 


7 


8 


3-6945133 


1 7331414 


3-4662827 


8 


9 


3-0362346 


2-3303006 







n 



Log. [S„(4)] 


Log. [C„'(4)] 


Log. [(E„'(4)]2 


71 


1-8153410 


r8789825 


00000000 





1 


1-9409711 


16269460 


1-9737771 


1 


2 


2-9450960 


19551850 


1-9144960 


2 


3 


1-6205557 


18403836 


1-8153797 


3 


4 


1-6205557 


1-8403836 


1-8153797 


4 


5 


1-3815565 


-2422918 


-4927540 


5 


6 


10098296 


•7733841 


1-5468972 


6 


7 


25433616 


13461714 


26923439 


7 


8 


2-0020852 


19648953 


39297907 


8 


9 


3-3984910 


26307141 







92 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Bessel Functions of Half -integral Order — continued. 




n 


S„'(6) 


C„'(5) 


[E'(5„)P 


n 





•2836622 


•9589243 


. -1 0000000 





1 


-■8638349 


•4641006 


•9616000 


1 


2 


-•7449095 


-■5722009 


•8823040 


2 


3 


-0158058 


-•8713060 


•7594240 


3 


4 


•4010325 


-•6692476 


•6087194 


4 


5 


•4010325 


-•6692476 


•6087194 


6 


6 


•2462544 


-15081202 


2 ■335068 


6 


7 


•1145151 


-4599725 


21 17059 


7 


8 


•0435824 


-15-37324 


236-3383 


8 


9 


■0141443 


-56-38612 






10 


•0040171 


-2281139 






11 


•0010165 


-1013648 






12 


•0002323 


-4912292 






13 


•0000484 


-2582365 






14 


•0000093 


-1461979 






15 


•0000017 


-887167^7 






16 


•0000003 


-5744114^ 







?! 


Log.[S„(5)] 


Log. [C„(5)] 


Log.[E„(5)]2 


1 
n j 





1'9817843 


1-4528015 


•0000000 





1 


1-6771021 


19552989 


-0170333 


1 


2 


1-8284378 


19164420 


■0547662 


<> 


3 


-0603589 


2^8876992 


-1226745 


3 


4 


1-9708527 


f-9699178 


-2418014 


4 


5 


1-7275867 


•2047506 


-45.52503 


5 





1-3799116 


-4130413 


•8309850 


6 


7 


2-9518904 


-7107073 


1-4215464 


7 


8 


2-4579904 


1-1078501 


22157021 


8 


9 


3-9079754 


1-5848650 






10 


3-3089316 


2-1247668 







ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



93 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 



n 


Log. [S,/(5)l 


Log. [C «'(5)] 


Log. [E,.'(5)]' 


n 





1-4.528015 


r9817843 


-0000000 





1 


1-9364307 


1-6666121 


i -9829945 


1 


2 


1-872103.') 


1-7.575486 


1-9456183 


2 


3 


2-1988161) 


1-9401707 


1-8804846 


3 


4 


1-6031796 


1-825.5868 


1-7844172 


4 


5 


1-6031796 


1-825.5868 


1-7844172 


5 


6 


1-3913840 


•17843.59 


•3682996 





7 


1-0.588626 


-6627318 


1 -.3257329 


7 


8 


2-6393112 


1-1867653 


2-3735.342 


8 


9 


2-1505807 


1-7511723 






10 


3-6039080 


2-3581517 







n 


S„(6) 


C„(6) 


[En(6)]» 


n 






- -2794155 


•9601703 


1-0000000 


I 


-1-0067395 


-•1193871 


1-0277778 


1 


2 


- -2239543 


-1-0198638 


1-0902778 


2 


3 


•8201110 


-•7304994 


1-2062114 


3 


4 


11 807504 


•1676145 


1-4222661 


4 


5 


•9510146 


•9819212 


1-868.5981 


5 


6 


•5627764 


1 6325743 


2-982016 


6 


7 


•2683343 


25553232 


6-601680 


7 


8 


•1080593 


4^755734 


22-62868 


8 


9 


•0378337 


109192G 


119-2316 


9 


10 


•0117474 


2982191 


889-3466 


10 


11 


•0032822 


93-45743 






12 


•0008345 


328-4316 






13 


•0001948 


1275007 






U 


•0000420 


5409-102 






15 


•0000084 


24868-98 






16 


•0000016 


123080-6 






17 


•0000003 


652074-6 







n 


S,.'(G) 
•9601703 


C„'(6) 


[E»'(6)]^ 


n 





•2794155 


10000000 





1 


-1116256 


•9800681 


•9729938 


1 


2 


-•9320881 


•2205675 


•9174383 


2 


3 


-•6340098 


-•6546141 


•8304880 


3 


4 


•0329440 


-•8422424 


•7104576 


4 


5 


•3882382 


-•6506531 


•5740783 


5 


6 


■3882382 


-•6506531 


•5740783 


6 


7 


-2497198 


-13486361 


1-8811792 


7 


8 


•1242552 


-3^785655 


14-34662 


8 


9 


-0513087 


-11-62315 


135-1002 


9 


10 


•0182547 


-38-78393 


1504-193 


10 


11 


•0057300 


-141-6167 






12 


•0016133 


-563-4057 






13 


•0004125 


-2434-084 






14 


•0000967 


-11346-23 






15 


•0000197 


-56763-36 






16 


•0000040 


-3033461 






17 


•0000008 


-1833143- 







94 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Or<?flr— continued. 



n 


Log. [S„(6)] 


Log. [C„(6)] 


Log.[E„(6)]» 


n 





i -4462504 


1-9823482 


-0000000 





1 


•0029172 


1-0769574 


•0118993 


1 


2 


1-3501593 


•0085422 


•0375371 


2 


3 


1-913872G 


1-8636199 


•0814234 


3 


4 


-0721581 


12243116 


-1529808 


4 


5 


1-9781872 


1-9920766 


-2715159 


6 


6 


1-7503359 


-2128730 


-4745099 


6 


7 


1-4286762 


-4074458 


•8196545 


7 


8 


10336621 


•6772176 


1-3546592 


8 


9 


2-5778788 


10381930 


20763912 


9 


10 


2-0699421 


1-4745354 


2-9490710 


10 


11 


3-5161693 


1-9706139 


3-9412276 


11 



n 


Log. [S„'{6)] 


Log. [C,/(6)] 


Log. [E„'(6)]> 


w . 





i •9823482 


f-4462504 


-0000000 





1 


10477638 


1-9912562 


1-9881101 


1 


2 


1-9694570 


1-3435416 


1-9625768 


2 


3 


1-8020960 


1-8159854 


1-9193334 


3 


4 


2-5177768 


1-9254370 


1-8515380 


4 


5 


i -5890982 


1-8133495 


i -7.589712 


5 


6 


1-5890982 


1-8133496 


1-7689712 


6 


7 


1-3974530 


•1298948 


-2744302 


7 


8 


10943146 


•5781411 


1-1667497 


8 


9 


2-7101914 


1-0653238 


2-1306561 


9 


10 


2-2613742 


1-5886518 


3-1773036 


10 


11 


3-7581532 


21508077 







n 


S„(7) 


0(7) 


LEn(7)]2 


1 
n 





-6569866 


■7539023 


1-0000000 





1 


- -6600470 


-7646869 


1-0204082 


1 


2 


--9398639 


- -4261793 


10649730 


2 


3 


-0112843 


-10691007 


1-1431036 


3 


4 


-9285796 


-•6429214 


1-2756080 


4 


5 


1-2051723 


•2424875 


15112406 


5 


61 


•9652627 


10239731 


1 •9802530 


6 


7 


-5874584 


1-6591769 


3 097975 


7 


8 


•2935767 


2-531406 


6-494203 


8 


9 


•1255135 


4-488523 


20-16258 


9 


10 


-0471029 


9-651729 


93-15808 


10 


11 


-0157952 


24-46666 


598-6178 


11 


12 


-0047955 


70-73873 






13 


-0013317 


2281717 






14 


-0003410 


809-3520 






15 


-0000811 


3124-858 






16 


-0000180 


13029-31 






17 


-0000037 


58299-01 






18 


-0000007 


278466-7 






.19 

1 


-0000001 


1413591- 







ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



95 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 



n 


S„'(7) 


C„'(7) 


[E„'(7)]» 


■n 





•7539023 


-•6569866 


10000000 





1 


•7512790 


•f •6446613 


•9800082 


1 


2 


-•3915145 


+ •8864524 


•9390815 


2 


3 


-•9350278 


+ 0320067 


•8753014 


3 


4 


-•5419012 


-•7017170 


•7860638 


4 


5 


•0677422 


-•8161267 


•6706518 


5 


6 


•3778043 


-•6352038 


•5462200 


6 


7 


•3778043 


-•6352038 


•5462200 


7 


8 


•2519422 


-12338585 


1 •585882 


8 


9 


•1322021 


-3 239553 


1051218 


9 


10 


•0582237 


-9299661 


86^48708 


10 


U 


•0222819 


-28^79588 


8292033 


11 


12 


•0075743 


-96^79974 






13 


•0023224 


-3530087 






14 


•0006497 


-1390532 






15 


•0001673 


-5886-773 






16 


■0000400 


-2665641 






17 


•0000089 


-1285440 






18 


•0000019 


-6577558 






19 


•0000004 


-3558425^ 







n 



Log. [S„(7)J 


Log. [C„(7)] 


Log [E,,(7)]2 


n 


i •8175564 


i 8773150 


•0000000 





1 


18195749 


18834836 


•0087739 


1 


1 2 


19730650 


16295924 


•0273386 


2 


3 


20524737 


•0290186 


•0580857 


3 


4 


19678191 


18081579 


•1057172 


4 


5 


•0810491 


1-3846893 


•1793337 


6 


6 


19846455 


•0102885 


•2967208 


6 


7 


1 •7689771 


•2198927 


•4910780 


7 


8 


14677215 


•4033618 


•8125259 


8 


9 


10986904 


•6521034 


13045461 


9 


10 


26730476 


•9846051 


1-9692206 


10 


11 


21985243 


13885748 


27771497 


11 


12 


3-6808361 


18496573 






13 


31244043 


23582617 







96 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 



n 



Log. [S„'(7)] 


Log, [C„'(7)] 


Log. [E„'(7)P 


11 



18773150 


1-8175564 


-0000000 


1 


1-8758012 


i-8093316 


1-9912297 


1 


2 


1-5927478 


1-9476554 


1-9727033 


2 


3 


i -9708245 


2-5052413 


1-9421576 


3 


4 


i -7339202 


1-8461593 


1-8954578 


4 


6 


2-8308592 


1-9117576 


i -8264970 


5 


6 


i-5772670 


1-8029131 


17373676 


6 


7 


1-5772670 


1-8029131 


1-7373676 


7 


8 


1-4013009 


-0912654 


•2002709 


8 


9 


1-1212385 


•5104850 


1-0216928 


9 


10 


2-7650977 


•9684671 


1-9369512 


10 


11 


2-3479526 


14593304 


2-9186610 


11 


12 


3 8793411 


1-9858742 






13 


3-3659326 


2-5477854 







71 


S„(8) 
•9893582 


C,.(8) 


[E,.(8)]2 


n 






-1455000 


10000000 


1 


•2691698 


■9711707 


10156250 


1 


2 


-■8884196 


-5096891 


10490725 


2 


3 


-•8244320 


- -6526151 


1-1055944 


3 


4 


•1670415 


-1-0807273 


11958744 


4 


5 


10123538 


- -5632031 


" 13420578 


5 


6 


1 2249449 


•3063230 


1-5943238 


6 


7 


•9781817 


10609780 


2082514 


7 


8 


•6091458 


1-6830107 


3 203583 


8 


9 


•3162531 


2-515420 


6427352 


9 


10 


•1419553 


4-291111 


1843378 


10 


11 


•0563796 


8^748747 


7654376 


11 


12 


-0201360 


2086164 


4352041 


12 


' 13 


-0065454 


5644356 






14 


-0019547 


1696355 






15 


■0005403 


"568 4850 






16 


-0001391 


1994494 






17 


-0000336 


7668802 






18 


-0000076 


3155652 






19 


-0000016 


1382801 






20 


■0000003 


642558 9 







ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



97 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 



n 



S„'(8) 


C,.'(8) 


[E«'(8)]-^ 


n 



- 1455000 


-•9893582 


10000000 


1 


■9557120 


- 2668964 


•9846190 


1 


2 


•4912747 


•8437485 


•9532622 


2 


3 


-■5792576 


•7544197 


•9046883 


3 


4 


-•9079528 


-1122515 


-8369787 


4 


5 


-•4656796 


- 7287253 


■7478982 


5 


6 


■0936451 


-•7929453 


■6375318 


6 


7 


•3690359 


- 6220327 


•5231121 


7 


8 


•3690359 


-•6220327 


■5231121 


8 


9 


•2533611 


-11468365 


1-379426 


9 


10 


•1388090 


-2848469 


8-133044 


10 


11 


•0644334 


-7-738416 


59-88724 


11 


12 


•0261760 


-2254356 


508-2127 


12 


13 


•0094997 


-70-85924 






14 


■0031247 


-2404185 






15 


•0009416 


-877-5239 






16 


■0002621 


-3430503 






17 


•0000679 


-1430171 






18 


•0000165 


-63333-36 






19 


•0000038 


-296858^7 






20 


■0000008 


-1468117^ 







n 



Log- [S»(8)] 


Log. [C,;(8)] 


Log. [E„(8)] 


n 



i -9953536 


1-1628630 


0-0000000 


1 


1-4300263 


1-9872956 


-0067334 


1 


2 


1-9486181 


1-7073053 


-0208055 


2 


3 


1-9161549 


1-8146570 


-0435958 


3 


4 


1-2228244 


-0337162 


-0776855 


4 


5 


•0053323 


1-7506650 


-1277712 


5 


6 


-0881165 


1-4861797 


-2025765 


6 


7 


1-9904195 


-0257063 


-3185878 


7 


8 


i -7847213 


-2260868 


•5056360 


8 


9 


1-5000347 


-4006105 


•8080321 


9 


10 


11521516 


-6325697 


12656145 


10 


11 


2-7511219 


-9419459 


18839098 


11 


12 


23039729 


1-3193463 


26386930 


12 


13 


3-8159352 


1-7516144 






14 


3-2910760 


2-2296167 







1914. 



98 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Bessel Fmictions of Half-integral Ort^cr-— continued. 



n 


Log.[S„'(8)] 


Log. LC„'(9)] 
1-9953536 


Log. [E„'(8)]2 








1 -1628630 


-0000000 


1 


1 •9803270 


1-4263426 


1-9932682 


1 ; 


2 


1-6913243 


i-9262130 


1-9792124 


2 


3 


1-7628717 


1-8776130 


1-9564990 


3 


4 


1-9580633 


1-0501919 


1-9227145 


4 


6 


i -6680872 


1-8625639 


1-8738424 


5 


6 


2-9714850 


1-8992433 


1-8045018 


6 


7 


i -5670687 


1-7938132 


1-7185948 


7 


8 


1-5670687 


1-7938132 


1-7185948 


8 1 


9 


1-4037399 


■0595015 


0-1396984 


9 


10 


1-1424175 


-4546115 


■9102531 


10 1 


11 


2-8091109 


■8886521 


1-7773344 


11 


12 


2-4178966 


1-3530225 


2-7060455 


12 1 


13 


3-9777117 


1-8503964 






14 


3-4948071 


2-3809678 







n i 


!u(9) 


C„(9) 


[E«(9)P 


n 






4121185 


-•9111303 


1-0000000 


1 


9569212 


•3108818 


1-0123457 


1 


2 - 


0931448 


1-0147575 


1-0384086 


2 


3 -1 


0086683 


•2528724 


1-0813561 


3 


4 


6913750 


-•8180790 


1-1472525 


4 


5 


3172933 


-10709514 


1-2476118 


5 


6 1 


0791779 


-•4908616 


1-4055701 


6 


7 1 


2415193 


•3619291 


1-6723628 


7 


8 


9900209 


r0940767 


2-177146 


8 


9 


6285202 


17046603 


3-300904 


9 


10 


3368550 


2-604651 


6-386745 


10 


11 


1574749 


4139524 


17-16046 


11 


12 


0655808 


8074134 


65-19594 


12 


13 


0246941 


18^28863 


3344745 


13 


14 


0085014 


4679174 


21894-67 


14 


15 


0026992 


132-4848 






16 


0007959 


409-5447 






17 


0002192 


1369179 






18 


0000567 


4915041 






19 


0000138 


18837^10 






20 


0000032 


76712^39 






21 


0000007 


3306304 






22 

1 


0000001 


1502966^ 







ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



99 



Begael Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 



71 


S,/(9) 
-•9111303 


C '(9) 


[En'(9)]' 


n 





-•4121185 


l^OOOOOOO 





1 


•3057939 


- 0456727 


•9878066 


1 


2 


•9776200 


•0853801 


•9630307 


2 


3 


■2430780 


•9304667 


•9248551 


3 


4 


-•7013905 


•6164631 


•8719753 


4 


5 


—8676491 


-•2231060 


•8025912 


5 


6 


-•4021587 


-•7437103 


•7148366 


6 


7 


•1135518 


-•7723620 


•6094370 


7 


8 


•3616007 


-•6105836 


•5034950 


8 


9 


•3615007 


-•6105836 


•5034950 


9 


10 


•2542368 


-r0782848 


1227334 


10 


11 


•1443857 


— 2^554768 


fr547686 


11 


12 


•0700338 


-6^625988 


43^90862 


12 


13 


•0299116 


-18-34277 


336-4581 


13 


14 


•0114697 


-54-49853 


2970090 


14 


15 


•0040027 


-174^0162 






16 


•0012842 


-5955946 






17 


•0003818 


-2176-682 






18 


•0001059 


-8460-902 






19 


•0000275 


-34852-17 






20 


•0000068 


-151634-87 






21 


•0000016 


-694758-6 






22 


•0000003 


-3343287- 







n 



Log. [S„(9)] 


Log. [C„(9)] 


Log. [E„(9)]2 


n 



f-6150221 


f-9595804 


0-0000000 


1 


f-9808761 


1-4925953 


-0053288 


1 


2 


2^9691584 


-0063623 


-0163683 


2 


3 


-0037484 


1-4029014 


•0339688 


3 


4 


1-8397137 


1-9127952 


•0596590 


4 


5 


1-5014608 


-0297698 


•0960795 


5 


6 


•0330930 


1-6909590 


•1478524 


6 


7 


•0939534 


1-5586235 


•2233305 


7 


8 


1-9956444 


-0390477 


•3378876 


8 


9 


1-7983192 


•2316378 


•5186329 


9 


10 


1-5274431 


•3987471 


■8052796 


10 


11 


1-1972113 


•6169504 


1-2345289 


11 


12 


2-8167769 


•9070959 


1-8142206 


12 


13 


2-3925925 


12621811 


2-5243630 


13 


14 


3-9294886 


r6701692 


3-3403384 


14 


15 


3"-4312382 


2^ 1221659 






16 


4-9008836 


2-6123012 







H 



100 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order — continued. 




n 


S (10) 


C„(10) 


[E,. (10)]' 


71 





-•5440211 


-•8390715 


1^0000000 





1 


■7846694 


-•6279283 


1 0100000 


1 


2 


•7794219 


•6506930 


P0309000 


2 


3 


-•3949584 


•9532748 


V0647250 


3 


4 


-1-0558929 


•0165993 


M151852 


4 


5 


-•5553451 


-•9383354 


1-1888816 


5 


«} 


•4450132 


-r0487683 


1-2979516 


6 


7 


11 338623 


-•4250633 


1-4663225 


7 


8 


1-2557802 


•4111733 


1-7460475 


8 


9 


10009641 


1-1240579 


2-265235 


9 


10 


•6460515 


1-7245367 


3-391409 


10 


11 


-3557441 


2-497469 


6-363907 


11 


12 


-1721600 


4019643 


16-18716 


12 


13 


-0746558 


7551637 


57-03279 


13 


14 


-0294108 


16^36978 


267-9704 


14 


15 


•0106354 


39-92072 


1593-663 


15 


IG 


•0035590 


107-3844 






17 


•0011094 


314-4480 






18 


•0003239 


993^1834 






19 


•0000890 


3360^331 






20 


•0000231 


1211211 






21 


•0000057 


46299-30 






22 


•0000013 


186974-9 






23 


•0000003 


795087^8 







ON The calculation of mathematical tables. 



101 



Bessel Functions of Half-integral Order— continued. 



n S 


„'(10) 


C '(10) 


[E»'(10)]' 


n 


- 


8390715 


•5440211 


1-0000000 





1 - 


6224881 


-•7762787 


-9901000 


1 


2 


6287850 


-•7580669 


•9700360 


2 


3 


8979095 


•3647106 


•9392552 


3 


4 


0273987 


•9466351 


•8968684 


4 


5 - 


7782203 


•4857670 


•8415964 


5 


6 - 


8223531 


-•3090745 


•7717916 





7 


3486904 


-•7512239 


•6859223 


7 


8 


1292381 


-•7540019 


•6852213 


8 


9 


3549126 


-•6004788 


•4865378 


9 


10 


3549126 


-•6004788 


•4865378 


10 


11 


2547330 


-r0226794 


M10762 


11 


12 


1491522 


-2326102 


5-432996 


12 


13 


0751074 


-5797486 


3361647 


13 


14 


0334807 


-1536605 


236-1167 


14 


15 


0134576 


-43-51130 


1893-233 


15 


16 


0049410 


-131-8944 






17 


0016730 


-427^1771 






18 


0005264 


- 1473-282 






19 


0001549 


-5391-445 






20 


0000428 


-20863-88 






21 


0000112 


-85116-43 






22 


0000028 


-365045-5 






23 


0000007 


-1641727- 







n 


Log. [S„(10)] 


Log. [C„(10)] 


Log. [E„(10)]» 


n 





i-7356158 


f-9237990 


•0000000 





1 


1-8946867 


1-7979100 


•0043214 


1 


2 


1-8917726 


1-8133761 


-0132165 


2 


3 


1-5965514 


1-9792181 


-0272375 


3 


4 


00236199 


2-2200898 


•0473370 


4 


5 


1-7445630 


1-9723581 


•0751386 


5 


6 


1-6483729 


0-0206795 


•1132584 


6 


7 


-0545604 


1-6284536 


•1662294 


7 


8 


-0989136 


1-6140292 


•2420560 


8 


9 


-0004185 


00507886 


-3551134 


9 


10 


1-8102671 


0-2366724 


•5303798 


10 


11 


1-5511378 


0-3975001 


-8037238 


11 


12 


1-2359323 


0-6041873 


1-2091707 


12 


13 


2-8730639 


0-8780411 


1-7561246 


13 


14 


2-4685065 


1-2140428 


2-4280865 


14 


15 


2-0267549 


1-6011983 


3-2023961 


16 


16 


3-5513330 


2-0309414 






17 


3-0450910 


2-4975488 







102 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914.' 
Bessel Functimis of Half-integral Order — continued. 



n 


Log. [S„'(10)] 


Log. [C„'{10)] 
1-7356158 


Log. [E„'(10)J--' 
•0000000 


n 





1-9237990 





1 


f-7941311 


f-8900177 


1-9956791 


1 


2 


r-7985024 


f-8797075 


1-9867879 


2 


3 


1-9532326 


f-5619484 


1-9727835 


3 


4 


2-4377299 


1-9761826 


1-9527289 


4 


5 


r8911026 


r6864279 


i-9251039 


5 


6 


1-9150583 


1-4900631 


r-8875001 


6 


7 


r-5424400 


1-8757693 


f8362748 


7 


8 


1-1113905 


1-8773724 


1-7673201 


8 


9 


1-5501214 


1-7784977 


r6871163 


9 


10 


1-5501214 


1-7784977 


1-6871163 


10 


11 


i -4060852 


0-0097390 


-0456210 


11 


12 


1-1736296 


-3666287 


-7350394 


12 


13 


2"-8756827 


-7632397 


1-5265521 


13 1 


14 


2"-5247951 


1-1865623 


2-3731267 


14 


15 


2'- 1289691 


1-6386021 


3-2772041 


15 


16 


3'-6938116 


21202264 






17 


3"-2235085 


2-6306079 




1 



Binary Canon. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lt.-Col. 
Allan Cunningham, K.E. {Chairman), Prof. A. E. H. Love 
(Secretary), and Major P. A. MacMahon, appointed for 
Disposing of Copies of tlie Binary Canon by presentation to 
Mathematical Societies. 

The Committee have sent out fifty-eight copies of the above w^ork 
to representative Mathematical Societies at home and abroad (thirteen 
and forty-five respectively) at a cost of il. 9s., as per enclosed account, 
and return now the unexpended balance of eleven shillings. 



Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry 
(Secretanj), Professor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. DoBBiE, and Dr. M. O. Forster. (Drawn up by 
the Secretary^) 

Anomalous Rotatory Dispersion. 

During the year much justification has been found for the view 
expressed in the Eeport presented at Birmingham ' that a knowledge 
of the phenomena of dynamic isomerism is essential for the interpreta- 
tion of optical rotation, especially in the case of liquids which show 
anomalous rotatory dispersion,' and that ' the study of rotatory 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 103 

dispersion will open up a new and fruitful field for the investigation of 
dynamic isomerism.' The importance of this aspect of the subject is 
«hown by the conspicuous part which it played in a general discussion 
on ' Optical Eotatory Power, ' held before the Faraday Society on 
March 27, 1914, to which the Chairman and Secretary of this Com- 
mittee contributed papers. Preliminary experiments, which will be 
described in a subsequent Eeport, have shown (1) that ethyl tartrate, 
the typical example of anomalous rotatory dispersion, is probably a 
mixture, and (2) that nitrocamphor, the typical example of dynamic 
isomerism, gives rise to anomalous rotatoiy dispersion in certain 
solvents. 

Dynamic Isomerism, Metavierism, Tautomerism, avd, Desmotropy. 

Attention has recently been directed {Proc. Chem. Soc, April 4, 
1914) to the importance of maintaining strict accuracy in the use of 
terms to describe the phenomena of reversible isomeric change. 

Briefly, it may be said that all the essential facts in reference to 
the conception of equilibrium between isomerides are set out in 
Butlerow's classical, but almost forgotten, paper, ' Ueber Isodibutylen ' 
(Annalen, 1877, 189, 44). The name dynamic isomerism was intro- 
duced in 1899 (Trans. Chem.. Soc, 75, 235) as a paraphrase of Butle- 
row's description of ' a condition of equilibrium depending on incessant 
isomeric change '; but the adjective isodynamic had already been sug- 
gested by Armstrong in 1889 {Watts' Dictionary, 'Isomerism') to 
describe those isomerides ' which change their type with exceptional 
facility in the course of chemical interchanges.' The word metameric 
had been used in this sense in 1833 by Berzelius to describe isomerides 
which were readily converted into one another, but the usefulness of 
the word was destroyed by a misguided attempt to transfer it to another 
usage. 

The hypothesis of tautomerism was introduced by Laar in 1885 
(Ber. 18, 648 ; 19, 730) to account for the facts which had already (a? 
time has shown) been explained adequately by Butlerow. Laar asserts 
that, in every case of tautomerism, the different formulae suggested 
by the reactions of the substance represent, ' not isomeric, but identical 
bodies '; the term cannot, therefore, be applied to any case of isomer- 
ism, however readily the isomerides may be converted into one another. 

It is impossible to say whether tautomerism exists ; but it has at 
least been proved by the work of Knorr that the two substances repre- 
sented by the formulae 

CH3-C0-CH,-C0,Et and CH3-C(0H) :CH-CO.Et 

are not tautomeric, but have a real existence as well-defined isomeric 
compounds, which only change into one another under definite physical 
and chemical conditions. 

The word desmotropy was introduced by Jacobson (Ber. 1887, 20, 
17.3^, footnote; 1888, 21, 2628, footnote) in 1887, when it had become 
evident that Laar's theory of tautomerism had brolien down in the 
very case to which it had been most frequently applied, namely, the 
labile isomerism which results from the contiguity of a double bond 
and an acidic hydrogen atom. Jacobson considered 'that the known 



104 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

forms of such compounds are to be represented by a definite grouping 
of atoms, which in certain reactions passes over into an isomeric group- 
ing by a rearrangement of bonds consequent upon the displacement 
of a hydrogen atom ' ; it was to express this view that the word ' desmo- 
tropy ' was introduced. If used in this sense, to describe the labile 
isomerism produced by the mobility of a hydrogen atom, it might be 
of real value; unfortunately the meaning of the word was tampered 
with by Hantzsch and Hermann (Ber. 1887, 20, 2802), and, as an 
inevitable consequence, it has become ambiguous, and has ceased to 
be clearly significant. 

Nearly all the cases to which the word ' tautomerism ' has been 
misapplied in recent years are examples of isomerism pure and simple, 
the only special feature being the fact that the isomerides can be 
converted into one another with greater or less ease. It is therefore 
very rarely necessaiy to use any other words than ' isomerism ' and 
' isomeric change ' to describe the phenomena. Isomeric compounds 
which owe their lability to a mobile hydrogen atom might well be 
distinguished as ' desmotropic ' but for the ambiguity arising from the 
ill-advised action of Hantzsch in attempting to extend the meaning of 
this term. At the present time the least ambiguous phrase that can 
be used to distinguish ethyl acetoacetate and its allies from the very 
much larger group of substances which exhibit ' dynamic isomerism ' 
or reversible isomeric change is to refer to them as examples of ' keto- 
enol ' isomerism, and in other cases to use some similar specific name, 
describing the nature of the two compounds between which a condition 
of equilibrium may exist. 

Isomeric Halogen-derivafives of Camphor. 

Another fruitful, though expensive, line of research has been opened 
out during the year by applying the process of dynamic isomerism to 
the preparation of new halogen-derivatives of camphor. A new 
isomeride has been prepared from a-chlorocamphor by acting on it 
with alkali. In order to produce a condition of dynam.ic isomerism in 
the liquid, and then arresting the isomeric change by the addition of 
acid. On freezing the alcoholic solution, most of the original substance 
crystallises out, and the mother-liquor contains the isomeric a-chloro- 
camphor. This melts at 117° (instead of 94°) and has ra]i,+41o 
(instead of +97°). As the new compound can be prepared readily 
on a large scale, it promises to be of great value in studying the type 
of dynamic isomerism in which a catalvtic r.gent must be added 
deliherately in order to bring about a condition of equilibrium between 
Isomers. The whole series of compounds which is now under investi- 
gation will provide valuable data for the study of dynamic isomerism 
and rotatory dispersion, and for the elucidation of the crystallographic 
structure of the camphor molecule. 

The Committee asks for reappointment with a grant of £40. An 
Increased grant is asked for to cover the heavy cost of the organic 
preparations referred to in the last section of the Report. 



ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES. 105 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied 
Substances , and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene 
Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor K. J. P. 
Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, and Dr. J. T. 
Hewitt. 

The Acetylation of Anili)ies by Acetic A^ihydride in the presence of 

Catalysts. 

(With W. H. Gray, M.Sc.) 

The accelerating action of catalysts on the interaction of acetic anhy- 
dride and hydroxy- groups has long been known: it was first observed 
by Pranchimont^ in the acetylation of cellulose, and was later noted 
by numerous observers.* That catalysts had a similar effect in the 
action of acetic anhydride on the amino- gi'oup seems, however, to 
have been overlooked until Smith and Orton ^ made the discovery that 
negatively di-ortho- substituted anilines, such as s-tribromoaniline, can 
be acetylated at great speed at the ordinary temperature in the presence 
of sulphuric and other acids. 

Such anilines are particularly suitable for such an investigation as 
they react very slowly indeed with acetic anhydride at the ordinary 
temperature, and at higher temperature mainly yieFd diacetyl deriva- 
tives, Ar-NAcj; in the presence of a catalyst at low temperatures they 
yield, on the other hand, the monoacetyl derivative. Anilines with 
one ortho- position unoccupied form monoacetyl derivatives with such 
extreme ease that the presence of an acid is of no advantage, but, on the 
contrary, inhibits the reaction, most probably by forming stable saTts 
which do not react with acetic anhydride. 

Such salts as sodium acetate have long been known as catalysts of 
the acetylation of phenols. We have found that vai'ious salts have 
a similar effect in the case of amines. Ferric salts are as pre-eminent 
in this capacity as in the bromination of acetic anhydride and other 
compounds, which we are investigating. 

An early attempt (Smith and Orton, Joe. cit.) to throw light on the 
mechanism of such catalyses, using s-tribromophenol, demonstrated 
that acids varied greatly in catalytic effect; that the change was a re- 
action of the second order; that the speed was proportional to the 
concentration of the catalyst. 

To follow quantitatively the interaction of acetic anhydride and a 
di-ortho negatively substituted aniline has proved a very difficult 
matter. The small capacity for forming salts, which is an advantage 
in following the effect of acid catalysis on acetylation, is a barrier to 
the estimation of unchanged aniline by the diazo- method. Moreover, 
the slowness with which the anilide is hydrolysed equally prevents 
estimation of the extent of acetylation. 

' Cnmpt. rend., ISlf), 99.1]}. 

2 Skraup, Monntsh. 1898, 19, 4o8 : Freyss. Bull. Soc. hid. Mulhousc. 1809, 44: 
J. Thiele, Ber. 1898, 31, 1249; O. Stillich, Ber. 1903, 36, 3115; 190.5,38,124; 
J. Boeseken, Recueil dci Trav. CMm.. 1911, 31, 3i")0. 

•' Trans. Chem. Sor.. 1008. 93, 1243 : 1909. 95. lOfiO. 



lOG REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, 

A most excellent method has now been devised for determining the 
amount of unchanged aniline. This consists in stopping the reaction 
by adding anhydrous sodium acetate, equivalent to the acid catalyst, 
followed by some excess of an acetic acid solution of nitric acid. The 
aniline is rapidly and quantitatively converted into a nitroamine 
(Orton'^; W. H. Gray ^). The nitroamine is completely extracted 
from the diluted solution by shaking three times with chloroform, and 
its quantity measured by titration of its alcoholic solution with baryta. 
The composition of the system could also be checked by direct estima- 
tion of the remaining acetic anhydride by the method devised by Orton 
and M. G. Edwards," and amplified by Orton and Marian Jones.' 
The amount of anhydride found at a given period of the reaction corre- 
sponded well with that calculated from the initial concentration on 
the assumption that the loss of anhydride was solely due to acetylation. 
The accuracy and the refinements of this method of analysing the 
system are mainly due to the exhaustive experiments of Mr. "W. H. 
Gray * on the stability of nitric acid in acetic acid solution and allied 
problems. The error in the estimation of the nitroamine in an acetic 
acid solution is not above J per cent. , whilst the error in the determina- 
tion of the aniline by conversion into nitroamine falls below 1 per cent. 

The velocity coefficients for a reaction of the second order are re- 
markably constant, in spite of the complicated and intricate analyses 
by which they are obtained. 

Illustrations of the results are given in the following table: — 
Exp. A. Initial concentrations: — s-tribromoaniline, 0"04; acetic anhy- 
dride 0-04 x 3-83; H^SO.-M/SGS-S. 

Percentage aniline 

Time from mixing. acetylated. Kn- 
Min. 

41 17-52 0031 

86 31-5 0030 
146 4814 0031 
240 69-92 0-037 

Exp. B. s-tribromoaniline, 0'02; acetic anhydride, 0'02x7'D8; 
H,SO, = M/363-8. 

Min. 

66 38-19 0053 

157 69-65 0069 

283 90-05 064 

Exp. C. s-tribromoaniline, 0'02; acetic anhydride, 0"02x7"08; 
H,SO^=M/727-6. 

Min. 

40 17-25 032 

87 28-55 0-026 
142 40-3 0-025 
240 61-3 028 

Since in the presence of sulphuric acid the anhydride is immediately 

* Trans. Chem. Soc. 1902. 81, 490. 

' Thesis submitted to the University of Wales, 1914. 

e Trans. Chem. Soc. 1911, 99, 1181. 

' Trans. Chem.. Soc. 1912, 101, 1716. 

" Loc. cit.. and Analyst, 1912, 37, 303, 



1 



ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES. 107 

liydrolysed by water in the acetic acid medium, the initial coucentration 
was arrived at by deducting an amount equivalent to the water from 
the anhydride used. 

The experiments have led to some very interesting results: — 
. The reaction is of the second order; the value of the expression, 

- ~ — , is approximately halved by doubling the dilution. 

t \Qi — 3J) 

2. The speed is approximately proportional to the concentration of 
the catalyst when the concentrations of the aniline and anhydride are 
kept constant. 

3. A very remarkable effect was produced by variation of the 
concentration of the aniline, when anhydride and catalyst are kept 
constant. It would be expected that the speed of acetylation would fall 
on decreasing the concentration of the aniline; on the contrary, how- 
ever, the speed increases. A comparison of experiments A and B 
shows that on halving the concentration of the aniline the speed is 
roughly doubled. The most obvious explanation of the observation 
is that the acid catalyst is partly combined with the aniline. Such a 
balanced action would follow the equation of equilibrium: — 

[Aniline] [H2SO4] = K [anilinium salt]. 
rrr ci^ t t- [anilinium salt] 

[112804]= K^ -; — - — \ 

'- ^ *■■ [aniline] 

Since the proportion of the acid, and therefore of the salt, is very 
small in comparison with that of the aniline in these systems, the 
concentration of the acid is roughly inversely proportional to that of 
the aniline. The concentration of the free acid (or perhaps acid salt) 
is the dominant factor in the reaction, and hence the effect (if there 
be one) of the decrease of the aniline is completely concealed. This 
suggestion is made more probable by the effect of simultaneous reduc- 
tion of the concentration of both acid and aniline ; the velocity of acety- 
lation is scarcely changed (Exp. C). It appears, then, that the speed 
of acetylation is independent (within certain limits) of the concentra- 
tions of the acid and aniline, provided that these quantities remain in 
the same ratio. 

The action of the catalyst probably lies, as has been frequently 
suggested, in producing an ' active modification ' of the acetic anhy- 
dride, which alone reacts with the aniline. The evidence, so far as it 
goes, points to the reaction of the anhydride and catalyst being momen- 
tary, whilst that of the ' active ' form and the aniline is a time reaction. 
Too much stress cannot be put upon the fact that the reaction was of 
the second order, for the excess of anhydride was considerable. The 
combination of the acid with the aniline, moreover, obscures the issue, 
and renders a decision difficult with an acid catalyst. 

A complete account of this research will be published in one of 
the usual chemical journals. 



108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE — 1914. 

The Study of Plant Enzymes, particularly with relation to 
Oxidation. — Third Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. A. D. Hall (Chairman), Dr. E. F. Armstrong 
(Secretary), Professor H. E. Armstrong, Professor F. 
Keeble, and .Dr. E. J. Eussell. 

WoBK is being continued along the lines indicated in former reports. 

The further investigation of the distribution of oxydases (per- 
oxydase) in the flowers of Primula sinensis has led to the discovery 
that in certain white-flowered races which breed true to whiteness 
the peroxydase has a definite zonal distribution. Such white-flowered 
races, when crossed with coloured forms, yield in the Fj generation 
a certain number of plants having flowers which exhibit a colour pattern 
of a similar zonal character. Hence this pattern may be referred to 
a lack of uniformity in distribution of the peroxydase constituent of 
the colom'-forming mechanism, not of the chromogen. This investiga- 
tion has involved the study of a large number of plants of known 
genetic constitution and of their progeny ; it may be expected that 
eventually it will throw light on the phenomena of flaking and colour 
pattern in flowers. 

Concurrently with the study of the distribution of oxydases in 
plants, the occurrence of reductases has also been investigated, using 
this term as a general expression for substances which exert a re- 
ducing action. After many trials, partial success has been achieved 
by the discovery of agents indicative of such compounds, and evidence 
of the zonal distribution of reductases has been obtained. 

A general summary of the bearing of chemical observations on 
genetic constitution and the relation of enzymes to colour inheritance 
in plants was given before the Linnean Society in March, when it 
was particularly pointed out that, in life, interaction takes place 
between substances in pairs, the one being oxidised and the other 
reduced. Consequently the same interaction is often recorded whether 
oxydase or reductase be indicated by the agent used. This conception 
materially simplifies the study of the oxidative changes in plants. 

The formation of red pigments from yellow flowers by reduction 
and subsequent oxidation described in the last report has been further 
studied during the year. To elucidate the precise nature of the change 
by working with material of known structure, the experiments were 
extended to quercetin, \\hich has been reduced under a variety of 
conditions. As a rule, colourless compounds are formed which become 
red on exposure to the air or on the addition of hydrogen peroxide. 
The problem has been investigated independently at Beading by 
A. E. Everest (' The Production of Anthocyanins and Anthocyanidins, ' 
Proc. Roy. Society, 1914, 87 B. 144), who finds that the change from 
yellow to red may be effected by i-eduction alone, and that reduction 
takes place quite readily without the occurrence of hydrolysis. As 
Willstatter has now directed his attention to the chemical structure 
of the anthocyanic class of pigments, it is not proposed to continue 
the research in this direction. 

A study has been made of the rate at which various carbohydrate 
solutions are able to decolourise methylene blue in alkaline solution. 



ON THE STUDY OF PLANT ENZYMES. 109 

as this iiifcthod is of value in discriminating between glucose and 
fructose (compare Muster and Woker, Pfliigers Archiv, 1913, 155, 92). 
On adding a f6w drops of methylene blue to a freshly prepared solution 
containing one per cent, of the carbohydrate, together with half of one 
per cent, of solution of sodium hydroxide, the blue color is almost 
immediately discharged in presence of fructose, but only after a certain 
interval — 15 minutes — by glucose. After standing, the glucose solu- 
tion acts much more rapidly, whereas the fructose is less active than 
at first. Most probably the active agent is the enolic form common 
to Both sugars; as Lobry de Bruyn was the first to show, this is 
formed from both by the action of alkali. The possibility of the 
formation of fructose from glucose and vice versa in this manner in 
the plant must not be overlooked. The methylene blue test has been 
applied to a number of carbohydrates, so as to compare their rela- 
tive rates of enolisation. Indigo-blue solution, which changes from 
green to red, and finally to yellow, as it is reduced, is an equally 
sensitive agent. In all cases, agitation with air restores the colour; 
the colour is not destroyed in faintly acid solution. 

The behaviour of lipase has been further studied during the year. 
It has been shown tEat synthesis takes place under the influence of 
the enzyme to the greatest extent in the absence of all but traces 
of water, and that the presence of even a small proportion of water 
greatly favours action in the reverse direction.^ 

In view of the presence of ammonia in the nodular growths appear- 
ing on the roots of Leguminosae, it appeared probable that 
the enzyme urease would be found in these. It has been detected 
in the nodules from Lupins and a number of other Leguminosae. 
Attempts to detect the enzyme in organisms cultivated from the 
nodules have thus far been attended with negative results. 

Mr. Benjamin, working at the Hawkesbury Agricultural College, 
near Sydney, Australia, has detected urease in nodules from several 
Australian plants, including wattles ; also on tubercles derived from 
the Cycad Macrozamia spiralh. He has found urease also in the seeds 
of Abrus precatorius. 



Correlation of CnjstaUine Form, with Molecular Structure. — 
Report of the Gornmittec, consisting 0/ Professor W. J. Pope 
(Chairman), Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. 
W. Barlow and Professor W. P. Wynne. 

The following communications have been made to the Eoyal Society 
during the year: — 

Morphological Studies of Benzene Derivatives. V. The Correlation 
of Crystalline Form with Molecular Structure : A Verification of 
the Barlow-Pope Conception of Valency-Volume. By Henry E. 

' Proc. Boy. .S'oc. 1914, Series B, 'Studies on Enzyme Action,' xxii.. Lipas? (iv.) 
' The Correlation of Hydrolytic and Synthetic Activity,' by Henry E. Armstrong and 
H. W. Gosney. " ° 



110 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1914. 

Armstrong, E. T. Colgate and E. H. Eodd. Proc. Eoy. Soc, 
Series A, Vol. 90, pp. 111-173. 

VI. Parasulphonic derivatives of Chloro-, Bromo-, Todo, and Cyano- 
benzene. By C. S. Mummery, B.Sc. 

VII. The Correlation of the Forms of Crystals with their Molecular 
Structure and Orientation in a Magnetic Field in the Case of Hydrated 
Sulphonates of Dyad Metals. By Henry E. Armstrong and E. H. 

EoDD. 

In the first of these it is shown that the method of treatment 
introduced hy Barlow and Pope is applicable to a large number of 
derivatives of benzenesulphochloride or bromide of the formula 
CgHgE, . SOoCl, E being an atom of halogen. When equivalence 
parameters are calculated from the axial ratios and the valency volume, 
in nearly thirty cases the values found of two of the parameters are 
all but identical with those of the corresponding parameters of benzene, 
the third parameter being increased by the same amount beyond the 
benzene value by the introduction of the sulphonic radicle. Hence 
it is to be supposed that the halogens have the same relative valency 
volume as hydrogen in all the compounds considered. Numerous 
other cases are quoted in support of the conception of valency introduced 
by Barlow and Pope. 

In the second communication data are given for various derivatives 
of benzenesulphochloride containing but one atom of halogen. It is 
shown that these fall into line with the di-derivatives. 

In the third attention is called to crystallographic peculiarities 
presented by substituted benzenesulphonates of dyad metals and a close 
relationship to corresponding toluenemephonates is established. The 
influence of water of crystallisation is considered. 

Attention is specially directed also to the peculiar behaviour of 
certain isomorphous salts of iron, cobalt and nickel in the magnetic 
field. When suspended similarly in either of two axial directions, 
corresponding isomorphous iron and cobalt salts always act along 
crystallographic axes at right angles to each other. Nickel salts 
behave like cobalt salts when suspended in the one axial direction, 
like iron salts when suspended in the other. Apparently the difference 
in the behaviour of the various salts is to be referred to magnetic 
peculiarities in the metallic atoms. 



Stuchj of Soluhility Phenomena. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. E. Aemstbong {Chairman) , 
Dr. J. Vargas Eyre (Secretary), Dr. E. F. Armstrong, 
Professor A. Findlay, Dr. T. M, Lowry, and Professor 
•W. J. Pope. • • ... 

Much of the time since the appointment of this Committee has been 
devoted to setting up the required apparatus and getting it into working 
order in a new laboratory. Materials have been purified and work 
has been done to ascertain within what limits solubility determinations 
were trustworthy u-nder the new conditions. 



ON THE STUDY OF SOLUBILITY PHENOMENA. Ill 

Preliminary trials have been made to ascertain the influence of 
isomeric alcohols on the solubility of salts in water at 25° C. Small 
differences have been observed in the precipitating effect of the butylic 
alcohols, and work is now in progress to determine the variations in 
solubility of the chlorides of potassium, sodium and ammonium brought 
about by the addition of small quantities of the isomeric propylic, 
butylic and amylic alcohols. 

It is desired that the Committee be reappointed. 



Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. E. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), Dr. A. E. 
DwERRYHOUSE {Secretary), Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Eev. S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Hornb, Mr. W. 
Lower Carter, Professor J. W. Sollas, a)id Messrs. W. 
Hill, J. W. Stather, and J. H. Milton. 

The Committee reports that owing, probably, to the early date of 
the meeting no lists of erratics have been 'Contributed during the year, 
and in consequence no part of the grant has been expended. 
The Committee seeks reappointment with a grant of 5?. 



The Preparation of a List of Characteristic Fossils. — Second 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. 
F, Kendall (Chairman), Mr. W. Lower Carter (Secretary), 
Mr. H. A. Allen, Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor G. 
Cole, Dr. A. E. Dwerryhouse, Professors J. W. Gregory, 
Sir T. H. Holland, G. A. Lebour, and S. H. Eeynolds, 
Dr. Marie C. Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. Marr, 
Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, appointed for the considera- 
tion thereof. 

No meeting of the Committee was held during the year, but numerous 
suggestions for a list of fossils were received. From these a provisional 
list was compiled by the Secretary, and uncorrected were printed and 
circulated. This provisional list, when revised, will, it is hoped, form 
the basis for the publication of an amended list of fossils next year. 
The Committee ask for reappointment with a grant of £10. 



Geology of Ramsey Island, Pembrokeshire. — Final Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. A. Strahan (Chairman), Dr. 
Herbert H. Thomas (Secretanj) , Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. 
J. W. Evans, Mr. J. F. N. Green and Professor 0. T. Jones. 

The Committee have to report that the grant made to them in 1913 to 
aid Mr. J. Pringle in continuing his researches in the west of Pembroke- 



112 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

aliire has been spent. They have also to report that the detailed 
mapping of the island has been completed. The examination of the 
rocks and fossils which have been collected will be proceeded with. 

For the purpose of description the island can be divided conveniently 
into two areas — a northern area composed of Lingula Flags, Arenig 
mudstones and shales, Lower Llanvirn, and the intrusive mass of Carn 
Ysgubor; and a southern area of Lower Llanvirn shales with inter- 
bedded tuffs and rhyolites, and a thick mass of intrusive quartz- 
porphyry. To the latter area belongs the mass of rhyolitic and brecciated 
tuffs of Carn Llundain. 

Northern Area. 

Lingula Flags. — The Lingula Flags consist of bluish-grey flaggy, 
micaceous shales with ribs of hard grey close-grained sandstone, some 
of which reach a thickness of two feet. They occupy the headland 
of Trwyn Drain-du, and they extend eastwards to Bay Ogof Hen, while 
on the eastern side of the island they form the cliffs from tlie north- 
east corner to Road Uchaf. The Flags also occur in the headland to 
the south of Aberma\vi". They are highly fossiliferous, and yield Lingu- 
lella davisi in great abundance. 

Arenig. — All the zones of the Arenig are present. The lo\\est beds 
are bluish-grey sandy mudstones and shales with Ogygia selivyvi, Orthis 
proava, and 0. inenapice. They are confined to the north-east corner 
of the island, and are faulted against the Lingula Flags. The mud- 
stones are followed by bluish-black shales belonging to the Extensus 
Zone, and are well displayed in the cliffs at Eoad Uchaf and Eoad Isaf. 
Similar shales belonging to the Hirundo Zone are present in Abermawr. 

Lower Llanvirn. — The base of the Lower Llanvirn is seen only in 
the cliffs in Abermawr, where the shales of the Hirundo Zone are 
succeeded by a thick series of hard dark- and light-coloured tuffs of fine 
texture, which yield Didyinograptus bifidus in their highest beds. The 
tuffs are followed by fossiliferous blue-black shales, but their full 
thickness is not seen in the northern area. 

Intrusive Rocks. — Carn Ysgubor is formed of an intrusive mass of 
quartz-albite-diabase, which has invaded the sediments of Ix)wcr Llan- 
virn, Arenig, and Lingula Flags. A small intrusion occurs south of 
Abermawr, where Lingula Flags are in contact with a quartz-kerato- 
phyre. 

Southern Area. 

This area was described in the first report, in which it ^^•as shown to 
be composed of D. bifidus shales whicli had been invaded by a thick 
mass of quartz-porphyry. The shales, well displayed in the cliffs 
of Forth Llauog and Foel Fawr, are highly fossiliferous, and a large 
collection of graptolites has been made from them. They contain 
layers of coarse agglomeratic tuff, and at Foel Fawr pass upwards 
into thick beds of tiiii which are conformably overlain by grey rhvolites. 
The tuffs and conglomerate on Carn Llundain belong to the same period 
of eruption. 



ON GEOLOGY Of RAMSEY ISLAND, PEMBROKESHIRE. il3 

The two points of interest, therefore, which were made the object 
of mapping the island have been successfully solved. It has been found 
that the so-called Tremadoc beds are Ai'enig sediments, and that they 
do not pass downwards into the Lingula Flags, but are brought against 
them by a fault; also that the rocks hitherto regarded as pre-Canibrian 
belong to a period of igneous activity that occun-ed in Lower Llanvirn, 
or even later, times. 

It is hoped that the full description of the district will be completed 
this year, and it is the present intention of Mr. J. Pringle to com- 
municate the results of his investigations to the Geological Society of 
London. 



The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan, Ireland. — Interim 
Report of Committee, consisting of Professor Grenville Cole 
(Chairman), Professor T. Johnson {Secretary), Dr. J. W. 
Evans, Dr. K. Kidston, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Owing to the early date at which this year's Eeport is required, and 
the absence of Professor Johnson at the Australian Meeting, it is im- 
possible to utilise the funds available for field-work, which normally 
is carried on during the long vacation. 

Your Committee asks for its reappointment, and for the renewal of 
the grant of lOL not utilised in 1913-14:, together with the unexpended 
balance of 9L odd. 

Two papers have been published during the past year : — T. Johnson : 
1. Ginkgcphyllum Kiltorkense sp. nov. ; 2. Bothrodendron Kiltorkense 
Haught. sp., its Stigmaria and Cone (' Sci. Proc, K. Dublin Society,' 
vol. xiv.). 



Stratigrapliical Names. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. J. E. Mark (Chairman) , Professor Grenville 
Cole, Mr. Bernard Hobson, Dr. J. Horne, Professor 
Lebour, Dr. A. Strahan, Professor W. W. Watts, and 
Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), appointed to consider the pre- 
paration of a List of Stratigrapliical Names used in the British 
Isles, ill connection with the Lexicon of Stratigraphical 
Names in course of preparation hy the International Geological 
Congress. 

At its Meeting in Stockholm, 1910, the International Geological Con- 
gress appointed a Committee to produce a ' Lexique international de 
Stratigraphie. ' The convener of this International Committee is 
Dr. Lukas Waagen, of Vienna, and the Secretary of the present Com- 
mittee had the honour of being appointed representative of Great 
Britain. 

Before the Meeting of the International Geological Congress in 
Toronto, 1913, various proposals were discussed by the members of 
1914. I 



114 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

the International Committee, and a provisional Eeport was laid before 
the International Congress. Unfortunately neither Dr. Waagen nor 
Dr. Bather were able to attend the Congress in Toronto, and up to the 
date of writing they have received no official communication from the 
officers of the Congress. It is, however, understood that the Congress 
can grant no subvention to aid the work. 

The situation, therefore, may be thus summarised: — The Inter- 
national Congress has appointed a Committee to produce a laborious and 
costly woi'k of undoubted value to all interested in Geology and the 
allied sciences. There are no funds for this purpose. The details 
of the scheme, even if decided on at the Congress, are not yet known 
to the present Committee of the Association. 

Consequently your Committee has been unable to take any steps, 
although some of its members have made note of stratigraphical names 
observed in the course of their ordinary work, and are prepared to 
continue this practice and eventually to place such material at the 
disposal of the International Committee. Your Committee is, however, 
well aware that the search for names must be conducted systematically, 
and it considers that funds will be needed to pay searchers and com- 
pilers. A gi'ant is not asked for at present, merely because it is not yet 
possible to draw up a plan of operations. 

The fact that this Eeport will be presented to the Association when 
meeting in Australia leads your Committee to point out that it has 
been appointed to consider names used in the British Isles, and that 
no provision has yet been made for the other constituents of the British 
Empire. As regards India, indeed, the work has been accomplished by 
Sir Thomas Holland and Mr. G. H. Tipper in their ' Indian Geological 
Terminology.'^ But it is desirable that other Committees should be 
formed, and the ])resent occasion seems appropriate for the establish- 
ment of one to deal with Australasia. Any such Committees would 
communicate directly with Dr. L. Waagen (K.k. geolog. Eeichsanstalt, 
Wien). 

Your Counnittee asks for its reappointment, for the present without 
a grant. 



Faiuia cnid Flora of the Trias of the Westciii Midlands. —Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. Barrow (Chairman), 
Mr. Li/ J. Wills (Secretary), Dr. J. Humphreys, Mr. W. 
Campbell Smith, Mr. D. M. S. Watson, and Prof. W. W. 
Watts. 

This Committee regrets that owing to the early date at which the 
report has to be submitted this year, very slight progress has been 
made with the digging operations in Warwickshire and Worcestershire. 
Some hundred and more specimens have been obtained from the 
Arden Sandstone at Shelfield, near Alcester, and Hunt End, near 

1 Mem. Geol. Surv. India, vol xliii.. Part 1. 1913. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE TRIAS OF THE WESTERN MIDLANDwS. 115 

Redditch, including the bones and teeth of Lahyrinthodon, teeth of 
Polyacrodus and Phcebodus (?), plant remains, &c. 

Permission has already been obtained to work in the famous Coton 
End Quarry at Warwick, and arrangements made for further digging 
at Shelfield should the grant be renewed. It is felt that the chief 
difficulty is the discovery of productive fossiliferous horizons, and then 
the arrangement for labour in scattered and often secluded localities. 
The larger part of the money so far spent has been in travelling 
expenses in this connection. 



The Lower Palceozoic Rocks of England and Wales. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Prof. W. W, Watts (Chair- 
man), Prof. W. Gr. Fearnsides (Secretary), Prof. W. S. 
BouLTON, Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Mr. V. C. Illing, Dr. C. Lap- 
worth, a7id Dr. J. E. Mark, appointed to excavate Critical 
Sections therein. 

Nuneaton Area. — Mr. V. C. Illing reports that during the winter of 
1913-14 and the ensuing spring, systematic trenching was begun 
aci'oss the outcrop of the Abbey Shale division of the Stockingford 
Shales. By the kind permission of Mr. Phillips, of Ansley Hall, the 
work was carried out in the Hartshill Hayes. A trench, thirty yards 
long, two feet wide, and three feet deep, was made in the direction of 
the dip of the shales, and cross trenches were cut along the strike 
of nine of the beds richest in fossils. In some cases these latter 
trenches were cut to a depth of ten feet. About thirty yai'ds away, 
in the direction of the strike, a second trench was cut aci'oss the out- 
crop, and, in addition to the discoveiy of further types of fossils, 
evidence was obtained of lateral changes in lithology. Some five 
thousand specimens were obtained, chiefly of trilobites, ranging over 
some fifty different species. These indicate a fauna corresponding to 
that of the Upper Solva Beds and the Lower and Middle Menevian 
Beds, i.e. the zones of Conocoryphe e.vsvlans, Agnostus farvijrons, 
Conocoryphe csqualis (?), and Paradoxides davklis, of Sweden, and the 
zones of P. aurora, P. Jiieksii, and P. davidis, of South Wales. In 
addition new links have been found between the fauna of this area 
and that of the corresponding beds in Bohemia, three of the forms 
being new to Britain. The fossils are being described and photo- 
graphed, and a paper on the subject will be presented to the Geological 
Society. 

Comley Area, ShropsJiire. — Mr. E. S. Cobbold reports that exca- 
vations have been begun in the Cambrian Rocks of the Comley area, 
but no report of the results is yet possible. 

The Committee asks for reappointment with a grant of 15?., which 
would include the unspent portion of this year's grant. 



i2 



116 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 



The Upper Old Red Sandstone of Dura Den. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. J. Horne (Chairm^an), Dr. 
T. J. Jehu (Secretary), Mr. H. Bolton, Mr. A. W. E. Don, 
Dr. J. S. Flett, Dr. B. N. Peach, and Dr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward, appointed to conduct the further exploration thereof ; 
with a separate report by Dr. Smith Woodward oyi the 
Fish Remains. 

Since the preliminary report was presented at the Birmingham 
Meeting the excavations for fossil fishes at Dura Den have been com- 
pleted and the ground has been levelled. The Committee desire 
again to acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. Bayne-Meldrum, of 
Balmungo, the proprietor, who gave great facilities for carrying out 
the operations. They wish also to express their obligations to Mr. E. 
Dunlop, from Dunfermline, who superintended the work on the spot 
and who took a series of excellent photographs of the best specimens 
of fossil fishes. 

At the outset brief reference may be made to the geological struc- 
ture of the ground near Dura Den. Strata of Upper Old Eed Sand- 
stone age underlie the long depression of the Howe of Fife, which 
ranges westwards from St. Andrews Bay, between the slopes of the 
Ochil Hills on the north and the heights of the Carboniferous 
rocks with their intrusive masses on the south. The actual junction 
with the Lower Old Eed Sandstone volcanic series of the Ochils 
is hidden everywhere by drift, but the line of contact is evidently an 
unconformable one. For the sheets of andesite dip south-east 
at angles of about 15°, and are overlapped at different horizons by 
the more gently inclined members of the Upper Old Eed Sandstone. 

In Central Fife there is a conformable passage from the Upper Old 
Eed Sandstone into the Lower Carboniferous strata. But in Eastern 
Fife the top of the Upper Old Eed Sandstone is cut off by a fault 
which crosses Dura Den in a north-easterly direction and brings down 
the Carboniferous strata on the south-east side. 

The ravine of Dura Den has been cut by the Ceres Burn since the 
Ice Age. This rivulet is formed by the union of a number of smaller 
streams which rise in the Carboniferous area of Fife. The Den has 
been excavated across the line of fracture and is about a mile and a 
half in length (see Fig. 1). 

Below the mouth of the Den the Ceres Burn enters the alluvial 
plain of the Eden and joins that river about a mile above the village 
of Dairsie. Dura Den is eroded in the Lower Carboniferous and Upper 
Old Eed Sandstone fonnations. For a distance of several hundred 
yards the Upper Old Eed Sandstone strata are laid bare in the channel 
of the stream and in a range of picturesque cliffs on either side. The 
section runs along the strike of nearly horizontal beds, so tliat only a 
comparatively small thickness of rocks is exposed. These belong 
to the upper part of the formation, but the actual top, as already 



ON THE UPPER OLD RED SANDSTONE OF DURA DEN. 117 




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faults. 



Fig. 1.— Geological Sketch-map of the Distiict surrounding Dura Den. 



118 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1914. 



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ON THE UPPER OLD RED SANDSTONE OF DURA DEN. 119 

indicated, is cut off by the fault, near which the Lower Carboniferous 
strata are seen dipping at angles of 35° to 40° to the south-east. The 
rocks consist of yellow, red, and greenish sandstones, with bands of 
clay or marl, and are nearly horizontal. They are rather fine-grained, 
somewhat fissile, and, in places, extremely false-bedded. 

Remains of fishes in the Upper Old Eed Sandstone of Fife were 
first observed in 1831 at Drumdryan, near Cupar, by the Rev. John 
Fleming. The scales detected by him were found to occur more 
abundantly at Dura Den, a mile farther east, and entire fishes were 
obtained there, preserved in the sandstone. 

For years the Rev. Dr. Anderson worked at these beds and pub- 
lished numerous papers descriptive of the region. The fish-remains 
obtained from time to time at this famous locality were examined and 
described by Agassiz, Huxley, and other investigators. The excava- 
tions were carried on partly under the guidance of a Committee of 
the British Association, which gave its first report in 1860. 

The remains occur as carbonised impressions on the fine-grained 
pale-yellow stone, and sometimes are to be found crowded together. 
Sir A. Geikie has remarked that ' the Dura Den sandstone does not so 
much mark a definite palfeontological subdivision as an exceptional 
area where the organisms were rapidly killed and buried in gi'eat 
numbers.' ^ 

On the other hand, Dr. Traquair correlated the Dura Den fish fauna 
with that of the highest subdivision of the Upper Old Red Sandstone 
on the south side of the Moray Firth. Dr. Traquair's list of fishes 
found at Dura Den during the earlier excavations is given below : - 

Bothriolepis hydrophila, Ag. 
Phyllolepis concentrica, Ag. 
Glyptopomus minor, Ag. 
Glyptopomus hinnairdi, Huxl. 
Gyroptychius heddlei, Traq. 
Holopiychius fle7ningi, Ag. 
Phaneropleuron andersoni, Huxl. 

In the spring of 1912 the Dundee local Committee of the British 
Association Isegan excavations with the view of re-exposing the fish-bed 
at Dura Den. Tlie work was carried on under the supei-vision of 
Mr. A. W. R. Don. The exact site of the previous diggings was un- 
known, hut, according to local tradition, many of the first specimens 
had been obtained from the sandstone forming the bed of the stream 
and from an excavation on the left side between the stream and the 
mill-lade. After some trial explorations the fish-bed was eventually 
struck, and part of the old workings was exposed. The latter lay 
30 feet to the west of the stream, just opposite the north end of the 
garden belonging to the house known as ' The Laurels, ' now in the occu- 
pation of Dr. Graham Campbell. A pit was opened from the base of 
the old workings in the direction of the mill-lade, and the fish-bed 
was found to lie at a depth of nine feet from the surface. Only a small 

' 'The Geology of Eastern Fife ' {Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1902. p 59. 
' 'The Oeology of Eastern Fife ' IMrm. denl. I^iirv.], 1902, p. fjS. 



120 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



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ON THE UPPER OLD RED SANDSTONE OP DURA DEN. 121 

part of the fish-bed was then worked. A few good specimens were 
obtained, and \Aere on view when the locahty was visited during one 
of the excursions an-anged in connection with the Geological Section of 
the British Association Meeting at Dundee in 1912. 

Work was resumed by our Committee on May 5, 1913, and pro- 
ceeded more or less continuously to the end of August 1913. The 
pit, opened in 1912, having been partly refilled, had to be cleared 
again. As stated in the preliminary report issued last year, a definite 
plan was followed in the excavations. The fish-bearing zone was un- 
covered and removed in successive sections (fig. 3). 

The sandstone layer, rich in fish-remains, is restricted to a zone 
about two inches thick. It lies at an average depth of nine feet from 
the surface, and is overlain by about four feet of comparatively barren 
sandstone, capped by about four feet of loose superficial materials. 
It was decided to work the fish-bed in the direction in which the fish- 
remains appeared to be most abundant. As the operations extended 
towards the mill-lade in the area marked A' in fig. 3, the sandstone did 
not yield fishes, as if the limit of the rich fish-bearing zone had been 
reached in that direction. The aiTangement was then made to carry 
on the excavations towards the stream and just north of the face of the 
old workings. 

The finest specimens of fossil fishes and the largest number were 
obtained in the middle section (area marked B in fig. 3) and in the 
immediately adjoining parts of the other two sections (A and C in 
fig. 3). The greater part of the area marked in fig. 3 proved to be 
somewhat disappointing, though one slab containing twenty specimens 
was found there and a fine example of Phijllolepis quite close to the 
stream. Good specimens, however, were scarce in section C outside 
the limit of the rich fish-bearing zone. In the north-east corner of 
it near the stream a sandstone layer with fragmentary fish-remains 
was traced for a short distance. 

It is worthy of note that large scales of Holoptychiiis were obtained 
m the sandstone three feet above the fish-bed, and that fish-scales in a 
fragmentary condition were found scattered throughout the sandstones 
above that zone. No fish-scales were detected below that horizon, 
although the excavations were continued downwards for nearly two 
feet beneath that zone. 

Fine examples of sun-cracks were seen in the sandstone at depths 
varymg from two to four inches below the fish-bed, and, at one 
locality, one mch above that horizon. This feature is suggestive, and 
probably points to desiccation as a cause of the death of '^ the fishes 
m a shoal at this locality. 

In all forty-two slabs of stone witli well-preserved fish-remains were 
obtained. These were photographed bv Mr. Dunlop, and the photo- 
graphs were sent to Dr. Smith Woodward for determination. About 
fifty fragmentary specimens were collected which were not photo- 
graphed. The whole collection has been stored in an adjoining mill 
under lock and key. 

The expenses connected with these detailed investigations have 
exceeded the British Association grant of 76/.. and the contribution of 



122 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

121. from Mr. Bolton of the Bristol Museum. The Curator of Ichthy- 
ology in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, has 
offered a donation towards the expenses on condition that some of 
the specimens be given to that Museum. The Committee have accepted 
this offer. 

On June 19 the Chairman, the Secretary, Dr. Smith Woodward, 
and Mr. Dunlop visited Dura Den. Each specimen was then examined 
by Dr. Smith Woodward, and a scheme of distributing the fish-remains 
to various public institutions was adopted by the members of the 
Committee who were then present. The distribution will be carried out 
during this summer. 

The report of Dr. Smith Woodward is appended : 

Preliminary Report on the Fossil Fishes from Dura Den. 
By Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

The very large majority of the fishes found during the excavations 
at Dura Den are examples of Holoptychius flem.ingi, and most of 
the slabs exhibit no other species. Specimens of Glyptopomus 
kinnairdi, Glyptopomus minor, Phancropleuron andersoui, and 
Bothriolepis hydrophila occur but rarely. All are neai'ly complete, 
as usual, having teen suddenly buried ; and it is probable that when 
studied in detail the new collection will make some small additions to 
our knowledge of the species represented. 

The only important novelty is a nearly complete specimen of 
Phyllolepis, which shows for the first time the arrangement of the 
dermal plates in this rare fish; and apparently determines its affinities. 
The genus has already been recorded from Dura Den,^ but it is known 
only by detached plates. The armoured portion of the fish is oval in 
shape and depressed, so that the fossil is exposed from a:bove or 
below. The surface shown is covered chiefly with two large plates, 
one behind the other, each irregularly hexagonal in shape and slightly 
broader than long. The anterior plpte is somewhat the smaller and 
narrower, and the regularity of its concentric ridge-ornament is inter- 
rupted by waviness in lines apparently of slime-canals which radiate 
s}^mmetrically from the centre to the periphery. The posterior plate 
is ornamented exactly like the imperfect typical plate of Phyllolepis 
concentrica from Clashbennie.* Eound the anterior plate are arranged 
four pairs of small plates, which decrease in width forwards. Their 
ridge-ornament is peculiar in being concentric only with two or three 
of the margins of each plate and running out at right-angles to the 
inner margin. The postero-lateral plate is long and narrow and much 
the largest, extending along the posterior two-thirds of the anterior 
median plate. The next plate forwards, also long and narrow, is 
much less than half as large as the postero-lateral just described, -and 
the two pairs o' anterior plates are comparatively small. This series 
of plates on each side is continued behind by another still larger plate, 
which flanks somewhat less than the anterior half of the posterior 
median plate and ends postero-latorally in a produced angle or cornn. 

' A, S. Woodward, Catal. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus.. Vi. IT. (1S91), p. ,^14.. 
4 L. Agassiz, Poiss. Foss. Vieiux Or^s Rouge (1844), p. G7, pi. xxiv. fig. l. 



British Association, 8ith Report, Australia, 1914.] 



[Plate II. 




Fig. 4. — Phyllolepis concentrica, Ag. ; ventral or dorsal aspect of dermal armour, 
showing arrangement of plates, two-thirds natural size. 



Illustrating the Report on the Upper Old Red Sandstone of Dura Den. 

\_To face itage 122. 



<j?;iHw^ 



'♦^ 






ON THE UPPER OLD RED SANDSTONE OF DURA DEN. 123 

The ornamental ridges here radiate chiefly from the posterior cornu and 
the outer margin and are most widely spaced on the postero-internal 
part of the plate. No vacuities are observable in any of the plates, 
but all of the anterior pairs are crossed by slime-canals in continuation 
of the radiating canals on the anterior median plate. The total 
length of the fossil is 12.5 cm. 

The ornamentation of the posterior median plate of the specimen 
just described seems to justify its I'eference to the typical species, 
Phyllolepis concentrica, already known by imperfect plates from 
Clashbennie, Perthshire. It is also interesting to add that some of the 
other plates agree well with specimens found in association with 
P. concentrica in the Upper Devonian of Belgium.* The ornament of 
the anterior median plate corresponds with that of the so-called 
P. corneti,"' while both the ornament and shape of some of the lateral 
plates are essentially the same as those of the small plates named 
Pentagonolepis.^ The plates forming the lateral cornua do not appear 
to have been previously seen. 

The whole fossil is most suggestive of the ventral aspect of the 
curious Devonian Ostracoderms Drepanaspis ^ and Psammosteus.^ It 
agrees with Drepanaspis in showing two principal median plates one 
behind the other, though in Phyllolepis they are more nearly equal 
m size. It corresponds with Psammosteus in exhibiting a prominent 
pair of lateral cornua at the hinder end of the series of small marginal 
plates, opposite the middle of the posterior median plate. It differs 
from both in lacking separate small tessellated plates. There is, there- 
fore, not much doubt that Phyllolepis is a genus of Ostracoderms most 
nearly allied to the Drepanaspidee or Psammosteidse. 



Antarctic Whaling Industry. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. S. F. Haemer (Chairman) , Dr. W. T. Calman 
(Secretary), Dr. F. A. Bather, Dr. W. S. Bruce, and Dr. P. 
Chalmers Mitchell, appointed to provide assistance jar 
Major G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton's Expedition to South 
Georgia to investigate the position of the Antarctic Whaling 
Industry. 

By kind permission of the Trustees of the British Museum the Com- 
mittee arranged for Mr. P. Stammwitz, a taxidermist employed at the 
Natural History Museum, South Kensington, to accompany Major 
Barrett-Hamilton to South Georgia; and the greater part of the grant 

° M. Lohest, ' Recherches sur les Poissons des Terrains Paleozoiques de 
Belgique,' Ann. Soc. Geol. Belg., vol. xv. (1888), Mem., pp. 155-167, pis. x., xi. 

° M. Lohest, loc. cit., p. 157, pi. x. fig. 6. 

' M. Lohest, loc. cit., p. 161, pi. xi. figs. 1-8. 

* R. H. Traquair, ' Additional Note on Drepanaspis Gemiindenensis . 
Schliiter,' Geol. Mag. [4] vol. ix. (1902), pp. 289-291. 

° A. S. Woodward, 'On the Upper Devonian Ostracoderm, Psammosteus 
iaijiori,' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [8j vol. viii. (1911), pp. 649-652, pi. ix. 



124 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

placed at the disposal of the Committee has been expended in paying 
his salary and in making certain preliminary payments. He sailed 
wllh Major Barrett-Hamilton on October 6, 1913, and work was com- 
n.enced at South Georgia immediately after their arrival on 
November 10. 

Early in the new year news was received that Major Barrett- 
Hamilton had died suddenly at South Georgia on January 17, while 
his inquiries were in full progress. This unlooked-for event, which 
the Committee record with profound son-ow, naturally altered the 
entire prospects of the expedition. Mr. Stammwitz had no alternative 
but to return at once, and after making arrangements for the despatch 
of the specimens which had been collected, he took the first opportunity 
of leaving South Georgia, bringing with him the notebooks containing 
Major Ban'ett-Hamilton's observations. At the request of the 
Colonial Of&ce, and with the approval of the Trustees of the British 
Museum, these notebooks have been placed in the hands of Mr. Martin 
A. C. Hinton for examination. It is hoped that the results of the 
work which Major Barrett-Hamilton had done before his death will 
thus not be entirely lost. The collections brought home comprise a 
very valuable series of specimens — in particular, flippers, complete sets 
of baleen, and other anatomical material from the blue whale, the 
common rorqual, and the humpback whale. These specimens have 
been presented to the Natural History Museum by Messrs. Chr. 
Salvesen & Co., at whose whaling station they were obtained, and they 
should be of service in helping to decide the much-debated question 
whether these Antarctic whales are specifically identical with their 
northern representatives. 

A few birds were obtained at South Trinidad on the outward journey, 
and a certain amount of dredging and shore-collecting was done at 
South Georgia. The collection made includes marine invertebrates and 
fishes, bird-skins, plants, and a few insects and rock-specimens. These 
have been handed over to the Natural History Museum, where arrange- 
ments are being made to have them determined, and if necessary report-ed 
on, by specialists. 

At the request of the Meteorological Office, Mr. Stammwitz took a 
series of observations on sea-temperatures and ice-drift while at South 
Georgia, and these are now being utilised by the Office. 

The Committee wish to record their appreciation of the value of the 
assistance which was given to the expedition by Mr. J. Innes Wilson, 
Stipendiary Magistrate of South Georgia, Messrs. Chr. Salvesen & Co., 
and Mr. Henriksen, the manager of their Leith Harbour Whaling 
Station, Messrs. Bryde & Dahl, the Tonsberg Whaling Company, and 
other individuals and whaling companies connected with South Georgia. 

The amount actually expended is less by 151. than the total (901.) 
allotted to the Committee, and it is not proposed to apply for this 
balance. 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 125 



Belmullet Whaling Station. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Professor J. Stanley 
Gardiner (Secretary), Professor W. A. Herdman, Eev. W. 
Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Professor H. W. 
Marett Tims, and Mr. R. M. Barrington, appointed to 
investigate the Biological Problems incidental to the Belmullet 
Whaling Station. 

The Committee acting through Professor Herdman arranged with Mr. 
J. Erik Hamilton and Mr. E. J. Daniel, two post-graduate research 
students of the University of Liverpool, for the prosecution of their 
researches in 1913. They proceeded to Belmullet on June 25 and Mr. 
Hamilton remained until the end of the fishery. Mr. Daniel retired 
from the investigations on August 26, having been appointed to a post 
under the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. Mr. Hamilton's Eeport 
is appended. 

The Committee desire to express their thanks to Mr. R. M. 
Barrington for considerable financial assistance. They have been 
enabled owing to his generosity to arrange with Mr. Hamilton for 
the further prosecution of the work in 1914. They have now experi- 
ence with three investigators — Mr. Lillie, Mr. Burfield, and Mr. 
Hamilton — and they find that the annual expense is about 45Z. They 
attach great importance, both from the scientific and economic sides, 
to the further continuation of these investigations, and beg to apply 
for reappointment with a grant of 45L for the summer of 1915. 

Eeport to the Commiiiec by J. Erik H.\milton, B.Sc. 

I. — Introduciion. 

In June 1913 Mr. R. J. Daniel and I proceeded to the Blacksod 
Bay Whaling Station on Ai-delly Point, Blacksod Bay, Co. Mayo, 
Ireland, to continue the work carried on by Mr. S. T. Burfield, B.A. . 
in 1911.1 

The flensing plane was clearly visible by telescope from the hotel, 
and the whaling steamers are compelled to pass the Point whenever 
they come in. In consequence no whale escaped notice, as might 
otherwise have happened on account of the distance from the Station. 

Our first whale was examined on the morning after our arrival, 
i.e., on June 26, the last on September 9. As Mr. Daniel was 
appointed to a post under the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, he 
liad to leave Blacksod on August 26 for his new duties. Consequently 
the working up of the collections and the preparation of this Report 
have been left in my hands. 

I desire to express my heartiest thanks to Professor W. A. Herdman, 

' British Association Report, 1912, p. 145. 



126 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

F.R.S., who has given advice and help of great value during the time 
which was spent in his Laboratory in working up the materials obtained 
To Captain Lorens Bruun and Mr. D. Bingham sincere thanks are 
due from Mr. Daniel and myself for the way in which they assisted us 
at the Station. We would alsO' wish to mention that on many occasions 
the men employed at the Station helped us in the most obliging manner. 
Two steamers continue to be used, both fitted with wireless tele- 
graphy, which is employed solely for communication between the boats. 
As a result of the possession of this apparatus, if one boat finds whales 
in numbers too great to be dealt with unaided, the other steamer may be 
called up to assist in making the most of a fortunate find. 

Burfield^ has stated the disadvantages of work at a commercial 
factory, and I wish to lay particular emphasis on the rarity with which 
really fresh whales are brought in. It is exceptional for a whale to be 
anything other than decomposing. Even in those sufficiently fresh to 
be fit for food the carcase is quite hot in the deeper parts owing to 
decomposition, while in the other cases carcases lying on the flensing 
plane fizzle and splutter wherever a cut in the blubber permits the 
internal gases to blow off. 

Sperm Whales are particularly obnoxious, as they are brought from 
considerable distances. They are frequently caught at Eockall, 240 
miles away, and they smell strongly of cuttlefish. In two Spemi 
Whales which we saw part of the intestine was blown out through 
the back of the animal by pressure of gases produced by decomposition, 
and from one specimen a great spout of blood and oil was projected 
with considerable force over one of the investigators. 

About thirty-eight Irishmen and fifteen Norwegians are employed 
when work is in full swing. Of the Irishmen one is timekeeper and 
another_ is second flenser, but all the other skilled workmen are 
Norwegians. 

The 1913 season was the best which the Blacksod Bay Whaling 
Company has had up to the present. Sixty-four whales were brought 
in. The whalemen state from their experience that in fine, calm 
weather the whales go far out for food, and it is the case that during 
the splendid weather of August very few were taken. But the largest 
number of whales for a given number of days was brought in between 
August 27 and September 9, when the weather was still fairly fine. 
Nearly three thousand barrels of oil were shipped to Glasgow, to which 
port all the produce of this Station is sent. There were also manu- 
factured about fifteen hundred bags of guano. 

All whale oils at present average 201. per ton ( = 5i barrels), 
sperm oil and spermaceti having fallen considerably since 1911. The 
oil is used for the manufacture of explosives, soap, &c., with the excep- 
tion of the two sperm products. The oil of the Sperm Whale is used 
for lubrication only, while spermaceti is largely utilised in the manu- 
facture of church candles. 

Whalebone from Balcenoptera musculus and B. xihhaJdii is now 
65/. per ton. The baleen of Megaptera is of very inferior quality, 

' Op. clt., p. 146. 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 127 

while B. horeaiis yields whalebone of considerably greater value, 
although, since this is a small species, the plates are not of great 

length. 

The flesh of B. aibbaldii has an excellent flavour even when taken 
from a large specunen. As it is full of oil it must be soaked in salt 
water and vinegar for several hours before being used. If this pre- 
caution is observed, it is almost impossible to distinguish whale-meat 
from good quality of beef-steak. The flesh for food is generally cut 
from the lateral post-anal region. On the Japanese Stations the 
entire carcases of the whales taken are, or used to be, sold on the 
market for food, it being more profitable to dispose of the animals in 
this manner than to boil them down for oil and guano. In Norway 
also a considerable amount of whale-meat is utilised by butchers. It 
is usually salted as soon as the whales are flensed, and is seldom 
placed on the market in the fresh condition. On account of the 
extreme rapidity with which whales decompose very few of the 
Blacksod Company's whales could be used as food. 

The attempts to recover the glue from the water resulting from 
the various cooking processes applied to blubber, meat, &c., have 
failed. The reason for the failure lies in the amount of steam which 
is required to evaporate down the solution. This steam coasmnptiou 
necessitates the use of so much coal that the expenditure is not 
covered by the price received for the glue which results from the 
process of evaporation. 

In whale-hunting the shot which is generally attempted is aimed at 
a point behind the pectoral fin, as the animal here presents a large 
target, and the cast-iron harpoon head, with its charge of blasting- 
powder, is most likely to prove fatal when exploded in the thoracic 
cavity. The shot, as a matter of fact, which explodes beside the 
vertebral column in an anterior position is the most fatal. "When this 
happens the uhale dies instantaneously. On the other hand, the 
harpoon may fail to explode. In this case nothing can be done at the 
moment except to let the harpoon line run out. The whale may 
rush along the surface or descend almost vertically. If a surface run 
is made the engines are put at full speed -ahead in order to avoid 
straining the harpoon rope, which is three-inch manilla cable. When 
the whale dives down there is serious risk of the rope snapping. 
One such case occurred to our knowledge during the 1913 seasoai. 
Only a few fathoms of cable were lost on this occasion, but at other 
times whales have been known to take out the whole of the three or 
four hundred fathoms attached to the harpoon, and then to break 
the line at the bow of the boat. The whale is very much exhausted 
after a deep dive such as this, and when it returns to the surface 
another harpoon is fired into it, which almost invariably proves fatal. 
Even if the rope is broken the animal is usually so fatigued that 
it is readily approached and secured. We were informed by a very 
experienced Norwegian whaler that it has happened that a steamer, 
having become fast to a wounded whale, has ' played ' it for as much 
as thirty hours before the coiip dc cjrcicc could be delivered. 



128 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

II. — Numbers and Species taken at the Blacksod Bay Station in 1913. 
The number of whales taken in the 1913 season was sixty-four, 
as has been stated. Of these fifteen were brought in previous to our 
arrival; we therefore examined forty-nine. Five species came under 
our notice, in the following numbers : — 

Fiiiners {Balcenoptera musculus, L.) 37 

Blue Whales [B. sibbaldii, Gray) 4 

Sejhval (£. borealis, Lesson) 1 

H\iinpha,ck (Megaptera longimana, Knd.) 1 

Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus, L. ) 6 

Of the fifteen taken before June 26, eleven were Finners and 
four Sperm Whales. 

III. — Measurements and Proportions. 

(See Tables at the end of this Eeport.) 

In continuing the series of measurements adopted by Burfield, 
who followed True,^ we found that in some cases it was not easy to 
determine the points from which measurements were taken, within 
six inches or a foot. We therefore fixed on a series of standards 
which enabled us to make measurements from corresponding points 
on every whale. These points I attempt to define as follows: — 

(1) Total length. Taken between a position opposite the end of 
the upper jaw to a point opposite the notch between the flukes, in 
a straight line. When, as in the case of our first two whales, and 
in the cases of those taken before our arrival, we obtained the Norwegian 
measurements, two points had to be observed : (a) that Norwegian 
feet are equal to 12^ English inches; (6) that the Norwegians measured 
to the tip of the lower jaw, which projects beyond the rostrum, and 
therefore an allowance must be made for this in reducing to ' total 
length ' according to our standard. Eighteen inches was the allow- 
ance made, and this was probably erring on the side of taking off 
too little rather than too much. 

(2) Tip of snout to anterior end of the groove between the spiracles. 
This line is quite sharply marked. 

(3) Tip of snout to posterior insertion of pectoral fin. Th's 
measurement and the next were taken on the dorsal side of the animal. 

(4) Tip of snuut to posterior insertion of dorsal fin. This fin 
slopes away behind as well as in front. The ' posterior insertion ' 
was therefore found in the following manner — a line being dropped 
from the apex of the dorsal fin, at right angles to the body, the 
point where it cut the outline of the body was taken as the posterior 
insertion of the dorsal fin. Apart from this method I do not think 
that any point of equal value in every specimen could have been 
found. 

(5) Tip of snout to centre of eye. 

(6) Centre of eye to a'nterior end of auditory slit. 

(7) Notch of flukes to posterior end of anus. 

(8) Notch of flukes to anterior margin of umbilicus, which was 
the most definite border of that area. 

3 Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. xxx. 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



129 



Measurements oj the Pectoral Fin. 

(9) Length of anterior border. There is an eminence at the anterior, 
proximal end of the pectoral fin. Immediately anterior to this is a 
slight depression. The eminence marks approximately the position 
of the head of the humerus. Our measurement was taken from the 
tip of the flipper, along the anterior margin, to the centre of the 
eminence. 

(10) The posterior length was taken from the tip, along the 
margin, to the axilla. This measurement was not easy to take, as 
the flipper was almost always directed backwards and the axilla 
compressed. When this was the case the exact point of proximal 
measurement had to be found by judgment, as the size of the limb 
and the rigidity of the muscles attached to it entirely prevented any 
attempt at altering the attitude of the fin. 

(11) The median length was taken from the tip in a straight line, 
down the centre of the flipper, to a point on a line drawn through 
the axilla in such a manner as to carry on the outline of the body. 
In taking this measurement the idea was to estimate the extent to 
which the limb projects from the body. 

(12) The greatest breadth of the pectoral fin was generally found 
to be about half-way between the tip and the insertion. 

(13) The length of the dorsal fin was taken from the posterior 
insertion as defined above, and the anterior insertion, which could 
usually be found with moderate accuracy. This measurement cannot 
be regarded as more than approximate. 

The flukes had been cut off every whale before it was towed in, but 
on jB. iHusculu-s (No. 19) the right fluke had not been completely 
severed. Measurement gave 7 ft. 5 in. as the distance between tip 
of fluke and caudal notch. The spread of tlie flukes was therefore 
M ft. 10 in. 

Total Length. 

'We following table shows the averages of total length of the five 
sptcies taken, and a more detailed analysis of the total measurements 
of the Pinners at different stages. I have taken as the minima for 
adult males and females the dimensions adopted by Burfield,'' who 
followed True : — 

Finners {B. initscidun, L.) 



(.37) 
(17) 

(20) 



Average length of all finners 
,, ,, „ females 

„ males 
,, ,, ,, adult females (12 

Maximum for females 

Minimum for females 

Average for adult males (16) . 

Maximum for males .... 

Minimum for males .... 



Ft. 


in. 


59 


9 


60 


7 


59 





64 





69 


8 


48 


7 


60 


8 


66 






46 



1914. 



Ol). cit., p. 160. 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

It may be useful to compare these results with those of Burfield, 
who gives similar statistics for the year 1911: — 



Average for all specimens (53) 

„ „ females (21) 

,, ,, males (25) 

„ ,, mature females (20) 

„ males (23) 

Maximum females 

„ males .... 

Minimum females .... 
,, males .... 



1911. 


1913. 


Ft. 


in. 


Ft. 


in. 


63 





(37) 59 


9 


64 


3 


(17) 60 


7 


62 


5 


(20) 59 





64 


8 


(12) 64 





63 


2 


(16) 60 


8 


75 





69 


8 


68 


9 


66 





54 


3 


48 


7 


53 


3 


46 


7 



As all the figures for 1913 are perceptibly smaller than the corre- 
sponding figures of Burfield for IQll, it suggests the probability that 
the larger whales are being killed off, although it would be useful 
to have the figures for other years in order to verify the diminution 
in size which appears to be taking place. 

Blue Whales (B. sibbaldii, Gray). 

All the Blue Whales taken in the 1913 season were brought in 
during our stay : — 

Ft. in. 

July 10, female 78 2 

Aug. 18, „ 70 7 

„ 20, „ 68 6 

Sept. 9, , 68 

Comparing these also with Burfield 's figures ^ for the same species 

we have: — 

1911. 1913, 

Ft. in. Ft. in. 

Average for all females (4) 75 4 (4) 71 3f 

Maximum for females 84 78 2 

Minimum for females 64 6 68 

True gives 72 ft. as the minimum for mature females, but our 
second specimen (70 ft. 7 in.) had a foetus 8 ft. long, and was 
therefore an adult animal. (True's figure was based upon two speci- 
mens only.) 

Sperm Whales {Physeter macrocephalus , L.). 

Ten Sperm Whales were taken in 1913 ; of these six were taken 
after our arrival, and all the specimens were males. 

Ft. in. 

Average of all Sperm Whales (10), males 58 3 

Maximum, Sperm Whales 62 6 

Minimum „ ,, 53 

Sejhval (Balanoptera horealis, Lesson). 
One specimen only taken in 1913, female .... 46 ft. 7 in. 

Humpback (Megaptera longimava, Eud.). 

Only specimen taken, male 45 ft. 8 in. 

= Op. cit., Table IV., p. 161. 



BEI.MULLET WHALING STATION. 131 

IV. — General Observations on the Varioiis Species. 

1. Finners (B. muscuhis, Gray). 

(a) Colouration. — None of the specimens of the Finner examined 
by us presented any remarkable colour variations. On very many 
animals white marks occurred in the pigmented areas, as noted by 
Burfield.'' Some of these seemed to be the scars left after Penella has 
dropped off. In many cases we found the sores which had been 
produced by the parasite, although the latter was not present. These 
sores presented the same appearance as the wounds in which the 
parasites were still fixed. 

Notes on individual specimens: — 

No. 10. — There were a few white patches on the tongue, which 
may have been the result of lesions, or due to mere absence of 
pigment. 

No. 11. — A pale, grey line, about three-eighths of an inch broad, 
but gradually widening, ran from the ear aperture upwards and 
backwards to a point level with the anterior margin of the pectoral fin, 
and about 9 in. above the level of the ear- hole. From here onwards 
it broadened out and swept round in a semicircle to the anterior 
margin of the pectoral. On the top of the head there was a triangular 
grey patch, having as apices the angle of the jaw, the nape at the 
level of the pectoral, and a point about half-way down the margin 
of the rostrum. 

No. 19. — The fcetus of No. 19, 16 ft. in length, displayed the same 
areas of colouration on the head as an adult. The dark colour of the 
body was defined in front by the same line sweeping back from the eye, 
through the ear, and down to the pectoral, while dorsally it was 
limited by another line curving backwards, and dorsally, from the 
eye. 

No 24. — The black colour extended in flecks from, the left as far 
as the mid-ventral line, in the region of the ventral furrows. 

No. 29. — The belly had a yellow tinge, but, as the animal was 
very decomposed, this was probably not the case during life, as, when 
they have been dead for some time, whales become very discoloured. 
There were streaks of black on the left side of the belly. 

There is always a certain amount of pigment in the more lateral 
and posterior furrows. In Nos. 41 and 42 this was specially well 
developed, extending almost to the mid-ventral line from the left 
side. The furrow region of No. 42 had also a number of pale purple 
stains in its pure white. These were due to the presence of blood 
in the cutaneous vessels, which appeared to be gorged. They 
resembled bruises, but the epidermis was undamaged. This whale 
displayed a few of the 'galvanised-iron ' markings which are charac- 
teristic of the Blue Whale. These were in the post-anal region. 
It had also several incised wounds in the belly, about 8 in. long, 
partlv healed, but still raw. No. 45 had a large island of black pigment 
on the posterior furrow region of the left side. 

' Op. cAt., 175. 

K 2 



132 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

There are frequently extensive white patches on the dark area, 
caused by the chafing of the whale against the side of the steamer 
as it is being towed in. These, however, are easily distinguished from 
the naturally unpigmented areas. 

(b) Ventral Furrows. — In the Finner the number of pectoral furrows 
is exceedingly variable. We found a maximum of eighty-four, and a 
minimum of fifty-four. In nearly half of the cases a median furrow 
could be distinguished, the presence of which appears to have escaped 
notice up to the present. The number was estimated by finding the 
median furrow, and counting all those between it and the pectoral 
fin of the side which happened to lie uppermost. As the fin is 
approached the furrows become less marked, and it is not easy to 
discern the furrow nearest the fin. The skin in the axillary region 
is much folded longitudinally, which further complicates matters. 
By doubling the number of furrows thus counted and adding the 
unpaired median an estimate of the total number was made. The 
furrows in the smallest foetus (3 ft. 11 in.) were represented by 
mere lines, and could not be counted with accuracy. The folds of 
twenty-seven specimens were counted, of which twelve had no dis- 
tinguishable median furrow. The average depth of these furrows 
was about "68 in. (deduced from eight measurements), and the average 
horizontal distance between points above the middle lines of the same 
number of furrows was 1'85 in., varying from 1'37 in. to 1'96 in. These 
measurements were taken from a. portion of blubber lying on the 
plane and not stretched in any way. 

It is essential that the counting should always be made in the 
same position, as some of the folds do not run the whole length of 
the furrowed area. There does, however, appear to be a certain 
amount of uniformity in the folding, the shorter folds corresponding 
with each other in different whales, if not with absolute accuracy, nt 
any rate nearly so. 

(c) Tongue. — The coloiu' of the tongue as a whole is dark grey, 
but the area which is the morphological upper sm-face, which is 
distinguishable from the morphological lower surface, shades oft into 
pink towards the ' tip.' 

2. Blue Whales (B. sibbaldii, Gray). 
Colo7iration. — The only point to which I wish to draw attention is 
that there are some curious markings on the skin, especially ven- 
trally, but not confined to that aspect. These markings take the form 
of curved, darker and lighter lines radiating from a common centre. 
The area of such markings is about 8 in. long and 4 in. wide. Where 
there is a number of markings crowded together, the appearance of 
the skin forcibly reminds one of the pattern produced on the surface 
of ' galvanised iron.' These markings occur in considerable abundance 
on large areas O'f the skin. 

3. Sejhval (B. borealis, Lesson). 

E.rlprnal Cliaraciers. — The solitary example of this species taken 
was a female. Although a small species (this specimen was only 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 133 

46 ft. 7 in. long) it has a robust figure, and the dorsal fin is of great 
height as compared with that of the Finner. This specimen had been 
lying at the buoy from Thursday afternoon until it was hauled up 
on Saturday morning, and was therefore considerably decomposed. 
The dorsal surface was dark grey, as was also the post-anal area of 
the ventral surface. The pre- anal region was for the most part of 
white colour, asymmetrically arranged. There was a considerable 
amount of black blotching towards the left side of this area, and on 
this side the white area was continued backwards in a large patch. 
There was no white patch coiTesponding with this on the right side. 
The symphysis was pigmented, and here there was a whorled design 
similar to that on the skin of the Blue "Whale as described above. 
The upper lips and the lower side of the anterior end of the rostrum 
were nearly black, and were finely tuberculated. The inner (palmar) 
surface of the pectoral fins was pale, streaky, greenish grey, with 
black streaks intermingling with the less dark flecks. The right side 
was a dark grey, nearly black. This may have been due to the fact 
that the right side had been more exposed to the sun than the left side 
as the animal lay at the buoy. 

The ear aperture was small. The tongue presented an area which 
could be more readily recognised as the dorsal surface than in the 
case of the Finners. 

4. Humpback (Megaptera longimana, Eud.). 

External Ch<iracters. — The form of the single specimen taken was 
robust, reminding one somewhat of the figure of the Sperm Whale. 
The dorsal fin was placed far back and was much falcated, and of 
moderate height. The colour was slate-chocolate, but very dark, 
almost black. Pure white, splashed, ring-like marks occurred on the 
lower jaw and on the dorsal side of the pect.oral fin. The outer sides 
of the right mandible and of the right upper jaw were white, but 
on the left only the inner sides were unpigmented. The ventral 
surface of the flukes was white. The ventral folds were few in 
number (23), and wide; running up the centre of each groove was 
a low ridge about "375 in. high, of triangular section. The folds 
were about 4 in. wide and 5 in. apart. The median fold, with the 
next on each side, also the fold next the right pectoral fin, were mere 
narrow grooves. 

There was a deep groove running from the angle of the jaw 
downwards and backwards to a point about one-third of the width 
of the pectoral fin from its anterior margin. Another groove ran 
from a point a little above and in advance of the termination of this 
groove to a point somewhat behind the posterior margin of the 
pectoral, and a little above it. Unlike the small external auditory 
aperture of the Balsenopterids the opening in this specimen was 
S in. long. The upper surface of the snout had the characteristic 
knobs of the species. In the mid-dorsal line there were five, the 
first being n in. from the tip of the snout, and tlie last l^ in. from the 
spiracle. The spaces bet\\eeii the knobs, running from the snout, were 
1<H, .18, J'2.l, 23^ in. respectively. There were also two series of 



134 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

lateral knobs, following the margins of the rostrum, nine on each side 
in a consecutive row. Inside these rows, at tlieir posterior ends, 
was a second series of four knobs on each side. The knobs of the 
inner, short row were set beside those of the outer row, forming 
l^airs with them. But the two sides were not symmetrical. Thus, 
if the knobs oi the outer row are numbered 1 to 9 from before back- 
wards, on the left side 7, 8, and 9 were paired, and there was a 
single knob of the inner row behind the termination of the outer 
series. On the right side 6, 7, 8, and 9 were paired, and 
there was no unpaired knob posteriorly. Several of the left-side 
knobs had a hair on the summit, which suggests that the knobs may 
be overgrown hair-papillae, and their arrangement does correspond 
fairly closely with the arrangement of the hairs of BalcBiioptera. On 
the symphysis there were four knobs on the right side and five on 
the left. In each case there was a vertical row of tliree. The knobs 
varied in size, a large one being 2 in. high and 4 in. across the base. 

The eye appears to be rather more movable than in Balcenoptera. 
The pectoral fin has an exceedingly irregular posterior margin. There 
were seven conspicuous elevations on it, varying in length from 
10 to 27 in. 

5. Sperm Whale (P. m-acrocephalus, L.). 

(a) External Characters. — Six specimens were examined. The 
general body-colour is pale greyish chocolate, rather more lead-like 
ventrally. Between the genital aperture and the umbilicus there is 
a splashed chevron-shaped mark of a pal§ grey colour. The apex 
is on tlie umbilicus, and directed forwards, the ' arms ' being about 
4 ft. apart at the tips. There are also irregular grey flecks all 
over the ventral surface. In some specimens the front of the head 
is barred horizontally with streaks which are almost white in colour. 
They are broadest in the middle and taper towards the ends. The 
whole of the head, and in particular the anterior, ventral, and lateral 
areas, have numerous weals and sucker marks which have been pro- 
duced by the arms and suckers of the cuttlefish, which are the main 
food of this species. As might be expected from the fact that the 
suckers of many of the molluscs are armed with chitinous teeth, the 
sucker marks take the form of rings of minute pricks. One such 
mark was 3| in. across. The fifth Sperm "Whale had a large patch 
of pure white on the umbilicus, and an extensive array of grey 
streaks on the left side, in addition to the grey chevron. 

(b) Spiracle. — In every case the left spiracle alone was functional. 
On the right side, however, afterthe blubber has been removed, there is 
a compressed cavity, approximately oval in shape, about 18 in. long 
and 10 in. wide, in the position corresponding with that of the obliterated 
right spiracle. The lining of this cavity is heavily pigmented with 
the same colour as the outer surface of the animal. There can be 
no doubt that this is the vestige of the right spiracle, although no 
passage was observed running backwards from it in the direction of 
the pharynx. 

(c) Mouth. — The palate and floor of the mouth have a general 
pale grey colour and have a large number of small grooves, about 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 135 

an inch in length, running longitudinally. On the palate of the fii'st 
Sperm Whale there were two large dark blotches. That on the left 
was about 8 in. long, that on the right 11 in. 

{d) Tongue. — The tongue of Physeter affords a striking contrast 
to that of a Mystacocete. It is an exceedingly hard, strong structure 
of comparatively small size, and very nearly occludes the throat as the 
animal lies on the plane with the jaw gaping open. The tongue 
stands up from the jaw to a height of about 2 ft., and, as viewed 
from the front, presents a smooth, round wall, like the side of a 
section of wide tubing. The upper surface is wrinkled, and in front is 
produced into a small projection, which appears to correspond with the 
tip of the normal mammahan tongue. From its structure the tongue 
would appear to be of use in preventing the ingress of water during 
respiration, but in the dead animal, at any rate, this very fact of its 
nearly closing the throat gives the impression that the organ would be a 
hindrance to the swallowing of large prey. That this cannot be the 
case, however, is apparent from the size of the cuttlefish which we 
found in the stomach of one specimen, as described in Section V. 

(p) Teeth. — Teeth occur in both jaws. Only those of the lower 
jaw can, however, be of much practical value in the capture of food, 
as the upper-jaw teeth are of small size, and often nearly covered 
with soft tissue. The lower-jaw teeth are about twenty in number 
on each side, and are arranged in pairs, but the two teelh of eadi 
pair are not exactly opposite to one another. 

Actual numbers of teeth in the different Sperm Whales examined : — 

right side 23 
19 
20 plus 2 „ 21 plus 1 

23 

21 

The two most anterior teeth of each side project somewhat for- 
ward, but the majority of the teeth are nearly vertical, being some- 
what recurved in most cases and having a slight inclination outward. 
The acuteness O'f the point is very variable, but this may be merely due 
to differences in age of the animals. One tooth was seen which 
had been broken off, but the stump did not appear to be at all decayed. 
In the palate there is a hollow coiTesponding with each tooth of the 
lower jaw, into which the latter fits when the mouth is shut. 

The upper-jaw teeth are small, inclining backwards, and deeply 
embedded in soft tissue, but they do have some little use, as is 
demonstrated by the fact that in many cases they are much worn 
down by contact with the lower-jaw teeth. The most posterior of 
the latter are also very small, and of little use, occurring very far 
•back. There were no teeth in Ihe upper jaw of Nos. 16 and 26. 

Number 15 . 

16 ... . 

21 ... . 

22 ... . 

25 ... . 

26 ... . 



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136 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

(/) Dorsal Fin. — The dorsal fin of the Sperm Whale consists of 
a prominent elevation, which rises to a height of from 14 to 18 in. 
above the line of the back. The fin is succeeded by a series of about 
six much smaller prominences which decrease in size towards the 
tail. None of these at all approaches the altitude of the dorsal fin. 
They are, nevertheless, quite obvious. On the ventral surface the 
keel of the caudal region is continued forwards towards the anus as 
a much more definite ridge than in the Baleenopterids. 

[g) Flipper. — The shape of the flipper is somewhat variable. In 
No. 21 the left pectoral appeared to have been damaged at some 
period, as there was a large notch on the preaxial side of the tip. 

(h) Spermaceti. — In every specimen the quantity of this substance 
was large, usually constituting about one-third of the total oil yield 
of a whale of this species. It occurs all over the body as well as in 
the head, but no attention is paid to it except in the head, the rest 
merely contributing to the general production of ' sperm oil.' In 
the head there are three extensive cavities, an anterior single cavity 
and two lateral cavities. They all occur in the interior of a huge 
mass of exceedingly dense, fibrous connective tissue, which, when 
drained of spermaceti, is of a snowy whiteness. This mass con- 
stitutes the great bulk of the head, and rests upon the large cup- 
like structure formed by the bones of the rostrum. The cavities 
do not appear to possess definite linings, and when the oil runs out, 
masses of light, spongy tissue filled with the liquid fat run out also, 
ns if they had been loosely attached to the walls of the cavity. They 
are probably liberated by the instruments introduced through the wall 
o<f the cavity in the process o^f tapping the spermaceti. 

The following is the method of tapping. After the whale Is flensed, 
the body is cut off from the head, which is left lying on its side. 
The whole head is covered by a thick coat of mixed muscle and 
tendon running longitudinally. The tendons are conspicuous, and 
may be removed in considerable lengths with little difficulty. The 
cutting of the hole in this capsule is an arduous work, and may 
occupy nearly an hour. A mid-dorsal and an anterior aperture are 
made, and when the cavities have been penetrated, the spermaceti 
runs out as if from a pipe. A movable wooden gutter is placed beneath 
the hole, by means of which the oil is run into the two open boilers, 
in which it is cooked. 

Spermaceti is an almost colourless, transparent liquid, having a 
pale yellow tinge. It has not any noticeable odour, and the flavoui- 
is very faintly fishy, resembling that of a fresh duck egg. After 
boiling, the oil has a dark yellow colour while liquid. When cold, 
both before and after boihng, it sets stiff, but is not hard, the con- 
sistency being about that of lard. The uses of this oil have been 
indicated in the Introduction. 

From the position of the spermaceti, and also of the blow-hole in 
Physeter, the following function of the former may be suggested : The 
food of the Sperm Whale is, in the main, composed of cuttlefish 
such as Architeuthis. As these forms are bathypelagic, it follows 
that the whales must descend to considerable deptbs to feed, and 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 137 

remain submerged while feeding.^ A very rapid ascent would be 
exceedingly advantageous after a prolonged immersion, and the more 
rapid the ascent which could be made the longer the immersion could 
be continued. In order to be able to ascend as speedily as possible, 
it would be of the greatest advantage to possess a large mass of some 
material, having a lower specific gravity than that of water, which 
would act as a float, and such a material spermaceti is. Moreover, 
as the mass of the spermaceti is placed in the head, and as it is of 
enormous size, even compared with the great mass of a Sperm Whale, 
the animal will always ascend head first, and probably nearly verti- 
cally, with the result that the first portion of the body to come 
above the surface will be the upper edge of the snout, the precise 
situation of the spiracle. It would appear, if this suggestion be 
correct, that in order to descend and to maintain a submerged con- 
dition, muscular exertion is necessary, whereas ascent is automatic, 
and is merely accelerated by swimming movements. These two 
points are in keeping with the habits of the whale as indicated above. 
It is possible that the astounding feat which has been credited to 
Physefer, that of Hurling itself bodily out of the water, is really the 
result of a hurried ascent from a considerable depth, which has been 
so rapid that the animal has shot out of the water on reaching the 
surface. 

V. — Food of Different Species of Whale. 

The stomachs of all the species of Mystacocetes examined con- 
tained the remains of Meganyctiphanes norvegica (M. Sars), some- 
times in immense quantities. Nothing else was ever seen, except 
some fragments of flesh on one occasion, but there can be little doubt 
that these had been driven into the stomach by the explosion of the 
harpoon. No fish of any sort wei'e seen in the stomachs of any of 
these whales.^ 

The stomachs of the Sperm Whales invariably contained large 
quantities of cuttlefish beaks, which might be readily divided into 
large and small sizes, but, apart from size, there was nothing to 
differentiate the two sei'ies of beaks (fig. 1). A practically complete 
specimen of one of the molluscs was found in the stomach of No. 22 
fthe fourth Sperm Whale). The following measurements were taken 
on this animal : — 

Ft. in. 

Length of the mantle fi 

Circumference of mantle 4 

Length of the eight short arms 6 

,, ,, tentacles 21 

Length of tail 17 

Width of caudal fin 1 9t 

Diameter of largest sucker 1 " 

In addition to this specimen, we saw fragments of others of 
approximately the same size. The following specimens were pre- 
served: tip of tentacle, beak and radula in liquid, and a quantity of 
beaks and part of an internal shell in the dry state. An examination 

' Vide Burfield, op. cit., p. 155 ' Vidt Burfield, op. cit., p. 178. 



138 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

of these remains leaves little doubt that the species is Architeuthis 
harveyi, Verrill ® — the caudal fin was too much digested to indicate 
whether it had been sagittate or not. The distal series of small, smooth 
suckers are not now on the tentacle tip, but these again may have been 





Fig. 1. — Architeuthis harveyi. Beak. 



lost owing to the same cause. No soft parts of any of the smaller 
cuttlefish were found. 

The molluscs appear to be quite lively when swallowed, as there 
are scars on the heads of the whales right up to the angle of the mouth. 
These have been produced by the vain efforts of the molluscs to save 
themselves. Sucker-marks were seen on the inside of one of the whales' 
stomachs. Two or three jawbones of some species of predaceous fish 
were found in the stomach of one Sperm Whale, but, except for these, 
nothing but cuttlefish remains were ever noticed. 

VI. — Notes on a Feio Miscellaneo'us Sfecimens Preserved. 

(a) One of the Norwegians gave us an object, taken from whale 
No. 5 (Finner), which was stated to have been ' inside the ribs. ' 
This appears to be a pathological structure. It is a flattened, oblong 
object about 2J in. long, and 2 in. wide, and about f in. thick. At 
one point there seems to have been a peduncle. The entire specimen 
has a very hard capsule of fibrous connective tissue, and is filled with 
a more or less reticulate mass, containing what may have been a coagul- 
able fluid. There is a certain amount of calcification in the outer layers 
just beneath the capsule, and a little fat is visible on treatment with 
Sudan III. The conclusion to which the structures observed point is 
that this is a region of connective tissue, which has become infiltrated 
with some pathological product, and has acquired the thick capsule in 
consequence of its abnormal condition. The infiltrating material is verv 
varied, in some parts it takes magenta brilliantly, while in others it 
stains in a very faint manner. The more brilliantly coloured tissue 
appears more homogeneous than that which refuses to take the stain. 
The colour of the capsule is dark brownish-grey, that of the contents 
a deep cream (fig. 2, No. 1). 

(b) There are numerous roundish glandular objects embedded in 
the fat which lies in the mid-dorsal region of the body cavity of the 
Finner and surrounds the great vessels. These are lymphatic glands. 
One such specimen preserved is of very in-egular shape. It is H in. 
in greatest length and 1^ in. in greatest breadth (fig. 2, No. 2). 

» Trans. Coun. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 197 (1880). 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



139 



(c) A number of greenish bodies were taken from a similar position 
in the Sperm Whale. The specimens are about 2i in. long, about 
2 in. wide, and f in. thick, at the thickest part. The histological 
condition is exceedingly bad, as was to be expected from the general 
state of all the Sperm Whales which we saw. There is a connective- 
tissue capsule, and a great mass of the body is composed of the 
same tissue. There are two or three objects which may be sections 
of medullated nerves, and a number of rather thick-walled blood- 
vessels. No other structures can be recognised. 

(d) The rectum of Physeter has an exceedingly well-develojied 
cuticular lining for the last four or six feet of its length. In the 





o- 



Fig. 2.— 1. Calcified Body, from Finner No. 5. 2. Lymphatic Gland, Firmer. 
3. Cysticercus, from P%se<er. (All natural size.) 

first specimen in which it was observed the lining was detached owing 
to decomposition, but in a later example it was found to he attached 
to the remainder of the intestinal wall. This lining is about -J in. 
thick. It has a pale yellow colour, and is of a consistency somewhat 
resembling that of a very hard-boiled egg. It is laminated, and can 
be readily split into layers. At irregular distances on the surface 
are hollows, penetrating partly or completely through the lining. The 
edges of these hollows have a puckered appearance. The line of 
junction of this lining with the mucosa of the intestine is perfectly 
sharp. The lining thins out very much just prior to its cessation, 
and the edges of successive laminae are readily observed. The actual 
thickness of the lining where it comes to an end is tV in. The colour 
of the mucous membrane, which is fairly tough, is a dull pink, very 
much stained with sepia. Longitudinal sections of this region at 
the point of junction clearly show that this is a cuticle derived from 
the stratified epithelium of the rectum. The cuticle comes to a 
very abrupt termination, where it joins the mucosa, the line of 



140 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

junction being very obvious in the slides. The epitheUal layer is 
about half as thick as the cuticular. 

VII. — Parasites. 

1. External. 

(a) Balceuophilus uniselus (Aurivillius). We have nothing to add 
to Burfield's remarks on this species.^" 

(b) PencUa (Kov. and Dan.). This parasite was observed on few 
of the whales examined, and only on the Finner. Three specimens 
were preserved, which vary in length from 5f in. to 10 in. No 
males were found as a result of the examination of these females. 
We frequently found white scars upon the skin of B. musculus, which 
were apparently healed wounds caused by Penella. The scars took the 
form of small oval marks about ^^ in. long and ^ in. wide. Beneath 
the white area the epidermis is more firmly adherent than in other 
parts of a preserved specimen, which supports the view that these 
are healed wounds. We often found open wounds on the whales, 
which had evidently been produced by this parasite. 

All the Penella which we saw occurred at the beginning of the 
season, and in the latter part of it only wounds from which the 
Copepods had fallen were observed. It may therefore be suggested 
that the period of attachment of the parasite to the whale is less 
than a year. 

(c) Coromda diadevia (L.), &c. On the Humpback there were 
large quantities of this species on the tips and especially on the 
posterior margins of the flippers. They were also found on tlie 
ventral furrows, and some small specimens were adhering behind 
the penis. 

A number of specimens O'f Conclwderma aurita (L.) occurred among 
the Coronula, as well as a good number of small specimens of Cyavuis, 
which last parasite was also generally scattered over the head region. 
On Pliyseter No. 15 four specimens of Cyamus were also found on 
the throat region, where there are a few short wrnikles. On the tip 
of the lower jaw of Sperm Whale No. 16 there \\as a small colony 
of Conclwderma aurita, while another specimen of the same species 
was taken from the second tooth of the left side of the lower jaw of 
Sperm Whale No. 25. 

2. Internal. 

(a) Trematodes. — Monostomum plicatum (Creplin) was found in the 
intestines of the following Finners : 1, 3, 19, 23, 24, 27, 30. 

(b) Nematodes .—We found nematodes, which appear to be of the 
genus Ascaris, in the stomachs of every Sperm Whale examined. 
They are generally very abundant. In the renal vein of the Megaptera 
the mass of nematodes described later was found, and in the posterior 
vena cava of B. sibbaldii, No. 33, a solitary, incomplete specimen of 
another nematode was taken. These worms all appear to belong to 
the StrongylidcB. As mentioned later, in the digitate structure observed 
in the veins of B. musculus nematode eggs were found, as was also 

'"' Oil. cit., p. 179. 



British Association, 8ith Beport, Australia, 1914.] 



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[To /ace page 141. 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 141 

the case in the neighbourliood of the mnss of the worms found in tlie 
Humpback. 

(c) AcanthocephaliJ^ Representatives of this group were found 
in every species except B. borealia. 

B. musciilus, Echinorhynchus porrigens (RudolpLi), new host, 

B. sibbaldii „ pomg^en* in small intestine, new host. 

„ ,, brevicolUs (Malm). 

M. longimana „ porrigens, large intestine. 

P. macrocephalus „ capitatus (von Linstow), new host. 

,, ,, brevicolUs (Malm). 

(d) Cestodes. — One of the Norwegians drew our attention to a 
large number of soft white bodies embedded in the blubber of one 
of the Sperm Whales. They occurred in a more or less irregular 
manner at a depth of from 1| to 6 in. from the outer surface. Each 
body is enclosed in a cyst with fibrous walls from which it is readily 
detached. The accompanying figure (fig. 2, No. 3) is taken from a 
specimen in good condition and undistorted. Sections of these bodies 
clearly demonstrate that they are the cysticercus stage of some Cestode. 
The pi'oscolex occurs at one of the poles of the long axis. The 
Prince of Monaco's account of the capture of a Sperm Whale off the 
Azores in 1895 mentions numerous cysticerci in the blubber of that 
animal, which are probably identical with those here described." 

(e) Stnicture found in the renal veins and posterior vena- cava 
(see figs. 3 and 4). 

In whale No. 8 <?, while searching for the suprarenal, we came 
across a series of short, digitate processes, hanging into the lumen 
of the vena cava at the point of entrance of the renal vein. A similar 
structure occurred in whales Nos. 12 3, 13 <S, 27 <S, 30 ?, 32 2, all 
Finners. In two of the Blue Whales, Nos. 17 ? and 33 ?, it was 
also present, as well as in Megaptera, No. 28 3, but in the last in 
a somewhat different form. In some specimens, owing to the manner 
in which the kidney was cut away from the body in removing the 
entrails, it was impossible to say whether the structure had been 
present or not. No trace of it was found in any of the Sperm Whales 
examined. 

The specimens preserved are four in number, all differing from 
one another. The accompanying figures show the two larger speci- 
mens. Fig. 3 is an example of the most digitate fonn. This 
specimen is not actually in the renal vein, but projects from the wall 
of the vena cava close to the point of entrance of the renal vein. 
The digitate processes are not actually tubular, but contain cavities. 
which in the free ends are nearly continuous, so that the whole 
process is here practically a blind sac. The diameter of the processes 
increases from the free end towards the wall of the vena cava. The 
digitations unite at the point of attachment, and the structure thus 
formed is continued beyond the wall of the vein towards the kidney. 
It is most unfortunate that we were unable to preserve a specimen 

" Vide A. E. Shipley, Archives de Pnrasitologte. IT., No. 2, p. 262, 1899, 
'- BuU. Mux. Xnt. Hist., Paris, t. 1, p. ,308, 1895. 



142 REPORTS OK THE STATE OP SCIENCE, — 1914. 

sufficiently large to show whether there is an actual connection with 
the kidney itself. But from notes taken at the Station, I find that 
in one of the Blue Whales this structure was followed up, and that 
branches of the renal vein were found blocked by it in the proximal 
region of the kidney. This was also the case in the Humpback, 
No. 28. 

The interior of the digitations shows the cavities above mentioned, 
separated from each other by walls of connective tissue continuous 
with the tissue of the walls of the tube. In section the wall is seen 
to be composed of fibrous connective tissue very dense externally, 
but more open in the inner layers, where there are also some nodules 
of lymphoid tissue. The partitions between adjacent cavities come 
ofT from the inner layers of the outer wall. There are a few blood- 
vessels in these structures. The cavities are filled with material which 
varies in consistency from that of a rather stiff pulp to a stony hard- 
ness. In the latter case the material contains a varying amount of 
inorganic salts, chiefly calcium phosphate, of which there may be as 
much as 80 per cent, present. These concretions are very hard in 
the fully calcified condition, and are rounded in form in the Finners, 
but more rod-like in specimens taken from a Blue Whale and the 
Humpback. The soft material varies in its composition. In its 
softest state it is easily teased out in water, and is then seen to be 
composed of a mass of nematode eggs. Although the shells are 
very thick, and resist the action of pure nitric acid and of strong 
alkali, they are very transparent, and embryos may be seen in their 
interiors in stages of development varying from morula-like masses 
to small coiled worms. In the partially calcified material it is still 
possible to separate by teasing numbers of these ova, which are 
here covered with the calcium deposit. On the application of mineral 
acid the inorganic material dissolves away, leaving the ova distinctly 
recognisable as such. 

Fig. 4 shows a specimen which is confined to the renal vein, and 
has no digitations hanging intO' the vena cava. There is a single 
cylindrical body about 6 in. long attached to the wall of the 
renal vein by strap-like bands of varying breadth tapering somewhat 
towards their junctions with the body. Sections of this body show 
the thick wall, partitions, and congregations of ova, as described above. 
The ova appear to be embedded in a matrix nearly homogeneous, but 
containing numerous small rounded bodies, which stain daskly with 
Ehrlich's hfematoxylin. They may be nuclei, and in that case indicate 
that the matrix is probably cellular. In the renal vein of Megaptera a 
mass of tissue was found of an elongated form, and containing hard 
calcareous material together with a number of tangled nematode worms, 
which appear to belong to the family Strongylidas. The worms were 
mostly enveloped in sheathing tissue attached to the wall of the vein, but 
the sheath was not always complete. 

There can be little doubt that the presence of these worms affords 
the key to the formation of the growths described above. It is known 
that the presence in a vein of any object the surface of which is 
not smooth, or of lesions of the intima of a blood-vessel, produces 



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Illustrating the Report on Behnullet Whaling Station. 



{To face page 142. 



MM 






BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 143 

a thrombus, which may in the course of time become organised." 
The organisation takes the form of a prohieration of tlie fibrous tissue 
of the blood-vessel wall, which in the course of time entirely replaces 
the thrombus. This tissue may be supplied with blood-vessels. 
Thrombi may become calcified, and the deposition of calcium salts 
is one of the striking features of the structures under consideration. 
Again, metazoan parasites have been known to cause thrombi,^* and 
in the cases before us it is highly probable that the nematodes have 
produced vascular lesion, or the mere presence of the eggs may have 
been sufficient to excite coagulation of the blood. From either of 
these causes the thrombi may have been formed, becoming subse- 
(jueutly organised. It is interesting to note in this connection that 
pedunculated, if not digitated, thrombi have occurred in the human 
subject. The thrombus in Megaptera appears to have actually enclosed 
the worms which caused it, and they have been retained by the 
subsequent organisation. 

VIII. — Foeiuses. 

B. musculus. — None of the foetuses examined by us were suffi- 
ciently small to be of use for embryological purposes. They were all 
perfectly formed, and even in the smallest (3 ft. 11 in.) the ventral 
furrows of the adult were represented by mere lines. 

Table VI. contains a list of the foetuses, and a detailed list of 
measurements will be found in Table XII. It may be noted that 
the 8 ft. foetus of No. 30 was mutilated by some of the workers 
before we arrived on the scene, while that of No. 31 was destroyed 
before the female was opened, apparently by the harpoon explosion. 
The sizes of both of these are therefore estimates only. The fcetus 
of No. 47 (9 ft. 4 in.) was in a hopeless state of decomposition, and 
very few measurements could be taken upon it. 

(a) Body form. — In all the foetuses which we saw the form was 
the same as in the adult, but in the smallest it was noticeably more 
robust. 

(b) Colouration. — This character does not differ from that of the 
adult animals. The dark tint is found in the same situations. The 
smaller foetuses are very much less pigmented. In the 3 ft. 11 in. 
fcetus the whole skin was gorged with blood, and the black colour 
was confined to the following localities : back, tip of dorsal fin, tip 
of flippers, tips of flukes, tip of rostrum, and symphysis. 

B. sibhaldii. — One specimen, 7 ft. 7 in. in length, was seen. The 
upper surface was pale grey, the distal part of the dorsal fin and 
the external mouth parts were stained with black. 

IX. — Breeding Season of the Balanopterids . 
A factor which may be used in attempting to ascertain the probable 
breeding season of the large whales is the sizes of the foetuses observed 
at different times. Leaving for this purpose the Blue Whale out of 

" Macfarlane, Text Book of Pathology, 1904 ed., pp. 107-8. Green, Manual 
of Pathology, 11th ed., p. 66. 
" Green,' oy. cit., p. 389. 



144 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914, 



account, because very few of this species have been seen in the pregnant 
condition, the six foetuses which we saw have the following dimensions : 

Ft. in. 
July 15 15 



Aug. 7 
„ 7 
„ 27 

Sept. 4 
„ 9 



8 





4 





7 


10 


3 


11 


9 


4 


^t. 


in. 


8 


11 


4 


11 


8 


5 


6 





5 





9 





9 





9 


a 



Burfield's table of foetuses observed in 1911 is as follows : — 

July 12 

,,16 

„ 20 

„ 24 

Aug. 7 

„ 11 

Sept. 10 9 

,.18 

The j'oung whale appears to be about 20 ft. long \\hen born. 
If the size of the foetus is proportional to the length of gestation 
wliicli has elapsed since pairing until the time when the Icetus is 
measured, and if the period of gestation is ten months,''^ then the 
fcetuses found must have been the result of pairings at approximately 
the times given opposite each in the table which follows: — 

Ft. in. 

July 15 . 15 age 7i mouths, pairing took place l)eLember-.Jaiiuary. 

Aug. 7 . 8 „ 4 „ „ „ April (bcgiuuing). 

„ 7 . 4 „ 2 ,, ,, „ June. 

„ 27 . 7 10 „ 4 „ „ „ April (end). 

Sept. 4 . .■> 11 „ 2 „ „ „ July (beginning). 

„ 9 . 9 4 „ 5 „ „ „ May. 

Pursuing the same idea with the 1911 fcrtuscs, we have: — 



July 12 
„ 10 
„ 20 
„ 24 

7 
11 

Sept. 10 
„ 18 



Aug. 



Ft. 
8 
4 
8 
6 
5 
9 
9 
9 



m. 
11 
11 
5 

G 


3 



age 41 montlis, pairing took jjlace Marcli (beginning). 

May (beginning). 
March (begiiuiing). 



2,1- 

41 

3' 

3 

5 

5 

5 



April (end). 
May. 
March-April. 
May (beginning). 
May. 



These tunes can only be regarded as approximate, even if the 
premises upon which they are based be correct. It is, however, 
suggested by this table that pairing may take j^lace at any time 
between the end of December (the first in the 1913 series) and the 
beginning of July [Mth in the 1913 table), at intervals of roughly 
two months. This would indicate that the Balsenopterids are, at any 
rate, polyoestrous, and in season in December (February?), April, and 
June. All females would not be fit for breeding actually simultane- 
ously, but the precise time would vary for different individuals, and 

'' Burfield, op. cit., p. 155. 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 145 

this would account for some pairings occurring at such times as the 
beginning of July or the beginning of May. 

Such cases would belong to the June and April cEstra respectively. 
It is probable that such an an-angement would be advantageous. 
As the whale is a pelagic animal and individuals are widely separated, 
a fi-equently recurring breeding condition would be of great advantage to 
an animal in which pairing is to a greater or less extent casual. The 
above suggestion, which was originated by Mr. Daniel, appears to afford 
a possible explanation of the extraordinary variability in the sizes of the 
foetuses, apparently without regard to the season, a circumstance which 
the idea of a definite monoestrous condition does not elucidate. (It is 
interesting to note that oai June 13, 1913, at the Inishkea Station a 
foetus only 5 in. long was found, which must have been but a v/efek or 
two old, i.e., of the June pairing, according to the preceding method 
of reckoning the pairing times. It was, most unfortunately, not possible 
to preserve it.) 

X. — Additional Notes. 

(a) Extinction. — The whalemen state that of the whales which 
they see they are able to take only about one in ten. The animals 
are therefore perhaps not in immediate danger of being actually killed 
out. The most serious risk lies in the fact that the largest, and ■ 
therefore the adult, whales are being exterminated. True gives as the 
minimum length of adult animals 55 ft. 7 in., as no pregnant females ot 
less dimensions have been recorded. Now the whalers will take any- 
thing over 40 ft., with the result that the animals which have attained 
sexual maturity are in the gravest danger of being killed out. That the 
largest whales are being exterminated, the fall in general size at Blacksod 
between 1911 and 1913 may indicate. This means that the whales 
which are capable of reproduction are being destroyed. By the time 
that it is no longer profitable to hunt whales," it appears likely that the 
adults will have been so thinned out that they will no longer be able to 
reproduce with sufficient profusion to compensate for natural casualties. 
When this occurs the whales will be well within sight of extinction. 

(b) Capticr& of Blue Whales. — Of all the species which it is profit- 
able to pursue the whalers state that the Blue Whale is the wildest, 
and they will not hunt this species if other game is to be had. A 
Blue Whale on perceiving the pulsations of the propeller of the 
approaching steamer is usually startled, and, if alarmed, at once 
rushes off at full speed. Since this represents something like twenty 
miles per hour, it is quite useless for the boat to pursue the fleeing 
animal, the speed of the steamer being only ten or twelve miles per 
hour. When the whalers are bent on catching a Blue Whale, it is 
sometimes necessary to accompany the animal for three or four days, 
until it becomes accustomed to the presence of the steamer, which can 
then approach within range, and the whale is speedily disillusioned as 
to the hannlessness of the now familiar object. 

(c) Migration Movements. — During the earlier part of the season 
the Mystacocetes are stated to travel in a north-easterly direction, 

" Burfield, op. cit., p. 153. 
1914. 



146 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



during the later part iii a south-westerly. If this be so, it may be 
concluded that the latter is the return journey of those whales which 
have passed north in the beginning of the season. 

The solitary Humpback, taken on July 25, was moving in a dhec- 
tion the reverse of that which the Finners and Blue "Whales v/ere 
pm'suing at the same time. 

The only Sejhval which was captured was brought in on Septem- 
ber 6, a fact which is to be noted in connection with the whalers' 
statement to Burfield,^' that the Sejhval disappears by the end of June. 

The following is the explanation which the whalers give of 
the occurrence of Sperm Whales in these Nortliern waters. In the 
Southern seas each adult male is the leader of a herd of females, and 
as the young bulls approach maturity they are driven off by the old 
leader. These young bulls do not become leaders of herds, as they are 
inferior in strength and size to the fully adult males. But when fully 
grown they seek out herds, and contend with the leaders for the 
possession of the females. If the old males are then driven off, they 
become solitary wanderers, and frequently travel up into the North 
Atlantic. In connection with this theory it may be mentioned that 
the Sperm Whales taken at Blacksod and Inishkea are all males, and 
of great size for Sperm Whales, which iseldom exceed 60 ft., the 
average for the ten Blacksod specimens being 57 ft. Si in., while 
the smallest was 63 ft. 



Table I. — B. munculus. Table of Specimens Taken. 



Number 
of Whale 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



Date when 
Measured 



Blay 16 

„ 28 

„ 31 

June 14 

„ 19 

„ 20 

„ 21 

„ 22 

„ 22 

„ 22 

„ 23 

„ 26 

„ 26 

„ 28 

„ 28 

„ 30 

„ 30 
2 



July 



2 
3 
3 
3 

4 
4 



Sex 



Total 
Length 



Ft. in, 
59 6 



62 
59 
61 
61 
53 
68 
61 
64 



Number 
of Whale 



6 
6 
6 


6 
6 
6 



— 


64 


6 


— 


64 


6 


? 


69 


4 


? 


50 


7 


c? 


64 


1 


c? 


63 


1 


c? 


64 





? 


66 


9 


(? 


61 





c? 


62 





c? 


60 





c? 


55 


2 


<J 


58 


1 


3 


55 





6 


46 


' i 



14 

18 

19 

20 

23 

24 

27 

29 

30 

31 

32 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

47 

48 



Date when 
Measured 



Aug. 



July 5 
„ 11 
„ 15 
„ 15 
„ 20 
„ 20 
„ 25 
5 
7 

„ 7 
„ 10 
» 27 
„ 28 
„ 29 
„ 29 
„ 30 
„ 30 
Sept. 1 
„ 2 
„ 4 
„ 5 
„ 5 
„ 8 
„ 8 



Sex 



? 

? 
? 

? 
? 

9 



? 
? 

? 

? 
s 
<? 
$ 

6 



Total 
Length 



Ft. in. 



54 


7 


59 


4 


67 


3 


59 


3 


48 


7 


53 


7 


66 





57 


5 


69 


8 


65 





57 


7 


63 


3 


58 


5 


62 


3 


55 


2 


58 


3 


60 


8 


56 


2 


61 


6 



58 
62 
63 



59 10 

52 10 



Op. cit., p. 154. 



BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 
Table II. — B. sibbaldii. List of Specimens. 



U7 



Number 
of Whale 


Date when 
Measured 


Sex 


Total 
Length 


Number Date when 
of Whale Measured 


Sex 


Total 
Length 


17 
33 


July 10 
Aug. 18 


? 
? 


Ft. in. 
78 2 
70 7 


34 
49 


Aug. 20 
Sept. 9 


? 


Ft. in. 
68 6 
68 



Number of 
Whale 
46 



Table III. — B. borealis. One Specimen. 

Date when Measured Sex 

Sept. 6 ? 



Total Length 
Ft. in. 
46 7 



Number of 

Whale 

28 



Table IV. — M. longimana. One Specimen. 

Date when Measured Sex 

July 25 (J 



Total Length 
Ft. in. 
45 8 



Table V. — Physeier macrocephalus. List of Specimens Taken. 



Number 


Date when 


Sex 


Total ' 


Number 


Date when 


Sex 


Total 


of Whale 


Measured 


Length 


of Whale 


Measured 


Length 








Ft. in. 








Ft. in. 


— 


May 26 


(? 


57 9 


16 


July 9 


c? 


66 3 


— 


„ 26 


3 


61 4 


21 


„ 16 


o 


60 6 


— 


„ 31 


<S 


62 6 


22 


„ 18 


c? 


57 3 


— 


.June 14 


3 


60 5 


25 


„ 23 


<? 


53 


15 


July 8 


S 


57 5 

1 


26 


„ 25 


(? 


56 2 



Table VI. — Foetuses. B. musculus. 


No. of 


Date when 


Sex 


Total 


Parent 


Measured 


Length 








Ft. in. 


19 


July 15 


<? 


15 


30 


Aug. 7 


?? 


8 (circ.) 


31 


„ 7 


— 


4 (circ.) 


35 


„ 27 


? 


7 10 


43 


Sept. 4 


<s 


3 11 


47 


„ 8 


6 


9 4 





Table VII.— B. sibbaldii. 


One foetus. 




No. of Parent 


Date when Measured 


Sex 


Total Length 
Ft. in. 


33 


Aug. 18 


S 


8 



L 2 



148 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 




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150 



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162 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. —1914. 



Occupation of a Table at the Zooloyical Station at Naples.— 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. S. Goodrich 
{Chairman), Dr. J. H. Ashworth {Secretary), Sir E. Eay 
Laxkester, Professor W. C. McIntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Mr. G. P. Bidder, Dr. W. B. 
Hardy, and Dr. A. D. Waller. 

The British Association table at Naples lias been occupied since the 
beginning of Octpber 1913 by the Hon. Mary E. Palk, and from 
March 17 to April 15, 1914, by Mrs. H. L. M. Pixell-Goodrich. An 
application for the use of the table in September and October has been 
received from Mr. J. Mangan, M.A., Government School of Medicine, 
Cairo. 

The following reports have been received: — 

The Hon. Mary E. Palk reports : ' I have occupied the Naples table 
of the British Association since October last. I have been engaged on 
a revision of Professor Anton Dohrn's monograph of the Pycnogonida 
of the Bay of Naples. The work is slow because of the difficulty of 
preparing these animals, and the modifications I have made to Dr. 
Dohrn's work are chiefly liistological. I have been unsuccessful in 
my attempts to study the habits of the living animal. I do not yet feel 
justified in publishing the results of my researches, as most of my 
conjectures require further proof, which it is not always easy to obtain.' 
Mrs. H. L. M. Pixell-Goodrich reports : From March 17 to April 15, 
1914, I occupied the British Association table at the Stazione Zoologica, 
Naples. During tThis time I searched for parasitic Protozoa in various 
marine invertebrates, and investigated chiefly stages in the development 
and sporogony of Lithocystis and Urospora of Echinocardiwm cordatum 
and Gonospora of Glycera siphonostoma. The results of these researches 
I hope shortly to publish. ' 

The Committee being wishful to encourage zoologists and physi- 
ologists to apply for the use of the table, and believing they are often 
deterred from applying by an exaggerated idea of the expense involved, 
prepared a statement giving an estimate of the cost of going to and 
living in Naples. A copy of this statement was sent to every zoological 
laboratory and most of the physiological laboratories in the United 
Kingdom. It is hoped that increased use will be made of the excellent 
facilities which the table offers for the prosecution of researches in 
Zoology and in the Physiology (including the chemistry) of marine 
organisms. 

In the report for last year attention was drawn to the sum of 501. 
remaining in the hands of the Committee. Professor Hickson, on 
retiring from the Chairmanship of the Committee, transferred this sum 
to the present Chairman. The Committee have therefore requhed only 
50L from the Association this year to complete the sum due for the 
upkeep of the table. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 1001. 



MARINE LABORATORY, PLYMOUTH. 163 



Marine Laboratory , Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. Dendy (Chairinan and Secretary), Sir 
E. Eay Lankester, Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. E. S. 
Goodrich, and Professor J. P. Hill, appointed to nominate 
competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory , Plymouth. 

Since the date of the last report the use of the table has been granted 
to Mr. J. S. Dunkerly for one month for the purpose of investigating 
Protozoa, especially those parasitic in fish- 



Experiments in Inheritance. — Final Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman) , Mr. K. 
Douglas Laurie {Secretary), Professor E. G. Punnett, and 
Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, appointed to enable Mr. Laurie 
to conduct such Experiments. (Drairn up by the Secretary.) 

The experiments were commenced in December 1907 with the object 
set forth in the first interim report presented to the Dublin Meeting of 
the Association in 1908. They were brought to an end in 1911, and 
some of the results summarised in the report to the Portsmouth 
Meeting that year. A more detailed account is now given in this 
final report. 

The data concern in the main two matters : (A) the inlieiitance of 
yellow coat colour in mice, and (B) the inheritance of dense and 
dilute colourations in mice. 

The following dense colours have come under my notice during 
the experiments: yellow, golden-agouti, cinnamon-agouti, black, and 
chocolate. On the presence and absence hypothesis, 

homozygous golden-agouti may be represented by zygotic formula yy GG BB Ch Ch. 

„ cinnamon-agouti „ ,, ,, yy GG bb Ch Ch. 

black „ „ „ yy gg BB Ch Ch. 

„ chocolate „ „ „ yy gg bb Ch Ch. 

where Y = factor for yellow colour (not barred). 

G = ,, ,, barred arrangement of yellow colour found in hairs of 

agouti (grey) mice. 
B = ,, ,, black colour. 
Ch = ,, „ chocolate colour. 

Yellow appears to be always heterozygous, and zygotic formulfe representing 
various kinds of yellow mice may be arrived at by replacing yy of the above series 
byYy. 

Each of the above colours may occur in a dense form, in which the 
pigment is densely deposited, or in a dilute form; these dense and 

M 2 I 



164 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ]914. 



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166 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

dilute conditions are allelomorphic, and may be represented by 
presence or absence of the factor D. 

Further, any of the above conditions may be present potentially, 
but remain undeveloped in absence of some colour-activating material 
which may be represented by factor C ; in the absence of this factor 
the animal is an albino. 



A. The InherUance of Yellow Coat Colour in Mice. 

In the first place, all my yellow mice appear to be heterozygous in 
respect of their yellow coat colour; none which have been fairly tested 
breeding true to yellowness, but on the other hand giving offspring 
which include, in addition to yellows, a proportion of individuals 
whose colour is other than yellow. Yellow is incompletely epistatic 
to black and chocolate. 1 find that, as Durham points out, black 
pigment may be present in the hairs of yellows throwing blacks, and 
chocolate pigment in the hairs of yellows throwing chocolates. 
Moreover, the degi-ee of development of these other pigments in the 
hairs varies a good deal during the life of the animal. 

The tendency to abnormal fattening of yellow mice pointed out by 
Durham was also evident in the mice used by me. 

I ai'range the matings which concern yellow mice in two tables : 
yellow X yellow, and yellow x other colour. The aibbreviations in 
brackets indicate the immediate parentage of the mice concerned. 
Whei-e the heterozygous nature of a yellow mouse is not shown in 
the table by its offspring a note is added of some additional mating 
showing it to be heterozygous (see tables on pp. 164, 165, and 168, 
169). 

I. In regard to the matings yellow x yellow given in the table 
on pp. 164 and 165 certain points may be noted: 

(a) Twenty-six of the mice used were derived from the cross 
yellow X yellow, and expectation was that at least one-third of 
these would prove to be trae-breeding yellows. There are only two, 
liowever (marked with asterisk), which could possibly answer to this 
condition, and there is no evidence about them beyond that given in the 
table. It will be seen that they iproduced only two and three young 
respectively. Matings with other mice designed to test them 
gametically proved sterile. It would evidently be inappropriate to 
quote these as examples of mice homozygous in yellow. 

(b) The total number of offspring is 72 yellow and 41 other 
colour. On the theory that yellov.'-bearing gametes do not conjugate, 
one would expect the ratio 3:1, from which the calculated result of 
the above matings would be 8475: 28-25, a very poor approximation 
indeed. On the alternative theory that the yellow-bearing gametes do 
actually conjugate but that the zygotes so produced perisli before 
birth, one would expect the ratio 2:1, from which the calculated 
result would be 75'3:37'6, a very close approximation to the experi- 
mental figures. The latter suggestion, moreover, harmonises with the 



EXPERIMENTS IN INHERITANCE. 167 

combined results of Cu6not, Castle, and Durham. Adding my own 
results to those of the other observers named, we find: — 

Yellow. Other colour. 

Cuenot 263 100 

Castle (1910) 800 435 

Durham (1911) 448 232 

Laurie 72 41 

Erperimental 1583 808 

Calculated 2:1 1594 797 

It is of interest to find this anomalous result confirmed from 
experiments with an additional independent strain of mice. 

(c) The number of young in a litter from yellow x yellow which 
survive to an age at which their colour is determinable is small, 
averaging only 3'64, as against 4"58 among mice of other colours. Tt 
is possible that this is associated with the hypothetical abortion of 
zygotes homozygous in yellow. Cuenot and Castle find a similar 
though smaller difference in size of family; but, on the other hand, 
Durham does not. (See Appendix A.). 

II. Tlie table on pp. 168 and 169 shows a list of matings of yellow 
X other colour. One notes : 

(a) The 54 matings of yellow x other colour give 131 yellow : 
125 other coloured young, expectation being, on the supposition that 
all the yellows were heterozygous, 128 : 128. 

(b) There were 36 yellow mice involved in the matings, of which 
11 were known from their parentage to be heterozygous. The 
remaining 25 were derived from yellow x yellow, and one-third at least 
of these should have been gametically pure to yellow and have given 
only yellow j'oung when mated to mice of any other colour. But all 
save one, and this had a couple of youngsters only, tlii'ew some other 
colour in addition to yellow. 

(c) Of the 25 yellow mice ex yellow x yellow 14 are recorded also 
in the list of matings of yellow X yellow, so that 11 remain to be added 
to the 26 of the other list, making 37 yellow mice of which both 
parents were yellow, and of which none, on being tested adequately, 
proved to be homozygous, thougli about a dozen should liave been so, 
even assuming both the yellow jiarents to liave been in each case 
heterozygous 

(J) The number of 3'oung in a litter from yellow x <-)tlier colour 
which survived to an age at which tlieir colour was determinable 
averages 4"74, much the same as in the case of matings in which botli 
pai'enls are some colour otlier than yellow, where the avei'age is 4"58. 
Tliere is no' reason associated with the theory of abortion of zygotes 
Y Y wliy this should be otherwise. There is, of course, no oi)portunity 
for the formation of such zygotes in the mating of yellow x other 
colour. 



168 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



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170 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



Some of the yellow mice were mated with albinos, as I wished to 
discover and eliminate strains carrying albinism. These matings were 
thus incidental, but may nevertheless be put on record as follows: — 



Yellow X Albino 



Yellow 



? 
? 



(? 
(? 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
9 
? 
? 
? 
? 



X ? 

X $ 

X ? 

X ? 

X 3 

X 3 



X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X ? 

X 3 

X 3 

X 3 

X 3 

X 3 



Black, 

?'.«., dense 

black 



3 
2 

4 

1 
3 
1 
1 
4 
2 
2 
4 
2 

5 

2 

4 
3 
2 



2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 

10 
2 

2 

1 
2 
1 
4 
1 



Blue, i.e., 
dilute 
black 



Choco- 
late, i.e., 

dense 
chocolate 



Silver- 
fawn, !.c., 

dilute 
chocolate 



Albino 



Total 



4 
2 

7 
7 
2 
6 



14 



Observed 



Calculated 



45 



.50-5 



33 



1 





3 


• — . 


1 


— 


2 


1 


— 


— 


19 


1 


56 


1 



28 
6 
6 
2 
5 
7 
3 
5 
5 
4 
3 
5 
5 
1 
5 
6 
4 
7 
5 
3 



14 



115 



50'i 



to discuss the above 



matings 



It does not appear necessary 
individually, but one notes : — 

(a) In thoise litters where albinos are present the proportions of 
coloured and albino young agree with expectation. Equality is ex- 
pected, the numbers are 14:14. 

(b) Among the coloured offsp)'ing 45 are yellow and <jG other colour, 
expectation being equality since all the yellow parents are known to be 
heterozygous either fi-om their parentage or from some other mating. 

Cioucral JlrxiilL^; of Ike Preaeul Experiments on the lieredily of Yellow 

Coat Colour in Mice. 

Firstly, to confirm in a different strain of mice the evidence that 
yellow mice occur only in the heterozygous condition ; and secondly, 
to support the view that in the mating yellow X yellow, zygotes of the 
formula Y Y are actually formed, but are abortive. 



EXPERIMENTS IN INHERITANCE. 171 

B. Dense and Dilute Colourations. 

Each coloui- in the epistatic series has its dense and dilute form, 
density and dilution forming an allelomorphic pair. Density may be 
thought of as due to the presence of a factor D and dilution as due to 
the absence of this factor. My investigations concern the dense and 
dilute forms of black and chocolate. 

I was led to investigate this matter through the appearance, 
recorded in my 1908 report, of black, blue, and chocolate young in a 
litter from the mating of two blacks, and the fact that a particular 
yellow mouse threw blacks when mated with chocolate, and blues 
when mated with blue. While working the matter out. Miss Durham's 
account (1908) of similar experiments appeared. The details I now 
publish confirm her work, while showing that Cuenot's suggestion that 
chocolate is the dilute fomi of black is untenable. I am able to add 
some further types of crosses to those recorded by Durham, which give 
the expected results. 

Evidence against Cuinot's suggestion that chocolate is the dilute 
form of hlach and in favour of the view : — 

a. That chocolate carries the factor for dense deposition of pigment, 
and that silver-fawn is the condition of chocolate in which this factor 
is absent; 

b. Thai hlach carries the factor for dense deposition of pigment, 
and that blue is the condition of black in which this factor is absent. 

Black and chocolate are the two lowest terms in the epistatic 
colour sei'ies. 

Chocolate Iwmozygous (DD 66) x blue homozygous (dd BB). 

Fi black (Dd Bb). 

Fj 15 black : 4 blue : 3 choc. : 1 sil.-fawn 

1110 ex pair blacks of unknown 

parentage. 



16 5 4 1 

44 17 17 8 Durham. 

60 22 21 9 observed. 

63 21 21 7 calculated 9.3.3.1 ratio. 

Black homozygous {DD BB) x silver-fawn {dd bb). 

Fi black (Dd Bb). 

F.2 5 black : 2 blue : 3 choc. : 1 sil.-fawn 

67 21 20 5 Durham. 

72 23 23 6 observed. 

69-75 23-25 2325 775 calculated 9.3.3.1 ratio. 

The above two types of di-hybrid matings substantiate the view above 
stated. Further matings, all in harmony with this view, are: 

Black carrying silver-fawn (Dd Bb) X silver-fawn (dd bb). 

Fj 2 black : 1 blue : choc. : 2 sil.-fawn observed. 

1-25 1-25 1-25 1-25 calculated 1.1.1.1 ratio 



172 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Black carrying blue (Dd BB) x silver-favm {dd bb). 

Fj 1 black : 4 blue observed. 

2-5 2-5 calculated 1 . 1 ratio. 

Black carrying chocolate (DD Bb) x silver-fawn (dd bb). 

Fj 14 black : 10 chocolate observed. 

12 12 calculated 1 . 1 ratio. 

Black carrying blue (Dd BB) x black carrying silver-fawn (Dd Bb). 

Fx 2 black : 1 blue observed. 

2-25 0-75 calculated 3 . 1 ratio. 

Black carrying blue (Dd BB) x black carrying chocolate (DD Bb). 

Fj 4 blacks observed. 

4 calculated. 

Black X chocolate. 

Black homozygous (DDBB) x chocolate homozygous (DD bb). 

Fi black (DD Bb). 

F2 16 black : 7 chocolate 

42 17 Durham. 



58 24 observed. 

61-5 20-5 calculated 31 ratio. 

Black homozygous (DD BB) x black carrying chocolate (DD Bb). 
Fi black. Four matings gave 16 black young. 

Black carrying chocolate (DD Bb) x chocolate homozygous (DD bb). 
Fi 4 black : 4 chocolate observed. 

4 4 calculated 1 . 1 ratio. 

Black X blue. 

No matings DD BB x dd BB, but Fi from black (DD BB) x black carrj-ing 
blue (Dd BB) gave 16 black young as the result of three matings. 

Fj. None of the Fj generation were mated, but the following results of matings 
between blacks unconnected with the above are such as would be expected if both 
blacks carried blue (Dd BB). 



Dd BB Dd BB 

33 <J X 35 ? gave 5 black 
33 (J X 35 ? „ 3 
33 c? X 36 ? „ 7 

26 <J X 23 ? „ 1 

16 
50 


: 2 blue. 
1 
2 
1 

6 
13 


Durham, F2 from bla 




66 
63-75 


19 
21-25 


observed, 
calculated 3 . 1 ratio, 



Chocolate x silver-fawn. 

Chocolate homozygous (DD bb) x silver-fawn (dd bb). 

Fi chocolate (Dd bb). 

F2 14 chocolate : 7 silver -fawn. 

31 ex pair chocs, of unknown parentage. 



17 8 observed. 

18-75 6-25 calculated 3 . 1 ratio. 



EXPERIMENTS IN INHERITANCE. 173 

Durham did not carry any mating of the above type into the Fg generation. 

Chocolate carrying silver-fawn (Dd bb) x silver-fawn (dd bb). 
Fi 7 chocolate : 10 silver-fawn observed. 

8-5 8-5 calculated 1 . 1 ratio. 

Blue X silver-fawn. 

No matings dd BB x dd bb. But, as above recorded, a black carrying blue 
(Dd BB) X silver-fawn (dd bb) gave black and blue in Fj. 
Fj from these F^ blues (dd Bb) : 

2 blues ; 2 silver-fawns. 

4 1 ex pair blues of unknown parentage. 



6 
46 


3 
17 


.')2 
54 


20 
18 



Durham. 

observed, 
calculated 3 . 1 ratio. 



Silver-fawn x silver-fawn. 



Silver-fawns should breed true, since they represent the lowest term of the epistatic 
colour series associated with absence of factor for dense deposition of pigment. 
Zygotic formula dd bb. 

Five matings between silver-fawns gave 28 silver-fawn young. 

APPENDIX A. 

Average Number of Young in Litter. 

Durham's data are included for comparison; each of her averages 
is based on at least 75 litters. 

Average per litter 
Laurie Durham 

Yellow X yellow 3-64 (31 litters) 3-90 

Yellow x other colour 4-74 (.54 „ ) 3-97 

Agouti X agouti 3.47 

Agouti x other colour (not yellow) .... 3-32 

Black X black 4-83 (23 „ ) 4-60 

Black X other colour (not yellow) .... 4-29 (14 ,, ) 3 '99 

Blue X blue 4-24 (21 „ ) 

Blue X other colour (not yellow) .... 5-12 (26 „ ) 

Chocolate x chocolate 4-32 (25 „ ) 3-96 

Chocolate x other colour (not yellow) . . . . 4-71 (34 „ ) 3-93 

Silver-fawn x silver-fawn ,5-60 (5 „ ) 

Silver-fawn x other colour (not yellow) .... 4-79 (14 „ ) 

Albino X albino 5-18 (17 „ ) 

Albino X yellow 4-60 (25 „ ) 

Albino X colour (not yellow) 4-19 (41 „ ) 4-27 

In the above records, both Miss Durham's and my own, only 
those mice are counted which lived long enough for their colours to 
be determined. 

The strikingly smaller size in my experiments of the average litter 
ex yellow x yellow, as compared with the other matings, is commented 
on above. A lesser difference was observed by Cu^not also (yellow x 
yellow 3'38; yellow x other colour 3-74) and Castle (yellow x yellow 
4-71; yellow x other colour 5'57). On the other hand, Durham's 
figures warn one to be cautious as to one's inferences. 



174 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

The data from which the above averages are calculated are as 
follows : — 

Yellow X yellow. See list. 

Yellow X other colour. See list. 

Black X black gave 7, 5, 3, 6, 7, 9, 4, 2, 8, 4, 2, 5, 4, 4, 4, 3, 2, 6, 5, 7, 7, 3, 4. 

Black X blue gave 3. 

Black X chocolate gave 2, 2, 4, 2. 

Black X silver-fawn gave 5, 6, 6, 8, 4, 6, 2, 5, 5. 

Blue X blue gave 7, 4, 4, 7, 2, 4, 3, 6, 3, 2, 3, 5, 4, 6, 5, 4, 3, 8, 2, 2, 5, 

Blue X chocolate gave 5, 7, 5, 2, 7, 5, 6, 5, 4, 4, 7, 8, 7, 4, 3, 5, 2, 4, «, 7, 4, 7, 
3, 6, 7. 

Blue X black. See black x blue. 

Chocolate x chocolate 7, 4, 5, 3, 5, 3, 1, 2, 2, 2, 5, 6, 6, 5, 6, 2, 2, 5, 6, 6, 4, 6, 7, 
3, 5. 

Chocolate x silver -fawn gave 5, 3, 1, 7, 4. 

Chocolate x blue. See blue x chocolate. 

Chocolate x black. See black x chocolate. 

Silver-fawn x silver-fawn gave 7, 3, 6, 6, 6. 

Silver -fawn x black. See black x silver-fawn. 

Silver-fawn x chocolate. See chocolate x silver-fawn. 

Albino X albino gave 5, 2, 4, 6, 6, 5, 6, 4, 5, 6, 5, 4, 6, 7, 6, 5, 6. 

Albino X yellow gave 6, 1, 4, 5, 6, 6, 4, 5, 7, 6, 7, 5, 5, 3, 3, 5, 5, 5, 4, 2, 7, 3, 7, 2, 2. 

Albino X colour other than yellow gave 4, 3, 4, 1, 7, 2, 4, 7, 5, 8, 6, 5, 6, 4, 4, 7, 5, 
6, 3, 3, 2, 4, 1, 2, 2, 2, 4, 8, 4, 2, 5, 6, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 2, 5, 4, 2. 



APPENDIX B. 

Alhiiiii Mice. 

I crossed many of my mice with albinos in the process of testing 
their genetic behaviour. There appears to be no need to set out the 
results in detail, but the following points may be noted: — 

The size of litter in the three types of mating — albino x albino, 
albino X yellow, and albino x colour other than yellow — is given in 
Appendix A. 

The colour composition of the litters from albino x colour con- 
formed to the rules now well established for the heredity of albinism 
in mice. 

Fourteen of the matings albino x colour yielded some albino young ; 
the total young from these matings numbered 37 albino: 30 coloured, 
expectation being equality. 

APPENDIX C. 
Piebald Mice. 

A piebald chocolate-and-white mouse appeared in a litter born to a 
chocolate mouse bought in kindle from a dealer. I bred from it to the 
Eg generation in order to assure myself that it acted as a recessive to 
self-colour. 

Rejerences. 

Bateson . 1903 . ' Proc. Zool. Soc.,' London. 

. 1909 . 'Mendel's Principles of Heredity' (coloured illus- 
trations of mice). 
Battr . . 1907 . 'Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges.,' vol. xxv. 



EXPERIMENTS IN INHERITANCE. 



175 



Castle . 

CUENOT . 

Dabbishibe 
Durham 



Hagedoorn 



Laitkie 



Morgan 

Wilson 



1906 . ' Science,' N.S., vol. xxiv. 

1910 . ' Science,' N.S., vol. xxxii. 

. 'Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen.,' vols, i., n., ill., vx. 

1903 . ' Biometrika,' vol. ii. 

1908 . ' Rept. IV. Evolution Com., Royal Society.' 

1911 •. ' Jour. Genetics,' vol. I. 

1909 (1) . 'Arch. Entwickelungsmechanik,' vol. xxvui. 
1909 (2) . 'Univ. California Pub. Physiol.,' vol. ui. 

1909 . ' Rept. Com. Brit. Ass.' in ' Rept. Brit. Ass.,' Dublin 

1908. 

1912 . ' Rept. Com. Brit. Ass.' in ' Rept. Brit. Ass.,' Plymouth 

1911. 

1905 . ' Science,' N.S., vol. xxn. 

1906 . ' Science,' N.S., vol. xxni. 



The Question of Fatigue frovi the Economic Standpoint. — 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
J. H. MuiRHBAD {Chairman), Miss B. L. Hutchins (Secre- 
tanj). Miss A. M. Anderson, Professor Bainbridgb, 
Mr. E. Cadbury, Mr. P. Sargant Florence, Professor 
Stanley Kent, Mr. W. T. Layton, Dr. T. G. Maitland, 
Miss M. C. Matheson, Dr. C. S. Myers, Mr. J. W. Eams- 
bottom, and Dr. J. Jenkins Kobe. In addition, help has 
hccii kindly afforded hy the following : Miss Mabel Atkin- 
son, Dr. Wm. Brown, Mr. Arthur Greenwood, and Dr. 
Udney Yule. 

The Committee has met four times, and has made a preUminary 
survey of the subject of investigation, and has discussed tlie matter 
at some length. 

An extensive Bibhography of Fatigue has been prepared for the 
use of the Committee by Miss B. L. Hutchins. 

A short report has been drawn up on industrial experiments in 
shortening hours, also by Miss Hutchins. 

Some notes have been kindly contributed by Dr. William Brown 
on the existing state of psychological knowledge in regard to fatigue. 

A Memorandum on the provisional aims and methods of the inquiry 
has been drawn up by Mr. Eamsbottom, and adopted by the Com- 
mittee as a basis of its future work. 

As a result of our prehminary survey, we have become aware that 
a considerable amount of work on the subject has been done in America 
and on the Continent of Europe, and, so far, comparatively little in 
this country. 

We consider, however, that but little definite information exists, 
and detailed scientific investigation is badly needed, especially in 
view of the rapid development of the factory industry and the pro- 
gressive urbanisation of the working class in this country. 

We propose, if reappointed, to adopt the following method of 
investigation : — 

Mr. Eamsbottom has defined the object of inquiry as being ' to 



176 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

ascertain the effect on physique, accident occurrence, production and 
general social well-being of present conditions relating to fatigue 
occuiTence in industrial work, and to discuss possible improvements 
therein, and the best methods of obtaining them.' We concur with 
this definition. 

We hope that Dr. Maitland, being a member of our Committee, 
will prepare a short resume of existing knowledge on the effects of 
muscular and mental fatigue respectively. We shall also endeavoiu" 
to ascertain what are the main subjective and objective determinants 
of fatigue; e.g., what is the relative importance of muscular woi'k, 
mental strain, monotony, atmospheric wet-bulb temperature (kata- 
thermometric condition), noise, light, etc. ; and to discover some 
reliable physiological quantitative index of fatigue, and the chief 
physiological effects of over-fatigue. 

We shall consider the questions what increase, if any, has occurred 
in general morbidity in recent years, and to what extent this can be 
ascribed to industrial fatigue ; and what difference can be traced between 
the morbidity cases of workers in various age groups from fifteen 
upwards engaged in occupations involving long hours of work or 
specially fatiguing conditions, and those for all workers or workers in 
fairly easy occupations. 

We shall also consider the incidence of industrial accidents in 
relation to hours of work ; and the variation in the output of work 
per hour during the day, and the output per day with various lengths 
of working-day. 

We propose to give special attention to the speeding-up of 
machinery, and to inquire how far this has been accompanied by a 
reduction of hours. 

We shall also consider the probable social reactions of over- 
fatigue, and what general remedies, if any, may seem most j^romising 
and hopeful. 

The Committee has made a preliminary division of the v\'ork, as 
so sketched, among the following sub-committees: — 

Physiological and Psychological. Industrial. Statistical. 

Dr. Maitland {Convener). Miss Anderson. Mr. Layton (Convener). 

Prof. Muirhead. Mr. Cadbury. Miss Hutcliins. 

Dr. Myers. Mr. Florence (Con.re»er). Mr. Ramsbottom. 

Dr. Bainbridge. Miss Hutchins. Dr. Yule. 

Dr. Legge. Miss Matheson. 

Mr. Ramsbottom. 

And we have appointed Mr. Eamsbottom as hon. organising secretary. 

For purposes of the foregoing inquiries we think it will be essential 
to obtain the services of exjDert and paid assistants. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with the addition of the 
words ' social and ' before ' economic,' in their terms of reference, and 
to be allotted a grant. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. l77 



Gaseous Explosions. — Seccnth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. DuGALD Clerk (Chairman) , Professor Dalby 
(Secretary), and Professors W. A. Bone, P. W. Burstall, 
H. L. Callendar, E. Gr. Cokbr, H. B. Dixon, Drs. E. T. 
G-LAZEBROOK and J. A. Harker, Colonel H. C. L. Holden, 
Professors B. Hopkinson and J. E. Petavel, Captain H. 
EiALL Sankey, Professors A. Smithells and W. Watson, 
Mr. D. L. Chapman and Mr. H. E. Wimperis. 

The decease of the CHairmau, Sir William Preece, was reported to the 
Committee in December last, when a letter of condolence was sent to 
the family. 

Sir WiUiani Preece had associated himself intimately with the 
investigations carried out by the Committee, and contributed an interest- 
ing Note on the Kinetic Theory of Gases. As Chairman he did much 
to help forward the important work on which the Committee is 
engaged both by his valuable suggestions and by his tactfulness and 
resource. His loss is not only deeply deplored, but felt to be a 
personal one by every member of the Committee. 

The Vice-Chairman, Dr. Dugald Cleek, was unanimously elected 
Chairman. 

The Committee met three times during the session 1913-14 at the 
City and Guilds (Engineering) College, Exhibition Eoad, London, S.W. 
The following Notes were presented and discussed : — 

Note 32 by Professor Dalby on Suction Temperatures directly 
measured and deductions therefrom, together with a summary of a 
series of seventeen experiments made at the City and Guilds (Engineer- 
ing) College on a Crossley gas-engine with a cylinder seven inches in 
diameter, stroke fourteen inches, and with a compi-ession ratio at 4'8. 

Note 33 by Mr. H. E. Wimperis on Thermal Efficiency. 

Note 34 by Professor E. G. Coker and Mr. W. A. Scoble on 
Temperature Distribution in the Cylinder of a GaiS-engine. 

Note 35 by Professor W. Watson on the Spectroscopic Study of 
the Combustion of Air-petrol Mixtures. 

The object of Note 32 was to show how the suction temperature 
varied with the speed, with the jacket temperature, and with the 
mixture. The records given in the Note relate to trials Nos. 72 to 90. 
The data were obtained by a research student of the City and Guilds 
(Engineering) College, Mr. Limbourne, working under the supervision 
of Professor Dalby. A table included in the Note shows the variation 
in the suction temperatures, and a set of curves, also included, gives 
the temperatures of the working mixture ; these indicate how the direct 
knowledge of the suction temperature can be applied tO' determine the 
temperatures at other parts of the cycle. 

In Note 33 Mr. Wimperis discusses the thermal efficiency of an 
engine using as the working agent a standard gas referred to in the first 

1914. M 



178 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

report of the Committee, and using in his calculations the values of 
the internal energy defined by the curve in fig. 6 of that report. 

In Note 34 Professor Coker describes the method of measuring 
the cyclical temperature in a gas-engine cylinder used by him at the 
Technical College, Finsbury, and gives the results of some recent 
experiments. Curves are included showing the temperature of the 
explosive charge, together with tables of the actual temperatures at 
various points in the cycle. A full description of the thermo-couple 
used in these experiments is given in the Note. 

In connexion with Note 35 Professor Watson showed a series of 
photographs of the spectrum of the hght given by the burning charge 
in the cylinder of a petrol engine. The results show that the gases 
in the cylinder continue to emit light giving a line spectrum for a 
considerable time after the chemical changes are generally assumed to 
have been completed. 

Before proceeding to consider the work carried out during the 
current session it has been thought advisable to give a brief summary 
of the previous reports of the -Committee. 

Summary of Previous Reports. 

The first report is devoted mainly to the subject of the specific 
heats of gases at high temperatures. The constant-pressure experi- 
ments of Wiedemann, Eegnault, Holborn, and Henning are analysed 
and discussed, and a cm-ve is given showing the energy of CO,, steam, 
and air in terms of the temperature Centigrade. The experiments of 
Dr. Dugald Clerk are described, and the results obtained compared 
with the constant-pressure experiments mentioned above. The closed 
vessel experiments of Mallard, Le Chatelier, and Langen are analysed 
and the results plotted and discussed. 

The report ends with the discussion of thermal equilibrium, chemical 
equilibrium, the motion of a gas, and the measm'ement of temperature. 
A curve is given showing the internal energy of a gas-engine mixture 
in terms of the temperature. 

There is an appendix by Professor Callendar on ' The Deviation of 
Actual Gases from the Ideal State,' and on ' Experimental Errors in 
the Determination of their Specific Heats.' 

The second report is mainly devoted to the subject of the specific 
heat of gases at high temperatures. Eegnault 's results at low tem- 
peratm-es are discussed in the light of Mr. Swann's experiments, 
which were communicated to the Committee by Professor Callendar. 
The Committee definitely adopted Mr. Swann's values for air and for 
CO2 as given below. 

Volumetric heat of air at 100° C. is 19-8 lbs. per cubic foot, 

„ „ C0.> at 20° C. is 27-4 lbs. per cubic foot, and 

at 100° C. is 30'7 lbs. per cubic foot. 

The results of the experiments made by Dr. Dugald Clerk with the 
object of determining the volumetric heat of air at high temperature 
are given in the report, togefher with a description of Professor 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 179 

Hopkinson's experiments on the compression of air in a gas-engine 
cylinder. 

Dr. Watson's researches on the efficiency of a petrol motor are 
included in the report. Dr. Watson made a simultaneous measure- 
ment of the quantities of air and petrol taken into the engine and of 
the chemical composition of the exhaust gas. The point brought out 
was that the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the exhaust gas was greater 
than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the petrol used. Additional 
evidence of this discrepancy is furnished by some experiments of 
Professor Hopkinson, and the experiments of Hopkinson and Watson 
are in agreement. 

The report concludes with an account of the experiments on radia- 
tion carried out by Professor Hopkinson. 

There are two appendices : one relating to Regnault's coiTections in 
connection with the determination of the specific heat of air, and the 
other relating to Deville's experiments on the dissociation of gases by 
Dr. Harker. 

The third report is devoted mainly to the consideration of the 
subject of radiation from gases. A brief general history of the subject 
is given, together with a record of the experiments of Professor 
Hopkinson and of Professor Callendar. The report discusses the direct 
effect of radiation on the efficiency of internal-combustion motors, the 
amount of radiation from flames, and the molecular theory of radiation 
from gases as well as the question of the transparency of flames to 
their own radiation. There is an appendix on the radiation of flames 
by Professor Callendar, giving some account of experiments made with 
a Meker burner; a second appendix on the radiation in a gaseous 
explosion by Professor Hopkinson; and a third appendix which 
contains abstracts from various papers relating to the application of 
heat radiation from luminous liames to Siemens' Eegenerating 
Furnaces, 

The fourth report merely notes the number of meetings held during 
the year, and states that, partly owing to the breakdown of apparatus 
and partly to the demands made upon the time of the various investi- 
gators, only two notes were read; consequently it was decided that 
the work then on hand should be included in the report for the 
following year. 

The fifth report continues the discussion of the effect of radiation, 
and is devoted mainly to the consideration of the factors which deter- 
mine the heat flow from the gas to the walls of the cylinder. The 
remarkable effect of turbulence on the rate of combustion is first 
mentioned in this report. Particulars of Dr. Dugald Clerk's experi- 
ments are given, and these experiments definitely establish the fact 
that but for turbulence the speed at which modern internal-combustion 
engines are run would be impossible. Professor Hopkinson's experi- 
ments, in which a fan was placed inside a closed vessel and the rates 
of combustion observed v,ith the fan at rest and in motion, are recorded 
in the report, and confirm Dr. Clerk's results. 

In the sixth report the resignation of Dr. Dugald Clerk and 
Professor Hopkinson from the Joint Secretaryship of the Committee is 

N 2 



180 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 



reported. Dr. Clerk consented, however, to act as Vice-Chairman, 
and Professor Dalby was appointed Secretary. 

The Committee allocated the whole of the grant to the Secretary 
for the purpose of providing him with a permanent research assistant 
to carry on the work. It was stated that Professor Dalby and Dr. 
Clerk were engaged on the design of an experimental plant to be 
placed in the new laboratory of the City and Guilds (Engineering) 
College. 

Six notes, relating chiefly to heat flow, temperature, and leakage, 
are briefly summarised. 

Object of Present Report. 

The following report is devoted partly to the special consideration 
of temperature measurements and subjects arising therefrom, and partly 
to the illustration of the use which can be made of the data obtained by 
the Committee. 

Methods of Measuring Temperature of the Charge in a Gas-engine 
Cylinder binder working conditions. 

One of the problems requiring solution was the direct measurement 
of the temperature of the working agent in the cylinder while the 
engine was running under ordinary working conditions. The difficulty 
of making this measurement arises from the fact that during the 




Fig. 1. 



explosion of the charge in the engine cylinder the temperature is 
sometimes higher than that of the melting-point of platinum or of the 
couples which can be put in the cylinder to make the measurement. 

In Note 32 is described a method devised by Professors Callendar 
and Dalby, 1 which for the first time enabled direct observation of the 

' Proc. Roy. Soc, A., vol. 80, 1907. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



181 



suction temperature to be made while the engine was working not 
only under normal conditions but under special conditions, during 
which the richest possible mixture was used and the temperature 
reached at explosion was considerably liigher than that occurring in 
practice. The thermometer itself consisted of a piece of platinum 
wire about 0"7 inch long and yo^o of an inch in diameter, arranged 
with compensating leads. It is placed in a thermometer-valve, which 
is inserted through the spindle of the admission-valve in the manner 
shown in fig. 1, in which P is the platinum thermometer, and T is 
the head of the thermometer-valve, which is inserted centrally in the 




LAY ZMAFT OF 
G^S ENGINE. 



'Tf/npiuniif'fn/ 



Fig. 2. 

admission-valve A. The spring S serves to close the admission- 
valve, and the spring U serves to close the thermometer-valve. The 
main casting, C, carrying these valves is bolted to the engine in the 
ordinary way. A separate cam is mounted on the half-time shaft to 
operate the central thermometer-valve, and the complete arrangement 
is shown in fig. 2, where E is the cam; I and L are levers keyed to the 
supplementary shaft Q, which is carried on the casting F; the spring 
S maintains contact between the end of the lever I and the cam. The 
end of the thermometer with the leads projecting is shown at B. 
The lever L is in contact with the nut N on the thermometer -valve. 
The cam is so designed that during the explosion period the valve 



182 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



is closed, and the thermometer therefore screened from the action 
of the gas. In this way the thermometer is withdrawn just before 
the end of compression, so that at this critical period of the cycle 
there is nothing in the shape of a protuberance to cause preignition. 
When the platinum thermometer is exposed in the cylinder and 
connected to the Wheatstone bridge and galvanometer on which the 
indications are received, the circuit is made by a contact-maker on the 
crank-shaft when the crank passes through an assigned crank-angle, and 
is broken by the contact-maker when the crank passes through a second 
assigned crank-angle a little greater than the first, so that the electrical 



IftSULfiriON" 




FiQ. 3. 

measuring device is in operation during 6°, 10°, or 15° as the case 
may be. 

This contact-maker is a very important part of the electrical equip- 
ment used in connexion with these temperature measurenients, as it 
enables a definite make and a definite break to be made in the electrical 
circuit, and, in addition, enables the time between the make and break 
to be adjusted with accuracy. 

The contact-maker (fig. 3) consists of a brass bush B, keyed to a 
lay shaft of the engine, and carrying two^ fibre washers or cams Wj and 
W:, which can be clamped in any relative angular position against the 
flange of the bush by the nut N. A radial step, as -Wi, is made in 
each washer, and the surface gradually rises from the bottom of the 
step to the normal circular surface of the washer. The reflexed ends 



aN GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



183 



of the stiff springs S[ and Ss rest on the fibre cams. A projection Z 
carrying a platinum-pointed screw p is riveted to one of the springs, 
and the screw p is adjusted so that its point is just clear of the platinum 
rivet in the other spring when both springs are riding on the circular 
surfaces of their respective cams. Contact is made when the rotation 
of the lay shaft in the direction of the arrow brings the radial step 
Wi of the cam Wi under the spring Si, thereby allowing it to fall down 
the step, thus bringing p and r together. Contact is broken when the 
radial step iv. of the cam W. reaches the spring S,, thereby allowing 
the second spring to fall down the step w^. The epoch and duration 
of contact are readily adjusted by adjusting the angular positions of 
the cams relatively to the bush and also with regard to one another. 
The distances between the springs and the platinum contacts and the 
steps w are exaggerated in the diagram in order to make the principle 
of the apparatus clear. The percussion form of contact with platinum 
points is found to give definite and certain results. The contacts keep 




Shaft 



W€NCIN£ 



CuiMPiNs scifen 



_\ f/iro Pt/irc 



clean, and no trouble of any kind is experienced with them. The general 
arrangement of the electrical connections are shown m fig. 4. In this 
figure PS, QS are the equal ratio arms of the Wheatstone bridge. 
The galvanometer G is connected to the point S and to the sliding 
contact on the bridge-wire BW. The thermometer and its leads P 
are connected on one side of the bridge-wire, and the compensator C 
and the balancing resistance E on the other. The battery circuit 
includes a mercury reversing key K, an adjustable resistance r, and 
a storage cell V; and the battery is connected to the bridge at the 
points P and Q, and to the brushes of the periodic contact-maker at E. 
The brushes E are carried by an insulated arm A bolted to a divided 
disc O riding loosely on the lay shaft of the engine, and capable of 
being clamped in any position by the screw L. The index I shows 
the crank-angle corresponding to the middle point of the contact when 
the insulated copper strip D carried in the fihre bush F passes under 
the brushes. 



184 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914| 

The temperature is measured, therefore, during a particular crank- 
angle determined hy the setting of the contact-maker. This can 
be set, while the engine is running, to determine the make and 
break at any assigned crank-angle in the revolution. Tt was usually 
set so that the interval between the make and break was 5° or 10°. 
In this manner the mean temperature over a small crank-angle can 
be measured at any point in the cycle, except only during the period 
of the explosions when the thermometer is withdrawn from the cylinder. 
But although there is this possibility with the method it is desirable 
to measure the temperature at a point on the cycle where the rate 
of change of temperature is at a minimum. This point occurs just 
after the closing of the suction-valve. The great advantage of making 
the measurement at this point is that the thermometer is exposed to 
the incoming charge during the whole of the suction-stroke and 
therefore the thermometer-valve tends to assume the temperature of 
the charge; consequently the temperature which the small wire is set 
to measure does not differ greatly from the temperature of the metal 
in which it is mounted. This condition tends to minimise the errors 
of measurement. At any other point in the cycle the rate of change 
of temperature is greater; and the error of the measurements, there- 
fore, is likely to be gi'eater owing to the lag of the thermometer. 
On the expansion-stroke, for example, the temperature may vary as 
much as 150° during the movement of the piston through jL of the 
stroke. Just after the closing of the suction-valve the variation of 
temperature during the movement of the piston through yV; of the 
stroke is only about 20°. 

Having found the temperature at one point in the cycle, the tem- 
perature at any other point can be calculated by using the charge itself 
as the thermometric agent. The characteristic equation of the charge is 

PV 

-jp-=a constant. If, therefore, from the indicator diagram taken at 

the time the temperature was measui'ed, the corresponding pressure 
and volume are measured, then the temperature at any other point of 
the cycle can be calculated by the aid of this constant and the pressure 
and volume scaled from tlie indicator diagram, allowance being made 
for chemical contraction of the charge after explosion. It is necessary 
to have accurate indicator diagrams from which to measure the 
pressure and volume for this purpose, and this has led to the develop- 
ment of an optical indicator. 

Example of the Application of the Method to an Engine Trial 
(72) at the City and Guilds (Engineering) College. 

The general procedure in making temperature measurements by 
this method, and with an improved optical indicator devised by Pro- 
fessor Dalby and Dr. Watson, may be illustrated by data obtained 
during a trial made at the City and Guilds (Engineering) College by 
Professor Dalby last year, a full report of which will be found in 
Note 32 communicated to the Committee. 



ON OASEOTJS EXPLOSIONS. 



185 



Indicator Diagrams. 

In each trial two indicator diagi'ams were taken — namely, a com- 
plete diagram showing the pressure and volume during the whole 
cycle, and a diagram taken with a thin disc stopped down so as to 
give on a large scale the portion of the diagram during the pumping- 
stroke. The diagrams are in general calibrated in situ. 




Fia. 5. 





A + 2*9 75 lbs a" 


50 


A + 199-75 


50 


A <- 149-75 


50 


A -f 99 75 


50 


A + 4-9 -75 


4975 


AtS 







Fig. 6. 



In carrying out a series of experiments, however, it was found that 
the scale was so constant that it was unnecessary to calibrate each 
diagram separately. The scale was therefore made for the two discs 
used, and was checked from time to time. A pair of typical diagrams 



186 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



taken during trial No. 72, together with the scales, are shown in 
figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. The following data relate to trial No. 72 : — 

Mixture 6'88 air to 1 gas by volume. 

Jacket temperature 29"5. 

Temperature measured at crank-angle 200°; 77° C. 

Pressure measured from the diagram at 200° crank-angle; 14'7 
per square inch. 

Volume measured at this point, 0"3872 cubic feet. 




Fia. 7. 









■ A + 39 75 lbs D" 


10 






A 1- 29 75 


10 






A <- 19 75 , 


10 






A 1- 9 75 


5 


A + t 75 


* vs 


AtS 







PV 



Fig. 8. 

Speed 106 revolutions per minute. 

The gas constant for the charge is therefore -,^ = 0"01616. 

This constant may now be used to calculate the temperature at any 
point along the compression-curve, since at a point where the pressure 
is P and the volume V, the temperature is : 

PV 



T = - 



01616" 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



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188 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Fig. 9 shows temperature-curves for the compression stroke calcu- 
lated in this way, both for trials 72 and 73. Trial 73 was run at about 
200 r.p.m. 

The constant, however, cannot be applied during the whole cycle, 
because, although the weight of the charge remains the same, assum- 
ing that there is no leak, yet the volume corresponding to this weight 
is slightly different after the explosion has taken place owing to the 
contraction due to the chemical rearrangement of the constituents. 
The chemical contraction is calculated from the analyses of the gases. 
In the gas used in the experiments referred to the contraction 
amounted to 3 '14 per cent. The effect of this is to change the gas 
constant for all points along the expansion-cm've ivom 001616 to 
0-01565. 

The curve, fig. 10, shows the temperatures calculated along the 
expansion-curves for trials 72 and 73. 

When applying this method of taking the temperatures the governor 
should be put out of action, so that there shall be no change in the 
rate of the supply of gas which will produce a distui'bance of the 
temperature in the cycle. Any disturbance pi'oduced in a particular 
cycle causes a temperature wave through a long series of succeeding 
cycles. In practice the gas-engine can be run without any difficulty 
without the governor if the engine is coupled to a generator, because 
the generator automatically settles down to the speed corresponding 
to the power applied to it, and by regulating the resistance of the 
ai-mature or the fields, or both, the desired speed can be maintained 
for long periods. A special switch-board and a resistance-board have 
been designed for the engine at the City and Guilds (Engineering) 
College for the purpose of controlling the generator. 

Method of Measuring the Temperature of the Charge by means of a 

Thermo-couple. 

The second method of measuring the temperature of the charge 
in the cylinder is by means of a couple. This method has been 
developed by Dr. Coker and Mr. Scoble at the Technical College, Fins- 
bury. It was found that alloys of platinum with rhodium and iridium 
respectively were able to withstand the temperature of explosion 
near the walls of the cylinder for some hours or even days when 
made into thermo-couples jo^^u to t^§o0 ^^ ^^ i^ich thick, provided 
the engine was not overloaded. The actual temperature measurement 
is made by observing the change in the electromotive force produced 
in this couple by a change in temperature. The small changes in 
the electromotive force produced by a couple of this kind can be 
measured with great accuracy on the bridge described below. 

The general relation between electromotive force and temperature 
found for one of the couples used is 

E (microvolts) = -174 + 7.6075T-0.001673T^ 

The general arrangement of the apparatus is shown in fig. 11. 
The battery B and resistances Ej and R, ^^^ arranged in circuit 
so that the fall of potential between the extreme points of a bridge- 



ON CASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



189 



























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TEMPERATURES on EXPANSION 
TRIALS 72 AND 73 




















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190 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



wire, BW, can be adjusted to 1 millivolt. This is tested by the 
electromotive force of a cadmium cell, C, which can be opposed to the 
battery electromotive force by means of the upper key, K^, an allowance 
for the known temperature variation of the electromotive force of the 
standard cell used being made by an adjustable contact-maker, D. 
The thermo-electric couple, H, has one lead connected to the lower 
key, K2, and the other set to a set of resistances, S, in the main circuit, 
each of which gives a difference of potential of 1 millivolt when the 




Fig. 11. — ^Thermo-Electric Bridge. 

adjustments are correct. During an observation, therefore, the battery 
electromotive force opposes that of the couple and the readings of 
the bridge-wire and step resistance taken together measure the electro- 
motive force of the couple when the galvanometer, G, shows a 
balance. The scale of the bridge-wire is graduated to read to 10 micro- 
volts, and single microvolts may be read by estimation. The majority 
of the observations were taken when using a D'Arsonval galvanometer, 
giving, on a scale distant 110 centimetres, a deflection of 560 milli- 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



191 




•0, ayni vaad W3JL 



192 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

metres for 1 microvolt. The contact-maker used with this apparatus 
is one devised by Professors Callendar and Dalby, which has already 
been described and illustrated in fig. 3. 

Suction Temperature. 

Direct measurements of the suction temperature were made at the 
City and Guilds (Engineering) College during the session 19] 2-13 on 
a Crossley gas-engine with a cylinder 7 inches in diameter, stroke 
14 inches, and with a compression ratio of 4"8. The object of the 
experiment was to show how the suction temperature varied with the 
speed, with the jacket temperature, and with the mixture. 

The apparatus with which the measurement was made has been 
already described (see pages 180, 181, 182, and 183). The results of the 
experiments are shown by the curves fig. 12. It is proposed to repeat 
these experiments on engines of more modern type and with higher 
compression ratios as soon as the development of the new laboratories 
at the College render it possible to do so. 

The Cyclical Variation of the Temperature of the Charge in a 
Gas-engine Cylinder. 

An example has already been given of the method of determining 
the cyclical variation of the temperature of the charge in a par- 
ticular experiment, deducing it from the temperature measured at a 
point on the compression curve in combination with accurate indicator 
diagrams. The experiment was made at the City and Guilds (Engineer- 
ing) College on the gas-engine already referred to. The engine 
is not of recent construction and therefore the compression ratio, viz. 
4'8, is low compared with the ratios of gas-engines of more modern 
construction. Dr. Coker and Mr. Scoble have measured the cyclical 
variation of temperature on a more modern engine constructed by 
the National Gas-Engine Company in 1907. This engine has a 
cylinder 7 inches in diameter and a stroke of 15 inches. The maxi- 
mum volume occupied by the charge is 5'8 times the minimum volume. 
The method adopted was to measure directly by means of a platinum 
couple the temperature at various points along the compression-curve 
and along part of the expansion-curve, but the highest temperature 
had still to be measured by using the charge itself as a gas-thermometer. 

PV . 

A value of f^c is selected fi'om a, point on the expansion-stroke, and 

the constant so found is used to calculate the higher temperatures. In 
this method it is unnecessary to make any calculation regarding the 
chemical contraction before and after explosion because the temperature 
is measured after the explosion, but the rate of change of temperature at 
the point where the temperature is measured is very great, and there- 
fore, in comparing the two methods, it is necessary to choose between 
a temperature measured when the rate of change is great with a 
corresponding lag and no correction for chemical contraction, as against 
a method of measuring the temperature when the rate of change is a 
minimum, viz. just after the closing of the suction-valve, and allowing 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



193 



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200C 














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„ 3 


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360 



1914. 



180 720 540 

AUCTION COMPRESSION EXPANSION 

Fia. 13. 



360 



EXHA.UST 



194 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



for chemical contraction. With suitable precautions both methods can 
be made to give consistent results. 

The curve in fig. 13 shows the temperature cycle in a gas-engine 
cylinder determined by Dr. Goker and Mr. Scoble when the ratio of 
air to gas was 7'35 to 1. The j acket-temperatm^e was 35"6° C, and 
the highest temperature calculated was 1836° C. 



Tempekatubb CrcLE OF Gas Charge. — Conditions. 


Curve Number 


I.H.P. 


Ratio of Air to 
Gas 


Jacket Outlet 
Temp. °C. 


1. 


10-24 


7-35/1 


35-6 


2. 


9-96 


7-08/1 


37-2 


3. 


1011 


7-13/1 


81-4 


4. 


10-36 


6-71/1 


40-6 


5. 


10-36 


5-66/1 


52-8 


6. 


9-74 


6-64/1 


43-7 



Application of the Work of the Committee to Practical Problevis. 

The application of the work of the Committee to practical problems 
can be illustrated in connection with the calculation^ of the heat ex- 
changed between the working agent and the walls of a gas-engine 
cylinder. 

First Law of Thermodynainics and the quantities necessary to apply 
it to determine heat lost or gained by the working charge during a 

change of state. 

Let A (fig. 14) be a point on the pressure volume diagram repre- 
senting the state of a working agent with regard to its pressure and 
volume. Let the state change along the path A, B, so that B repre- 
sents the state after the change. Then 



The heat received by the^ 
working agent from its ,-Massofl 
external environment -= i y^ _„ \ 
during the change of ^ ° -^ 

state from A to B = Q ^ 

That is, reckoning in thermal units, 



r The change '^ 
] of its inter- I 
I nal energy 
[ per pound 



The workA 
done by 
+ -i the agent '- 
on its en- 
vironment 



Q = M (Eb - Ea) + J 



(1) 



(2) 



In which Q is measured in pound calories. 

M is the mass of the charge in pounds. 
Eb is the internal energy of the charge in its final state. 
Ea is the internal energy of the charge in its initial state. 
Z is the work done by the agent on its environment measured in foot- 
pounds. 
J = 1,400. 

Earlier it was assumed that the specific heat of the gas used in the 
gas-engine cylinder was constant, and that the change of internal energy 
was determined by the change of temperature only. With this as- 
sumption the first term on the right-hand side of the equation was 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



195 



reckoned by merely multiplying the specific heat into the change of 
temperature corresponding to the change of state from A to B, the 
mass of the charge M being calculated from the general relation, 



M 



PV 

T 



(3) 



corresponding values of P, V, and T being taken from any point 
on the path where they could be determined. It is known, however. 




Fig. 14. 

that the specific heat is variable, and the Committee began their work 
by reviewing all the available experimental data in connexion with the 
subject. Several members of the Committee were themselves carry- 
ing out researches in relation tO' this problem at the same time. 

Data found to enable this Determinatiooi to be made. 

The aim of the Committee was to ascertain the true value of the 
specific heat at constant volume, Ky, or, to put it in another way, to 
ascertain the relation between the internal energy of the gas and its 
temperature. In dealing with gas-engine problems it is more 
convenient to combine equations (1) and (2) into a single expression in 
which the specific heat is given not in terms of the unit of mass, but 
in terms of the unit of volume at standard pressure and temperature. 
Substituting in equation (3) for the standard pressure, 1 atmosphere, 
for the standard temperature, 273° C. absolute, and for the gas con- 
stant, c = 96, it will be found that the weight of a cubic foot of the 
working agent at standard temperature and pressure is -081 lb., and 
therefore in terms of foot-pounds, and still assuming that the specific 
heat at constant volume is constant, equation (2) becomes, 



JQ = -081 JKv (change of temperature) -f Z. 



o 2 



196 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



The quantity O'OSl JKy represents the change of internal energy 
in foot-pounds per degi'ee change of temperature per cubic foot as 
measured at standard temperature and pressure. When Ky is variable 
and is a known function of T, say </> (T), the term becomes 



0081 J <^ (T) dT. 

Values of this expression in which the lower limit Ti is degrees 
Centigrade can be read off the curve given in fig. 15, which is taken 
from the first Eeport. 







1 1 1 1 






















HlO 
CO, 


05 










e 


/ 












MJO 










/ 






80000 


















/ 


/ 






t 45000 




HO 


.BORN * 


HENNm6_ 




• 




J/ 








UBIC 




CL 

LIU 


NCEN. 

HMD t LE CH4TEUCR . 

r 


o 




/ 










" J5000 

Ui 




M* 


© 


y 










' 


^ 30000 

■a 
-1 












y' 


1 












^ 25000 










y 


^ 














o 20000 








< 


1 
















2 15000 

UJ 






^ 


X 


















'0000 




/ 






















5000 


^ 



























?< 


)0 4< 


)0 « 


00 6( 


)0 lO 

TEM 


OO 12 
'CRATURE 


00 tl' 
,CENTIG 


OO 
RACE 


K 


aa 181 


OO 2 


300 





Vo = 



Fig. 15. 

To use this curve to find the internal energy corresponding to a 
given state-point it is necessary to measure the pressure P and 
volume V from a PV diagram, and also to determine the absolute 
temperature T. The corresponding volume at standard temperature 
and pressure is then calculated from the equation, 

VP To 
T P„ 

This calculated value of Vo when multiplied by the internal energy 
as given by the curve for the temperature T gives the internal 
energy of the gas corresponding to the given state-point. 

Symbolically let 

Ea = internal energy corresponding to the position of a state-point A. 

Va = the corresponding volume measured at A reduced to standard temperature 

and pressure, and 
Yi = the ordinate of the curve measured at the temperature corresponding to 

the temperature of the state-point, then 
Ea = Va. Yt 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS, 197 

The position of the points A and B on the PV diagram gives no 
indication of the temperature at A or B. If the temperature at one 
of the points, however, is known, then the temperature at the second 
point can be calculated from the relation 

Pa Va Pb Vb ... 

m =^ m ..... \^) 

This relation expresses the characteristic equation for gases, and is 
quite independent of the specific heat of the gases concerned. It 
applies to all positions of the state-point in the PV diagram provided 
that the following two conditions are satisfied: — 

Condition 1. That there is no change in density of the gas such as may be 
produced by some change in its chemical constitution. 

„ 2. That the weight of the working agent during the change of state 

from A to B is constant. 

It is fundamentally important, therefore, to be able to measure 
by direct observation the temperature corresponding to at least one 
position of the state-point in the diagram, because by means of this 
temperature and the relation expressed in equation (4) the temperature 
corresponding to any other position of the state-point in the diagram 
can be calculated, providing always that the conditions 1 and 2 are not 
violated during the change of state. If the first condition is violated 
there is a small change of volume caused by chemical action as the 
state-point moves from A to B, and in order to calculate the magnitude 
of this change it is necessary to have a chemical analysis of the 
gas before and after chemical action. When these analyses are known 
a correction can be made and equation (4) can still be applied to calcu- 
late the temperature. This kind of action has to be reckoned with, 
for example, if tlie state-point A is on the compression-curve of a gas- 
engine and the state-point B is on the expansion-curve. 

The earlier part of this report shows that the Committee have given 
a good deal of consideration to the subject of the direct measurement 
of temperature, and that individual members have worked at the 
problem successfully. Examples have been given earlier in the report 
of methods which have been applied and are being used in the 
researches which are now being carried out. This example shows how 
the equation (4) is used to calculate the temperature for different 
positions of the state-point B from observations of a single tempera- 
ture. The single temperature which it is most useful to know is the 
suction-temperature, and this may be defined as the temperature of the 
charge in the cylinder just after the admission valve is closed. There 
is then a definite weight of charge in the cylinder at a definite 
pressure and volume, and at a definite temperature. Allowing for 
the chemical contraction, equation (4) can be applied along the expan- 
sion-curve. 

The C'onnnittee have examined into the question of leak of charge, 
and have come to the conclusion that in most cases in a modern 
engine it is a negligible amount when proper precautions are taken. 



198 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

These considerations show how important the suction temperature is 
in combination with the indicator diagram, as from this temperature 
and the pressure and volume given by the diagram the state of the 
working agent all through the cycle can be determined, at least 
approximately. 

The values of the suction temperature for a particular engine are 
exhibited in fig. 12 above, and a diagram of the kind would be useful 
in connexion with any internal-combustion motor. 

To resume, it can now be assumed that it is possible to fix a 
temperature for one particular position of the state-point A, and then 
the temperature at the end of the change of state B, if not observed, 
can be calculated. With a knowledge of those temperatures the 
internal energy of the working agent can be read oft from the cui-ve 
(fig. 16), and then the first term on the right side of the equation, viz. 

Eb — Ea = change of internal energy 

is determined. 

The value of the second term on the right side of equation (1) is 
merely the value of the shaded area under the path AB expressed in 
foot-pounds. Consequently, from a pressure-volume diagram giving the 
initial and final conditions of the working agent and the path of the 
state-point in between, together with the temperature corresponding to 
one position of the state-point, the right side of the equation can be 
determined and the heat gained or lost by the working agent during 
the change can therefore be computed. If there is no gain or loss 
of heat the work done is done at the expense of the internal energy 
of the working agent itself. One of the main objects of the Committee 
has been to extend our knowledge of the physical constants of the 
gases by the careful examination of methods, apparatus, and results of 
various investigators, including members of the Committee, and change 
of state of the working charge in a gas-engine can now be followed 
with a degree of accuracy which hitherto has been impossible. 

A diagram from an actual gas-engine shows the PV changes during 
the whole of the four-stroke cycle, but the method explained above 
can only be applied to determine the heat exchanges during that part 
of the cycle when the weight of charge enclosed in the cylinder is 
constant — i.e. during the period between the closing of the suction- 
valve and the opening of the exhaust-valve. There is no difficulty 
in applying the method practically to a change of state along the com- 
pression-curve because the conditions 1 and 2 above are fulfilled. 
There is no chemical change and the weight of charge is constant. 
Applying the method to the analysis of the expansion-curve, however, 
there is difficulty. The left side of equation (1), Q, gives the heat 
gained or lost by the gas during a change of state. Q includes the heat 
gained by combustion as well as the heat gained or lost from outside, so 
that it must be written 

Q = 0-hC 
where represents the heat gained or lost to the outside, and C repre- 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 199 

sents the heat produced by combustion during the change. The diffi- 
culty is to separate these two during a change of state along the 
expansion-line. It is probable that combustion is not quite com- 
plete at the point of maximum pressure ; in fact some combustion may 
be going on right up to the point at which the exhaust-valve opens. 
If, therefore, two points are taken on the expansion-curve and this 
method of analysis is applied, neglecting 0, the heat loss determined 
will obviously be too great. 

An analysis of the diagram by this method will be found in Dr. 
Clerk's Gustave Canet lecture, and need not, therefore, be further 
pursued. 

Attention may be specially drawn to the cun'es in fig. 12, which 
show the results of trials made for the purpose of ascertaining the 
relationship between the suction temperature and the strength of the 
mixture used and on the speed. When the mixture is 9 parts of air and 
1 part of gas by volume the suction-temperature is about 70° C. at 
a speed of 100 revs, per minute. At 200 revs, per minute the suction 
temperature is increased to 78i° 0. At the constant speed of 200 revs. 
per minute the temperature gradually increases as the mixture becomes 
richer ; with a 10 to 1 mixture the temperature is 75° 0. , and this 
increases to 96^° 0. with a 6 to 1 mixture. At the lower speed the 
change in temperature is almost as great for a corresponding change 
in the mixture, namely from 67i° C. to 82° 0. With a modern engine 
using a hij];her compression it is probable that the temperatures would 
be generally higher. Fig. 13 shows the cyclical variation of tempera- 
ture as determined by Dr. Coker on a more modern engine, and the 
suction temperatures given by him are of the order of 200° 0. Dr. 
Coker explains this high suction temperature as being partly due to the 
retention of hot gas and partly due to the long exhaust-pipe which was 
used. 

Dalby and Callendar's experiments have shown that when using 
rich mixtures the maximum temperature in the cylinder is probably 
about 2000° C, and these results have been confirmed by Coker and 
Scoble. For the mixtures used in ordinary working conditions the 
experiments of Dalby, Callendar, Coker, and Scoble show that the 
temperature is about 1800° C. It is hoped to continue the experiments 
on temperature measurements when engines of more modern construc- 
tion have been installed in the new engine laboratory of the City and 
Guilds (Engineering) College. 

The concentration of research on the accurate measurement of 
temperature is a necessary step towards a more certain knowledge of 
the specific heat of gases at high temperatures; and the vital import- 
ance of this subject is indicated by the brief explanation given above of 
the method by which the determination of heat exchange between the 
working charge and the walls of the cylinder can be made. So far the 
Committee have only been able to present the curves given in fig. 15 
as representing the most reliable data available. The practical use to 
which the curve can be put is illustrated by using the data given 
by it to find the efficiency of an engine working on the Otto 
cycle without loss of heat assuming that the mixture used is that 



200 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

specified near the curve in fig. 15, this mixture being very much 
nearer the actual mixture used in a gas-engine than air. 



Efficiency of the 
air standard 

•242 
•366 
•426 

•475 

The Committee are of opinion that they can usefully continue their 
work by organising research on the lines which have been foreshadowed 
in this report. The Committee recommend, therefore, that they be 
again re-appointed, and that, in view of the expensive nature of the 
research and the organisation involved, the sum of lOOZ. be granted 
to them. 





Thermal Efficiency. 




Efficiency 


calculated from 


1 


the curve and for the 


T 


mixture 


given in fig. 13 


i . 


, 


•187 


i • 


, . 


•273 


i . 


. 


•337 


* • 


. 


•384 



Stress Distributions in Engineering Materials.— Report cf the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. Perry (Chairman), 
Professors E. G. Coker and J. E. Petavel (Secretaries), 
Professor A. Barr, Dr. C. Chreb, Mr. Gilbert Cook, Pro- 
fessor W. E. Daley, Sir J. A. Ewing, Professor L. N. G-. 
PiLON, Messrs. A. E. Fulton and J. J. Guest, Professors 
J. B. Henderson and A. E. H. Love, Mr. W. Mason, Sir 
Andrew Noble, Messrs. F. Eogers arid W. A. Scoble, Dr. 
T. E. Stanton, and Mr. J. S. Wilson, to report on Certain 
of the More Complex Stress Distributions in Engineering 
Materials. 

The reports presented at the Birmingham Meeting of the Association 
led the Committee to the view that the co-ordination of the results of 
various researches was rendered difficult by the diversity of the materials 
used in the tests. It was therefore thought desirable to obtain complete 
and systematic data with regard to three definite materials, namely, 
a mild steel, a '3 per cent, carbon steel, and a steel alloy. 

In accordance with a resolution passed at the meeting of December 19, 
1913, a stock of three tons standard steel has been obtained for the Com- 
mittee by Dr. F. Eogers. This consists of : — (1) Dead mild steel (carbon 
•12 per cent.) ; (2) Axle steel (carbon "3 per cent.) ; (3) Nickel steel 

Some of the steel has already been sent to various members of the 
Committee, and in due course full information will be available with 
regard to the behaviour of the three materials under a large number of 
different tests. 

The mild steel was kindly presented to the Committee by Messrs. 
Steel, Peech, and Tozer, and the axle steel by Messrs. Taylor Bros. 

Information with regard to the manufacture of the standard steels 
is given in an Appendix. 

A report on the ' Experimental Determination of the Distribution 
of Stress and Strain in Sohds ' has been presented by Professors Coker 
and Filon. 

A paper on the ' Internal Stresses in a Built-up Steel Compression 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 201 

Member,' by Mr. H. Delepine, has been communicated by Professor 
Petavel, and will be read at the meeting. 

A number of members of the Committee have, during the past year, 
been engaged on subjects dealt with in last year's report, but in most 
cases the experimental work is not yet completed. 

The subjects under investigation are the following : — 

Professor Coker and Mr. Scoble : Shear Tests. 

Mr. Cook : Tests of the Physical Constants of the Standard Steels. 

Messrs. Cook and Robertson : Further Work on the Strength of Thick 
Cyhnders. 

Mr. Fulton : Alternating Stress at Low Frequencies. 

Mr. Guest and Professors Dixon and Lea : Combined Stresses. 

Mr. Mason : Repeated Combined Stresses. 

Dr. Rogers : Alternating Stress, Heat Treatment, and Microscopical 
Examination. 

Mr. Scoble : Repeated Combined Stresses. 

Dr. Stanton : Repeated Shear Tests. 

Mr. Mason has installed, in the Engineering Laboratory at the Uni- 
versity of Liverpool, a machine specially designed for experimental work 
on alternating bending, alternating torsion, and simultaneous alternating 
bending and torsion. He has also constructed an apparatus for measure- 
ment of hysteresis. 

Dr. Stanton has made arrangements to test the standard steels, firstly 
by reversals of simple shearing stress, then by superimposing bending 
and direct stresses. 

Mr. Guest and Professors Dixon and Lea have completed the erection 
of their apparatus, and are engaged in preliminary experimental work. 

The Committee ask to be re-appointed with a grant of 100?. 

Appendix. 
Outline of Manufacture of the Standard Steels. 
By Dr. F. Rogers. 

No. 1 Steel. (12 per cent. Carbon.) 

The materials used in the manufacture of this steel are hematite pig 
iron, steel scrap and ore of the purest descriptions, melted very carefully 
in the acid open hearth furnace. 

The composition is adjusted by the addition of ferro-manganese, 
after which the metal is cast into ingot-moulds. The ingots are then 
rolled, with several heatings, into bars, which are reeled when black-hot, 
giving a straightening and burnishing effect without injuring the steel. 

This metal is suitable for high-class mild steel. 

The bars supphed to the Committee are the whole usable portion of 
two ingots, and weigh nearly 22^ cwts. 

No. 2 steel ('3 per cent, carbon). 

Report not yet received. 

No. 3 steel (Sg per cent, nickel). 

Report not yet received. 

Experimental Determination of the Distribution of Stress and Strain 

in Solids. By Professors Filon and Coker. 
Very httle has been done hitherto in the way of determining directly the 
distribution of stresses and strains in the interior of an elastic sohd. The 



202 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



investigations whicli have been made deal almost exclusively with the 
more restricted case of two-dimensional stress and strain, or of stress and 
strain in a thin plate parallel to the faces of the plate itself, a problem 
known to elasticians as that of ' generahsed plane stress.' ' 

In these cases two methods have proved available. The first method 
consists in measuring directly the deformations of the body studied, 
by observing the actual distortion of a face of the sohd parallel to the 
plane of strain. In practice this may be done by ruhng this face into 
squares and observing, with a kathetometer or micrometer, the relative 
shifts of various parts of the network. From these, the extent by which 
the angle at a node of the network has been changed from a right angle 
can easily be found, and this quantity, as is well known, measures the 
shearing strain (or ' shde,' according to a terminology followed by many 
writers on elasticity, who reserve the word ' shear ' to denote the shearing- 
stress). 

In this way values of the shearing-strain are obtained at the various 
nodes of the network. Again, the changes of distance between adjacent 



c 



E' 



H 



K 



F' 



A 



B 



Fig. 1. 



nodes can be found, and from these, if the squares of the network are 
sufficiently small, the extensions at the various nodes, parallel to the 
hues of the net, can be obtained. 

The plane-strain can, therefore, be mapped out over the whole face of 
the sohd which is xmder observation. If this method is to give satis- 
factory results it must be appUed to materials where the strains are 
comparatively large. It has been apphed with considerable success by 
Professor Karl Pearson (1) and various workers associated with him to 
models of dams constructed of gelatine-glycerine jelly, and in tliis way 
various results of interest in the theory of masonry dams have been 
obtained, although it cannot be said that the complete system of stresses 
in such dams is yet known with any certainty. In other cases measure- 
ments of the distortions produced in circles described on the face of a 
model have been used to determine the principal strains and their direc- 
tions, as in the experiments of Messrs. Wilson and Gore (2). 

Dr. E. N. da C. Andrade (3) has also employed a block of jelly to 
investigate the distribution of slide in such a block when two of its opposite 

' Love, Theory of Elasticity, p. 135, 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 203 

faces AB, CD (Pig. 1) constrained to remain plane and parallel and un- 
disturbed are given a translatory displacement relative to each other, 
parallel to their plane. 

Dr. Andrade found that along the middle plane EF of the block (half- 
way, that is, between the two faces whose displacement was prescribed) 
the distribution of shde gave two maxima at points H, K distant about 
one-sixth of the length from the unstressed faces perpendicular to the 
plane of strain, the shde falhng gradually to a minimum at 0. 

For a section E' F' near the middle plane an effect of the same type 
occurred, but was less marked. For a section E" F" near the face CD 
where the constraint was appHed the slide remained fairly uniform over 
the greater part of the length of the section, going down rapidly at the 
ends to the value zero at CD. 

The problem attacked experimentally by Dr. Andrade is one of which 
no exact theoretical solution is known. Dr. Andrade himself attempted 
to fit his conditions by an approximate solution, but either through the 
failure of the approximation, or from some other cause, the results of 
observation and calculation agreed only quahtatively. 

The second method used for the investigation of the distribution of 
stresses inside a plate subjected to stress in its own plane depends on the 
property, discovered by Sir David Brewster in 1816, and independently 
t3y Fresnel, that glass and other isotropic transparent substances become 
doubly refracting under stress. 

Since then this effect has been studied by a number of observers (4). 
It may be taken as fairly well estabhshed that when a ray of polarised 
light traverses a plate stressed in its own plane, it is broken up into two 
components, polarised along the two hues of principal stress at the point 
where the ray crosses the plate, and the relative retardation of these two 
rays on emergence in air is 

Ct(P-Q), 

where t = thickness of the plate, P and Q are the two principal mean 
stresses in the plane of the plate, and C is a co-efficient depending upon 
the material and the wave-length of the Ught (5). 

Clerk Maxwell (6) was the first to go fairly fully into the theory of the 
appearances presented when a plate under varjdng stress in its own plane 
is placed between crossed Nicols. He showed that the hght is restored 
at all points except those for which : 

(a) The fines of principal stress are parallel to the axes of the Nicols. 

Since the condition for extinction of the fight is here independent of 
the wave-length, these hnes will be qmte black. These may be called the 
fines of equal incfination or isocfinic fines. 

(6) The principal stress-difference has such a value that Cr(P— Q) is an 
exact multiple of the wave-length. 

These will be fines of equal principal stress-difference, and will give 
a different set of fines for different wave-lengths. They are thus, in 
general, brilhantly coloured, the same stress-difference corresponding 
to the same tint. The only exception is the hne corresponding to P — Q=0. 

These may be called (follo\ving Maxwell) the isochromatic hnes, the 
black hne corresponding to P— Q=0 being called the neutral fine. 

Observations of the isocfinic fines fiave the advantage that these lines 
are exhibited under comparatively small stress and are independent of 
the co-efficient C. Their use does not, therefore, require straining the 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

material to an extent likely to produce permanent set, and they can be 
shown by comparatively tliiu sjiecimeus. Also they do not require any 
previous investigation of the co-efficient C for the given material, or of its 
dependence upon the wave-length. 

In theory observation of the isochnic hues is sufficient to determine 
the stress system, provided we have information as to the actual stresses 
at a very limited number of points (7). Such information is generally 
available from the known boundary conditions. 

On the other hand, the calculations required to actually deduce the 
stresses from the isochnic hues are comphcated, and are very difficult 
to apply to cases where the data are expressed by purely empirical curves. 
The isochnic hues are, therefore, better suited to experimental verifica- 
tion of stress distribution already known from theory, and for which the 
theoretical isochnic hues can be calculated beforehand and compared 
with observation. They have been so used by M. Corbino and Trabacchi 
(8) using rings of gelatine to verify Volterra's (9) theory of internal strains 
in a multiply connected elastic sohd ; and also by Filon (10), who used 
glass beams to verify the ordinary theory of stresses in a beam at a distance 
from points of isolated loading, and also his own theory of the distribution 
of stress in a beam near a point of isolated loading. Both Corbino and 
Trabacchi, and Filon found that their experimental results confirmed the 
predictions of the theory of elasticity (11). Cams Wilson (12), who used 
in his investigation both the isochnic and the isochromatic hues, was the 
first to aj)ply the optical method to discover the laws of stress distribution 
in a glass beam, doubly supported and centrally loaded. 

He gives a drawing of the fines of principal stress in such a beam, but 
does not use them further, and restricts his comparison of theory with 
experiment, to the stresses in the cross-section immediately under the load ; 
the theory with which he compares his results was originally given by 
Boussinesq (13), and treats the height of the beam as infinitely thick. Sir 
G. Gr. Stokes gave, in a note to Carus Wilson's paper, an empirical correc- 
tion to Boussinesq's theory. An exact theory of tliis problem has since 
been given by Filon (14). 

The use of the isochromatic fines and generaUy of experiments de- 
pending upon tint has this advantage, that it pelds directly the value 
of the stress-difference P— Q. If this be combined with a determination 
of the direction of principal stress at each point, then considerable direct 
information is given at once, and some cases of practical importance have 
been examined by Honigsberg and Dimmer (15). 

The determination both of P— Q and of the directions of principal 
stress may be combined in one measurement, which is very simply made 
by means of an apparatus due to Coker (16). Coker uses a thin celluloid 
plate, cut to represent an engineering structure in which it is desired to 
investigate the stresses. This is a more easily worked material than glass, 
and a lesser thickness is required, as its stress-optical co-efficient is con- 
siderable. To obtain a measure of the stress-difference at any point a 
tension member is placed in front of the strained model, in a direction 
corresponding to one of the principal axes of stress, and the colour effect 
produced in the loaded model is neutrafised by applying a sufficient load 
to this cahbrating member. The tensional stress T affords a measure of 
the difference of the principal stresses (P— Q) subject to a small correction 
when (P— Q) and T have different signs. 

An improved way of doing this, which saves these repeated adjust- 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 205 

ments of T, is to use a test-piece under pure flexure (without sliear) in its 
own plane. This can be readily produced in a straining frame as in the 
accompanying diagram. The stress will then vary linearly from P to Q 
and may be read off along a scale PQ, which can be previously caUbrated 
against a specimen under known tension. 

A httle sideways shift of the test-plate is then all that is required to 
compensate the stress-difference at any given point, provided that the 
direction of principal stress had been found previously. 

Coker has used a cahbration tension member to determine the distribu- 
tion of stress in plates of various shapes — for example, in tension specimens 




Fig. 2. 

pierced with circular holes, decks of ships with various openings, cement 
briquettes, &c. (17). He has also (18) investigated Andrade's problem 
of the block whose opposite faces slide with regard to one another re- 
maining undistorted, and he obtains by this optical method a distribution 
of shear very similar to that obtained by Andrade from direct measure- 
ments of the shde. Mr. Scoble and he have also appHed this method to 
determine the distribution of stress due to a rivet in a plate (19). 

The photo-elastic determination of stress carried out in this way does 
not, however, determine the stress in the plate completely. It will be 
noticed that all the method gives is the principal stress-difference at any 
point. If each principal stress at a given point be increased by any 
arbitrary quantity, the appearances are in no wise altered. To obviate 
this, Coker has used the stretch-squeeze effect in the plate to measure 
the sum P— Q of the principal stresses, a suggestion due originally to 
Mesnager (20). For clearly, if r be the thickness of the plate, -q Poisson's 
ratio, the plate, at the point where the principal stresses are P, Q, will 
become thinner by an amount '7t(P-j-Q) an amount which is small, 
but with dehcate instruments not impossible to measure. 

It will be noticed that this provides yet a third method for exploring 
the field of stress in a plate. 

There is, however, no necessity for doing this, as the information 
derived from the known values of the stress-difference and the direction 
of the hnes of principal stress can be readily applied to find the complete 
system of stresses. 

Let the axes of x and y be taken in the plane of the plate. Let P and 
Q now denote the normal stresses across elements dij and dx respectively, 
S the shearing stress across either of the above elements. Then, if the 



206 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

lines of principal stress make an angle a with tlie axes, and if R is the 
principal stress-dift'erence, it is well known that 

P— Q=R cos 2a 
2S=R sin 2a. 

Thus a determination of R and a at every point leads to the value 
of S at all points. 

On the other hand, considering the equihbrium of a small rectangle 
dx, dy and neglecting body-forces, we have the well-known body stress 
equations for generahsed plane strain, 

Sec hy ' Sx 8y 

Now, at a point of the boundary, all the stresses will be known. 
For the normal stress across an element of the boundary where the 
outwards normal makes an angle with the axis of x is 

P cos2 e + Q sin2 (9+2S cos 6 sin 6 

= P + Q + ^-Q cos 26 + 8 sin 20. 

S and P— Q being known from optical data, and the normal stress across 
the boundary being also known from the boundary conditions, the above 
equation determines P+Q and hence (P— Q being known) P and Q. 

Consider now a point A of the plate. Draw a hne through A parallel 
to the axis of x to meet the nearest boundary at a point Ao (iCo, yf). 

Then, integrating the equation 

SP . ^^Q 

8a; hy 

along the hne Ay A, we find 

P-P„=-jlS.^a;, 

where Po is the value of P at A,,. 

Similarly, if a hne through A parallel to the axis of y meets the nearest 
boundary at a point Bq (jc, ?/o) when the value of Q is Qo, 



V 

Q-Qo = — Yx ' ^y' 



l/o 

Now, if we know the value of S at all points, the values of the partial 
differential co-efficients g-. g- can be obtained approximately by 

taking differences. P and Q can then be found as above by the ordinary 
process of graphical integration, Pn, Qo being known, as explained. This 
method can be used with any set of experimental data, provided only that 
these are accurate enough to allow of differences beine taken to calculate 
SS 8S 
g-> g-. In any case, before actually aj^plyingthe method, the curves for 

S when eitlier x = constant or y = constant should be ' smoothed ' so 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 207 

as to take out accidental inequalities. A check on the accuracy of the 
calculation is easily pro\aded, for the calculated P — Q should agree with 
the value optically observed. 

In many problems it is known that one of the normal stresses is through- 
out very small. In this case, if Q, say, is nearly zero, we have P=R cos 2a, 
and the stress chfference leads easily to the complete system of stresses. 
This assumption has been made by Coker in his earher papers, but it 
would seem desirable to justify it more fully. 

NOTES. 

(References to these are given in the text.) 

(1) Karl Pearson, A. F. C. Pollard, C. W. Wheen, and L. F. Richardson : 
An Experimental Study of the Stresses in Masonry Dams. (Drapers' 
Company Research Memoirs : Technical Series V.) 

(2) J. S. Wilson and W. Gore : Stresses in Dams. ' Proc. Inst. C.E.,' 
1908. 

(3) E. N. daC. Andrade : The Distribution of Shde in a Right Six-face 
Subject to Pure Shear. ' R.S. Proc. A.,' vol. 85, pp. 448-461. 

(4) Sir David Brewster: 'Phil. Trans.' 1816, p. 156. 'Annalesde 
Chimie et de Physique,' vol. xx. Fresnel : ' Qlluvres d'Augustin Fresnel,' 
tome 1, p. 713. F. E. Neumann, ' Abh. d. k. Acad. d. Wiss. zu Berhn,' 
1841, vol. ii., p. 50-61. See also ' Pogg. Ann.' vol. hv. John Kerr : 
' Phil. Mag.,' 1888, ser. 5, vol. 26, No. 161. G. Wertheim : ' Annales de 
Chimie et de Physique,' ser. 3, vol. xl., p. 156. 

(5) F. Pockels : ' Ueber die Aenderung des optischen Verhaltens 
Verschiedener Glaser durch elastische Deformation,' Ann. d. Physik, 1902, 
ser. 4, vol. 7, p. 745. L. N. G. Filon : On the Variation with the Wave- 
length of the Double Refraction in Strained Glass, ' Camb. Phil. Soc. 
Proc.,' vol. xi. Pt. vi., vol. xii. Pt. i., and vol. xii. Pt. v. On the Dispersion 
in Artificial Double Refraction, ' Phil. Trans. A.,' vol. 207, pp. 263-306 
(1907). PreUminary Note on a New Method of Measuring directly the 
Double Refraction in Strained Glass, ' R.S. Proc. A.,' vol. 79, ^jp. 440-442 
(1907). Measurements of the Absolute Indices of Refraction in Strained 
Glass, ' R.S. Proc. A.,' vol. 83, pp. 572-578 (1910). On the Temperature 
Variation of the Photo-elastic Effect in Strained Glass, ' R.S. Proc. A.,' 
vol. 89, pp. 587-593 (1914). 

(6) Clerk Maxwell : ' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.,' vol. xx., 1853, p. 1172 ; 
or ' Collected Papers,' vol. i. 

(7) A proof of the statement in the text is as follows : — Let E be the 
stress function for generahsed j)lane stress (Love : ' Theory of Elasticity,' 
pp. 86 and 446), P, Q, S the mean stresses xx, yy, xy in the usual notation, 
R the principal mean stress-difference, <^ the angle which the hues of 
principal stress make with the axes. 

Then it is known that 

R2=(P_Q)2+4S2 

tan 2<^-=2S/P-Q 

2S=P sin 24> P-Q=R cos 2</.. 

Also the mean stresses are given in terms of the stress function by 

P_ S-E n_S'E Q S^E 



hf ^ hx'' 8a;, V 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Using the transformations 

2rj=x — ly 
we find readily 

... Q_p+2cS=^^, (1) Q-P-2<S = |f (2) 



Q + P=,P, (3) 



From (1) and (2) 



Now, the isoclinic lines give (^ as a function of x, y and therefore of ^, 7; 
for every point. 

On the other hand, it is well known that E satisfies the equation 

V . E=-0 
or 

of which the solution is 

E=E,(a+E.(7;)+^E3(a+^E,(^) (5) 

El, E2, E3, and E4 being arbitrary functions. 
(4) then gives 



Ai^-n) 



=E/'(,)+^E,"(>?) (6) 



_E/'(|)+r?E3"(f) 

Putting ^=0, 1=0 successively in the identity (6) 

Ei"(^)=€-^"l>^f.o) . [Eo"(0)+^E4"(0)'] (7) 

E,"(7;)=e''*(^')) .[e/'(0)+>,E3"(0)] (8) 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERINGS MATERIALS. 209 

Differentiating (6) witli regard to ^,17 and then putting ^=0 and 
i;=0 respectively, we find 



E/'(v,)=4c(^|)^^^E,/'(r,)+e^'*('^"') [ E/"(0)+^E3"'(0) J (9) 
/'{i)= -4.(^^)^^E/'(^)+e-'"*«.o) |e,"'(0)+|E/"(0) j (10) 



B 



Assume E,"(0)=A, E3"(0)-B, E,'"(0)=C, E3"'(0)=D. 

Equations (7)-(10) determine E^'iv), ^/'(v) and Lence Ei"(l)> E3"(^) 
as homogeneous Hnear functions of A, B, C, D. 

Hence E=Ae,+Be2+Ce3+De4+a|+/J)74-y^77+8, where e,, e-i, e^, e^ 
are now known functions and a, /3, y, 8 are arbitrary constants. 

The terms in a ^ 8 do not affect the stresses and may be dropped. 

The term y i rj may add y to P+Q. 

If, now, the value of any stress be known at a given point, this leads 
to a hnear equation between A, B, C, D, y. 

Hence the complete specification of the stress at two points leads to 
six equations for A, B, C, D, y in hke manner, if we consider the conditions 
at the boundary, where two of the stresses are in general known, the con- 
ditions at three points give six equations. In either case we have more 
than enough equations to determine A, B, C, D, y. 

Thus the stress conditions at a few points, together with the isochnio 
lines, determine the stress system completely. 

(8) 0. M. Corbino and Trabacchi : ' Rendiconti Acad, dei Lincei,' 
vol. 18, 1909. See also letter by 0. M. Corbino in ' Nature,' Jan. 16, 1913. 

(9) Volterra : ' Annales de I'Ecole Normale de Paris,' 1907. 

(10) L. N. G. Filon : The Investigation of Stresses in a Rectangular 
Bar by Means of Polarised Light, ' Phil. Mag.,' Jan. 1912. 

(11) Volterra, loc. cit. Note (8) ; Corbino, loc. cit. Note (7). Filon, 
loc. cit. Note (9) ; also Filon, ' Phil. Trans. A.,' vol. 201, pp. 63-155. 

(12) Carus Wilson : ' Phil. Mag.,' ser. 5, Dec. 1891. 

(13) Boussinesq : ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. 114, pp. 1510-1516. See 
also Flamant : ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. 114, pp. 1465-1468. 

(14) L. N. G. Filon : On an Approximate Solution for the Bending of a 
Beam of Rectangular Cross-section under any System of Load : ' Phil. 
Trans. A.,' vol. 201, pp. 63-155. 

(15) 0. Honigsberg and G. Dimmer : Interferenzfarben beanspruchter 
durchsichtiger Korper. 0. Honigsberg : Unmittelbare Abbildung der 
neutralen Schichte bei Biegung durchsichtiger Korper in zirkularpolar- 
isierten Licht, ' International Association for Testing Materials,' Brussels 
Congress, 1906. 

(16) E. G. Coker : The Determination by Photo-elastic Methods, 
of the Distribution of Stress in Plates of Variable Section, with some 
Apphcations to Ships' Plating, ' Transactions of the Institution of Naval 
Architects.' See especially pp. 9-11. 

1914. i' ■^i'i' p 



210 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

(17) E. G. Coker : Paper cited in Note 14 and the following : — The 
Optical Determination of Stress, ' Phil. Mag.,' 1910. The Distribution of 
Stress at the Minimum Section of a Cement Briquette, ' International 
Association for Testing Material,' 1912. The Effects of Holes and Semi- 
circular Notches on the Distribution of Stress in Tension Members, ' Phy- 
sical Society of London,' 1913. 

(18) E. G. Coker : An Optical Determination of the Variation of 
Stress in a Thin Eectangular Plate subjected to Shear, ' Proc. Koy. 
Soc.,'1912. 

(19) E. G. Coker and W. A. Scoble : The Distribution of Stress due 
to a Rivet in a Plate, ' Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects,' 
1913. 

(20) A. Mesnager : Mesure des efforts interieurs dans les sohdes et 
apphcations, ' International Association for Testing Materials,' Buda- 
Pesth Congress, 1901. 



The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins {Chairman), ]\Ir. Willoughby Gardner {Secre- 
tary), Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur J. Evans, Sir C. 
Hercules Read, Mr. H. Balfour, and Mr. A. Bulleid, 
appointed to investigate the Lake Villages in the Neighbour- 
hood of Glastonbury in conneetion with a Committee of the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 
{Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and Mr. H. St. George 
Gray, the Directors of the Excavations.) 

The fifth season's exploration of the Meare Lake Village by the 
Somersetshire Archseological and Natural History Society began on 
May 13, 1914, and will be continued until May 27 (exclusive of filling 
in). The ground being excavated is situated in the same field and is 
continuous with the work of previous years. As the report has to be 
sent in on May 22, while the excavations are in progress, any notes 
regarding the work will necessarily be incomplete and curtailed. There 
has been considerable difficulty this year in procuring labour, and it 
is proposed to reopen the excavations in September. The digging 
includes the examination of the ground situated to the north-east of 
Dwelling-Mound V., south-east of Dwelling-Mound VII., the south- 
west quarter of Dwelling-Mound IX., and the ground lying to the 
north-east of Dwelling-Mound XVIII. There is little of interest, so 
far, to note structurally, but the number and importance of the objects 
found have been well maintained. 

The Eelics. 

This report is called for before the season's work is half completed, 
and at a time when the excavators are only on the fringe of two well- 
defined dwelling-mounds. Hence there is little to say with regard 
to the relics so far discovered. 

Bone. — The bone objects include part of two needles, worked tibiae 
of sheep and ox, tarsal and carpal bones of sheep, cut and perforated 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF GLASTONBURY. 211 

shoulder-blades, polishing-bones ; and a long tubular die with numbers, 
3, 4, 5, 6, represented by small circular depressions on the sides, 
and of a similar variety to those found in the Glastonbury Lake Village ; 
also a piece of bone cut for the formation of two dice. A bone object 
of a new type is the coarse comb of rude workmanship fonned from 
a rib-bone of ox or horse; there are eight large, clumsy teeth of varied 
size, which bear evidence of considerable wear ; it is quite of a different 
character from the weaving-combs so frequently found in the lake 
villages. 

Crucibles. — Several fragments. 

Bronze. — The bronze objects include a piece of bordering, two 
fibulge of safety-pin design (La Tene XXL), one in almost perfect 
condition, and a small ornamented ring-handle, perhaps of a vessel. 
A long tubular object formed from a strip of sheet bronze was also 
found, the working-end of which is trifurcated by splitting the metal 
for a distance of about f inch, each of the divisions tapering to form 
a three-pointed instrument. 

Iron. — Parts of knives and fragments of pointed objects. 

Flint. — A few flint flakes, some with secondary chipping. 

Glass. — A perfect bead of clear white glass, ornamented with three 
sunk spiral devices filled with a light yellow paste, has 'been added 
to the bead series ; and others have been found in addition. 

Antler. — Part of a polished tine, a small tubular object, a cut piece 
with partial perforations, two weaving-combs, 'cheek-pieces,' and 
tool-handles. 

Kimmeridge SJiale. — Part of a fluted armlet of large size, lathe- 
turned; and portions of three others. 

Tusks. — Several boars' tusks (? -wild), including one perforated. 

Querns. — No complete upper or lower stone has been found, but 
several large portions of well-worked saddle and rotary querns have 
been uncovered in Mound IX. 

Other Stone Objects. — Several sling-stones, found singly; a large 
number of whetstones ; a few small smooth pebbles (perhaps calculi). 

Spindle-whorls. — Six have been found so far, (a) one of baked clay, 
[b) four of lias stone, (c) a part of one formed from an ammonite. 

Baked Clay. — Several sling-bullets O'f fusiform shape have been 
collected; also a large triangular loom-weight and fragments of others 
in Mound IX. 

Pottery. — No complete vessel has been found, but shards are very 
abundant in proportion to the area dug. The rougher wares are strongly 
represented, 'but a fair number of ornamented pieces have been 
collected, including some new and elegant designs. Part of an orna- 
mented pot-cover of a type previously found at Meare has been found ; 
also at least two separate fragments of Eoman ware of the ' Burtle 
type,' obtained from below the alluvial deposits and on the original 
surface of Roman times. 

Animal Remains. — Large quantities of bones of domesticated 
animals are being collected, chiefly of young animals. Many split 
bones and splinters have been noticed. Bird-bones are also commonly 
found. A cock-spur has also come to light at Mearc, which implies that 

r 2 



212 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I9l4. 

the sport of cock-fighting, common in Gaul before the Roman conquest, 
was carried on in the lake village of Meare, as well as in that of 
Glastonbury. 

The Committee are desirous that they should be authorised to act 
fpr the ensuing year on the part of the British Association, and that 
a grant of 20L should be made in aid of the exploration that is mostly 
paid for by local effort. 



Physical Characters of the Ancient Egyptians. — Rejwrt of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor G-. Elliot Smith {Chair- 
man), Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Secretary), Professor A. Keith, 
Dr. F. Wood Jones, and Dr. C. G. Seligmann. 

Professor Elliot Smith's Report. 

This report deals with two distinct series of anthropological material, 
(A) one from Saqqara in Lower Egypt, and (B) the other from the 
Southern part of the Kerma basin in the Sudan. Both collections 
are of quite exceptional importance from their bearing upon the 
history and the racial movements in the Nile Valley. 

(A.) The Committee was appointed primarily with the object of 
acquiring, studying, and, if feasible, transporting to England a valuable 
and unique series of skeletons of Ancient Egyptians, buried in mastabas 
of the Second and Third Dynasties at Saqqara, which Sir Gaston 
Maspero, Director-General of the Egyptian Government Antiq_uities 
Department, had placed at my disposal. The material was -brought 
to light in the course of the excavations carried on for the Antiquities 
Department by its Senior Inspector, Mr. J. E. Quibell, who did 
everything in his power to facilitate and help me in my investigations. 
The cemetery in which the material was obtained is situated a short 
distance to the north of the Pyramids of Saqqara, and included the 
tomb of Hesy, from which the famous wooden portrait panels (now 
in the Cairo Museum) were obtained by Mariette Pasha many years 
ago. The tombs themselves are of very great interest, and will be 
described in detail in Mr. Quibell 's official report,^ a summary of 
which was read at the Dimdee Meeting. They are the earliest known 
examples of elaborate subterranean rock-cut tombs, and range in date 
from the latter part of the Second Dynasty until well into the period 
of the Third Dynasty. At the Dundee Meeting of the Association I 
read Mr. Quibell 's account of this cemetery, from which the following 
extracts ^ have been taken : — 

' This is the area in which Mariette found most of his mastabas, 
from which much of the knowledge of the Old Kingdom has been 
obtained. ' 

' Excavations at Saqqara, I9I0-I911, Service des Antiquites de I'Egypte. 

^ These extensive quotations, not published hitherto, are necessary to explain 
the importance and precise significance of the anthropological questions involved 
in the study of the material, to the consideration of which I shall return in the 
latter part of tliis report. 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 213 

' More than 400 tombs were dug and recorded : they were singularly 
uniform in type and cover but a small period in time. Four were of 
the First Dynasty, and the rest of the Second and Third. Intrusive 
burials of later ages were confined to two periods, that of Thotmes III. 
and (probably) late Ptolemaic, and were unimportant.' 

' In what follows we w-ill confme ourselves to the Second and Third 
Dynasties : — 

' These tombs were most varied in size, but uniform in plan. One 
was 50 metres long and 30 wide, but the one I have chosen as a type 
was no more than li metres long, and even originally not 1 metre 
high. It consists of a hollow oblong of imbaked brickwork filled in 
with gravel and stone chip, plastered and whitewashed externally. 
On the east side are two niches, the southern one being the larger and 
the more important. Below the mastaba was a small stairway and a 
subterranean chamber. The smaller tombs were often built in rows, 
and their position parallel with the sides of the larger ones suggested 
that they belonged to the servants or relatives of the great men. 

' One tomb showed very clearly the origin of the later type in 
stone. The niche has been withdrawn into the body of the building 
and protected by a door. A small chamber is thus formed, and the 
sides of this were, no doubt, decorated with paintings ; later, when 
stone replaced the crude brick, the scenes were made in low relief. 
This is the form of most of the mastabas published by Mariette ; the 
more complex plans of the large tombs that have been left open are 
exceptional. 

' The paths between the tombs were very narrow, hardly wide 
enough for one man to pass, and among the larger tombs, where there 
were walls 3 metres and more high, must have formed a perilous 
maze. They were umcli used; offerings of minute quantities of food 
were brought on every feast day and placed before the false doors in 
little vases like egg-cups and saucers. Piles of these pots are found 
thrown away near some of the tombs. 

' Very little stone-work was found. Small tanks 20 centimetres 
or so long occasionally remained before the niches, and in two cases 
an inscribed stone panel depicting the deceased seated before his table 
of offerings had escaped the search for lime. This panel appears in 
the middle of the later stelse of the Fifth Dynasty, of which it was 
evidently the most important part. 

' The sides of the niches may have borne painted decoration — 
probably did so — but no trace of this remained. 

' In one mastaba, a very large one, the wall was double: the two 
niches wei'e carefully built in both the inner and the outer walls, 
evidently in order that the inner one might retain its magical value, 
even if the outer one were destroyed. 

' The space inside the four walls was generally filled with gravel 
and with stone chip from the subterranean chamber, but in some of 
the larger tombs the filling contained also a great number of coarse 
vases, many crushed by the overlying gravel, but many also unbroken. 
These we thought at first might have been the jars used by the work- 
men for food, but some of them were of unbaked clay, and could hardly 



214 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

have been used at all. In other cases, too, these vases had been 
placed in orderly rows ; in one the whole desert floor between the 
walls of the tomb and the edge of the shaft had been covered with 
these vases, with clods of black clay placed between them. It would 
seem, then, that these were deposits intended to supplement the 
furniture of the subterranean chamber. 

' In the case here shown there can be little doubt. Below the 
filling, hidden beneath 3 metres of gravel, we found a shallow trench 
^ mfetre wide, once roofed with wood. Inside it were two rows of 
jars or model bams, each 30 centimetres high, made of unbaked clay, 
and containing a brown organic powder, probably decayed corn. The 
trench is lined with brick, and from it a tiny tunnel, a handbreadth 
wide and high, leads to the mouth of the shaft. This, surely, was a 
secret supply of food for the dead man. 

' In thi'ee of the large tombs a still more elaborate provision was 
made. A row of brick chambers, or tanks, was sunk in the floor of 
the tomb, filled with jars, and covered with a course of brick. What 
the jars contained is not clear; a very light organic matter, probably 
a fat, filled the lower half of a few, but most of them were empty when 
found. These chambers, or tanks, must, however, have once contained 
something of value, for in one tomb they had been laboriously robbed. 
A shaft had been sunk through the filling — in this case composed of a 
very tough, dried mud — into one of the chambers, and from this 
tunnels bad been forced, sometimes through the walls, sometimes 
above them through the mud filling, tdl all the eight chambers had 
been rifled. The labour must have been considerable and the risk not 
trifling: there was nothing to show how it had been repaid. 

' We now leave the structures above ground and come to the shaft. 

' This was nearly always in the form of a stair, sloping down 
from the north or east to the chamber mouth. The stair often starts 
from the east, near the north niche, and bends at a I'ight-angle half- 
way down ; this would be practically useful while the digging was 
going on, as it would stop a falling stone before it acquired an 
awkward velocity. The shafts, like the tombs, vary much in size. 
Some are 12 metres deep, som.e so small — 1 metre or less — that 
the steps would be of no practical use. 

' In the larger and deeper tombs the steps are cut in the rock, are 
of reasonable size, and evidently served their purpose in the excavation 
of the chamber below; but in many of the moderate sized mastabas, 
those 4 to 5 metres long, the steps are of brick, and are too narrow 
and fragile for a man to stand on them. Shafts and steps in the 
small tombs, and presumably also in the large ones, were carefully 
plastered and whitewashed for the funeral ceremony. In small tombs 
a low skirting wall a few inches in height was built round the shaft, 
and this, too, was whitened. The ui^per part, the mastaba, was built 
after the funeral. But in larger tombs this was not practical; the 
works above and below ground had to go on together, so the stair 
was fenced in by a separate wall. 

' Shafts were generally filled with gravel, the portcullis being relied 
on to secure the mouth of the chamber ; but in large tombs they were 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OP THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 215 

filled with slabs of stone, packed in on edge, and in some cases a 
pavement of lieavy blocks was laid in above. A few stone vases were 
occasionally placed in the shaft, and in one tomb a great number had 
been laid on the steps of the stair. The same arrangement was found 
by Garstang in a great tomb at Bet Khallaf. 

' The portcullis consisted of a large flat block of stone with 
rounded edges, sometimes as much as 3 metres long and 1'5 metres 
wide, which fitted into a gi-oove cut in the rock. It nmsfc have been 
lowered before the mastaba was built and chocked up so that its base 
was above the door of the chamber. Eopes were used to aid in 
lowering it; the channels cut by them were observed in one stone. 

' The chamber opened either on the south or west, very rarely the 
north, never on the east. 

' It was generally a small, rudely-cut cave, too small to hold a 
body laid at full length ; this small rough chamber was the general 
rule, but the larger tombs have a series of chambers of a somewhat 
elaborate plan. 

' On passing the portcullis in these we find ourselves in a broad 
passage, from which three or four chambers, probably magazines, 
open on each side. 

' A wide doorway at the end leads to a continuation of the passage, 
and this to further chambers, in which there is some variety of plan; 
but two features are constant. To the right — that is, to the S.W. — 
is the actual burial chamber with remains of a single skeleton ; in the 
S.-E. corner is a feature new in Egyptian tombs, and, surely, in any 
other tombs — viz., a dummy latrine; north of this, in two cases, was 
a narrow chamber with rude basins carved in the floor — probably 
meant for a bathroom. The provision for the dead was evidently more 
thoughtful and complete than in later ages. 

' In all these underground chambers the antiquities found were 
somewhat disappointing. It is true that we did obtain a great number 
of bowls and dishes of alabaster, diorite, and other stones — indeed, an 
emban'assing quantity of them — also ewers and basins of copper, 
occasionally a wooden piece from a draughtsboard, a box or a bit of 
ivory inlay, and that the mud-seals on the vases were in three tombs 
inscribed with Kings' names, thereby giving us our assured dates for 
the cemetery ; but the ancient robbers had very different returns for 
their labour; there had certainly i^een quite other classes of monuments 
of which no sample had survived. All the tombs except the very 
smallest and poorest had been robbed, and robbed, too, at a very early 
period : this was clear from the knowleclge shown by the robbers of 
the construction, and the skill with which they penetrated to the burial 
chamber with a minimum of labour. Sometimes the earth inside the 
chamber had been passed through a sieve : this shows that the second 
robber had found some gold beads left behind by the first ; he (the 
first one) would not need a sieve — he found the coffin and all the 
furniture lying clear. 

' We assume that thei-e was a coffin in all cases — indeed, fragments 
were often found, but complete coffins remained in four tombs only, 
and these four of the poorest. 

' They are short, with panelled sides and arched square-ended lid : 



216 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

two niches are made in the east side. In one coffin, the east side 
of which alone is here shown, the central panels are covered with 
a series of slabs; these are rounded at the ends and do not, as one 
would expect, butt against or mortise into the uprights ; this suggests 
that they are in imitation of a door.' [Similar coffins were subse- 
quently found by Professor Flinders Petrie in a contemporary cemetery 
on the opposite bank of the river.] 

' When the east side of the coffin is taken away the body appears, 
sharply contrasted, with head to the north and face east. The limbs 
ai'e swathed in linen bands, and masses of linen folded together lie 
above the body. There was some little evidence of an attempt at 
mummification, but no flesh remained on the bones; those of the 
arm lay free inside a wide cylinder of wrappings, which retained the 
shape of the limb. The preseiTation of these coffins and bodies was 
partial; some of the wood was quite sound, other pieces could not be 
moved. So of the cloth; some had been eaten by white ants, but 
some was in admirable presei'vation. 

' About fifty skeletons and parts of skeletons were found in fair 
condition, and these, happily, owing to the visit of Professor Elliot 
Smith, could be carefully examined, some of them before they had 
been touched. 

' In one only of all these four hundred tombs have paintings been 
found, but this is of very considerable interest, and the paintings are 
so extensive that our time for a whole season has been mainly 
occupied in copying them. This is the tomb of Hesy. 

' The panels of Hesy have been, for more than forty years, in 
the Museum; they were brought there by Mariette, who discovered 
them and attributed them, correctly, to the Third Dynasty.' 

These quotations from Mr. Quibell's report will make it clear 
that we are dealing with the remains of the very people who were 
responsible for technical inventions of far-reaching importance in the 
history, not merely of Egyptian craftsmanship, but of that of the 
whole world. This series of tombs reveals the stages in the acquisi- 
tion of the means of cutting out extensive rock tombs; and it is a 
matter of considerable significance to determine the jDrecise racial 
characteristics of the people who invented and were the first to practise 
these arts and crafts which were destined to exert so profound an 
influence on the world's culture. 

The crucial importance of the human remains buried in these 
tombs depends upon the fact that the earliest bodies hitherto found 
in Lower Egypt (exclusive of those brought to light at Turah in the 
winter of 1909-1910 by Professor Hermann Junker, and described by 
Dr. Derry, to which reference will be made later) belonged to a later 
period — Fourth to Sixth Dynasties — and revealed undoubted evidence 
of considerable alien admixture, such as does not occur, except in rare 
sporadic instances, in the earlier remains from Upper Egypt. The 
problem for solution was the determination of when and how this 
process of racial admixture began. 

The contemporai-y and earlier material found by Professor Junker 
upon the opposite (east) bank of the river, and a little further north, 



ON PHYSICAL CHABACTERS OF THK ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 217 

was in a very bad state of preservation, and no adequate photographic 
record was obtained to permit of exact comparisons with other collec- 
tions. But Dr. Berry's report, which seems to suggest that the alien 
element in these poorer graves did not become certainly appreciable 
until the time of the Third Dynasty, served to add to the interest of 
Mr. Quibell's material, and to make it more than ever desirable to 
secure and preserve a collection of such crucial importance for the 
investigation of the problems of Egypt's anthropological history. 

The chief difficulty that faced me was how satisfactorily to deal 
with a collection of most fragile bones, a large proportion of which 
were certain to become damaged, more or less severely, during trans- 
port. As there was no anthropologist on the spot to measure and 
make descriptive notes on the material, it was proposed to employ 
experts to photograph each skull, and other important bones, before 
they were treated with size, or other strengthening agent, in prepara- 
tion for transport to England. 

But, while preparations were being made for carrying out this 
scheme, most of the difficulties were removed by the fact that the 
Egyptian Government requested me to go out to JEgypt in connection 
with the work of the Archfeological Survey of Nubia, and it thus 
became possible to visit Mr. Quibell's excavations in person, to 
examine and measure all the material on the spot, to supervise the 
work of photographing and packing it for transmission to England. 
It was possible to do so much in the short time at my disposal, 
because Mr. Quibell and his trained workmen afforded every^ help, 
and Mr. Cecil M. Firth and his native photographic assistant. 
Mahmmd Shaduf, of the Nubian Archaeological Survey, volunteered 
to help. Mr. Firth took about a hundred and thirty photographs of 
the material. Every help was also given by the Egyptian Survey 
Department in the loan of instruments and other apparatus. Further- 
more, the authorities at the Museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons 
in London offered to take charge of and repair the material on its 
arrival, and to grant me every facility for its investigation. 

Full notes and photographs were obtained of all human material 
rescued by Mr. Quibell, consisting of the remains of thirty-nine 
individuals of the Second and Third Dynasties, most of which is now 
safely housed in the Eoyal College of Surgeons' Museum. At the 
outset it may be stated that the material closely resembles the human 
remains of the Pyramid Age found in neighbouring sites of a some- 
what later date. There are quite definite evidences of some racial 
influence alien to the Proto-Egyptian race ; but the difficult problem is 
raised as to how much of the contrast in the features of the two 
populations — Upper Egyptian and Lower Egyptian at the Second 
and Third Dynastic Periods — is due to admixture and blending; and 
how much, if any, is due to the specialisation in type of the Delta 
portion of the Proto-Egyptian people. 

The investigation also revealed some suggestion of attempts at 
mummification as early as the Second Dynasty — a fact of some 
interest, as the earliest undoubted case of mummification is refeiTed 
to the Fourth or Fifth Dynasty (more probably the latter), and no 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

evidence has been obtained before of attempted mummification of a 
body which was not buried in the fully extended position. 

While in Egypt I took the opportunity of comparing the Saqqara 
skulls directly with the type collection of Predynastic skulls in the 
Anatomical Museum of the Cairo School of Medicine, and also with 
skulls of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties at Dr. George Reisner's 
excavations (for Harvard University and Boston Museum) at the 
Giza Pyramids. 

For convenience of comparison I have followed the plan and used 
the notation explained in the Eeport on the Archeeological Survey of 
Nubia (]910), vol. ii., p. 40. 

Detailed Statement of the Results of Examination of the 
Human Remains. 

2102 F.' Man about forty-five j'^ears of age, with well-defined 
alien traits.* Buried in a small mastaba with degraded stair placed 
alongside a big mastaba. A very big, broad, full ovoid calvaria, with 
large bregmatic bone and squarish orbits, and narrow high-bridged 
nose. The rest of the face and mandible are missing (that is, were 
not saved by Mr. Quibell). L. (maximum length of cranium in milli- 
metres) 205, B (maximum breadth of cranium) 14G, F.B. (minimal 
frontal breadth) 98, H. 135, L.O. 38x34. 

2104 G. A man with a short and very perfect, well-filled ovoid 
skull, which does not conform to the Egyptian type; rounded orbits; 
long narrow nose; jaw of distinctly ahen type. L. 176, B. 139, H. 137 
(approximately), F.B. 90, T.F. 119, U.F. 73, Biz. 122, Interorb. 21, 
N. 50 X 23, E.G. 39 x 35, L.O. 36 x 34. 

2104 J. A characteristic example of the type of skull (male) alien 
to Egypt, which was found at Giza and also at the Biga Cemetery at 
Nubia. It has large, obliquely placed, squarish orbits ; prominent 
narrow -bridged nose, with very projecting sharp margins and long 
nasal spine; a broad face with the zygomatic arches cui-ved strongly 
outward; a jaw with a wide chin; and a ramus which is narrow, 
moderately high, and has a big coronoid process. The skull is a 
short, broad, full ovoid ; there is a straight line of brow and nose ; 
very deep conceptaculoe cerebelli, associated with manifestation of 
an occipital vertebra. L. 174, B. 134, F.B. 93, H. 136, Biz. 130, 
T.F. 119, U.F. 71. C.B. 99, F.B. 91, Interorb. 22-5, E.G. 37x37, 
L.O. 37-5x36, N.51-5x21j-5, Big. 102-5. Femur, rough estimate 
of length, 486. One molar is carious, and there is widespread but 
slight periostitis of the leg-bones and pelvis. The pelvis and leg- 
bones are very big and massive. 

2104 N.W. Woman, pi'obably about twenty-eight years of age. 
The skull is a broad, flat ovoid (or beloid), with markedly sloping 
forehead, the profile passing without break into the nose (' Greek 

' Distinguishing number of the grave in Mr. Quibell's Archasological Report. 

■* In using the term ' alien traits ' I refer to features which are foreign to 
the Proto-Egyptian people as well as to the Brown Race in general. In most 
cases — as for example this instance — these foreign features, such as ' a very big, 
broad, full ovoid calvaria,' 'squarish orbits,' and 'narrow high-bridged nose' 
are distinctive of the Armenoid population of Western Asia. 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 219 




Fig. 1. 




Fia. 2. 



Fra. 3. 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

profile ') ; square orbits with rounded angles ; nose moderately broad 
and not very prominent, but the nasal spine is large. In most 
respects the mandible conforms to the Proto-Egyptian type, but the 
ramus shows a tendency towards the form distinctive of the Biga 
population (see ' Report of the Archfeological Survey of Nubia,' 1907- 
1908, vol. ii.). The teeth are perfectly healthy. The femur is small 
and slender, with slight flattening of the upper part of the shaft. The 
length of the right femur is 407, and the diameter of its head 38. 
L. 178-5, B. 138, F.B. 93, H. 132, Biz. 122, T.F. 120, U.F. 76, 
O.B. 102, F.B. 98, Interorb. 24-5, E.O. 39x34, L.O. 36x34-5, 
N. 55x27, Big. 87, Sym. 36. 

2104 H.E. This is a man about twenty or twenty-one yeai's of 
age, with a curious blending of the features seen in the skeletons of 
the man 2104 J. and the woman 2104 N.W., having the cranial 
features of the former and the facial traits of the latter. The skull 
is a moderately broad, well-filled ovoid, with a sloping forehead and 
a profile like 2104 N.W. The nose also resembles that of the latter, 
but is also curiously like that found in the Nubian people at the time 
of the Middle Kingdom. Its lower margins are rounded. The orbits 
are not quite so square as those of N.W., being almost elliptical and 
oblique. The teeth are perfectly healthy and unworn. The large 
size of the canines and incisors has produced slight prognathism. 
The left tibia is 306 in length; its epiphyses are just consolidating. 
L. 181-5, B. 141, F.B. 97, H. 138-5, Biz. 131, T.F. 120, U.F. 73, 
Interorb. 27, E.O. 40x33, L.O. 38x33, N. 52-5x26, Big. 86, Sym. 35. 

2162. An elderly man with the coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid 
sutures almost completely closed. The teeth are well worn, but 
healthy, excepting for a ' perforation abscess ' ^ at the root of the lower 
right first molar. There is, however, a considerable amount of tax'tar 
deposit on the teeth. The cranium is a big ovoid or beloid, with 
prominent superciliary ridges; small, flat, horizontal orbits; small, 
narrow, high-bridged, sharp-edged nose; a wide jaw, with broad chin, 
and a moderate ramus of alien form, with out-splayed angles. There 
is evidence of severe arthritis in the left temporo-mandibular joint. 
The face conforms to a type which is often seen in the Dynastic 
Egyptian. L. 193, B. 139, H. 136, F.B. 91, Big. 105, Sig. 52, 
T.F. 113, U.F. 69, Biz. 134, N. 54x25, Interorb. 26, L.O. 38x29, 
E.O. 37x30. 

2116 N. This skeleton is probably a woman's. It conforms to 
the Proto-Egyptian type, the mandible being quite typical, and the 
skull a long ellipsoid, which is well filled. None of the cranial sutures 
show any sign of closing, although the teeth are moderately worn 
and encrusted with deposits of tartar. L. 181, B. 129, F.B. 93. 

2146. A middle-aged or elderly man, with a full ovoid or 
beloid skull, with flattened occiput, somewhat rounded orbits, and 
moderately prominent nose. The coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid 
sutures are closing, and the teeth are worn down, and there are 

' By this term I refer to an alveolar abscess, which is not due to dental 
caries, but originates by infection through the pulp cavity of a tooth, which has 
been exiJoscd by excessive wearing-down. 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OP THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 221 

several ' perforation abscesses.' There is thinning of the. left parietal 
bone. L. 183, B. 139, H. 146, F.B. 93, U.F. 72, Biz. 130, N. 53-5x25, 
Interorb. 24, L.O. 38x33, R.O. 38x33. 

2152. Middle-aged man, whose coronal and sagittal sutures are 
beginning to close. The teeth are well worn down, and there are 
four ' perforation abscesses,' that associated with the upper left second 
molar opening by a h^rge perforation into the maxillary antrum. The 
jaw is a big, heavily built ovoid, with well-marked muscular impres- 
sions and prominent superciliary ridges. The orbits are flat and 
horizontal, the nose is narrow with a prominent high-bridged root. 
L. 188, B. 138, H. 1-38, F.B. 100, U.F. 69, Biz. 135, N. 49x24-5, 
Interorb. 24, L.O. 40x32, R.O. 40x33. 

2170. A man whose coronal suture is beginning to close, and 
whose perfectly healthy teeth are only slightly worn. The skull is a 
big, well-filled ovoid, with sloping forehead and moderate supei'ciliary 
ridges. The face is short and broad, with small, narrow nose and 
very flat orbits. The jaw is heavily built, but its form is Proto- 
Egyptian. L. 187, B. 141, F.B. 95, H. 138, Big. 131, T.F. 110, 
U.F. 67, Interorb. 25, R.O. 40x32, R.O. 40x33. 

2170. A man whose coronal suture is beginning to close, and 
whose perfectly healthy teeth are only slightly worn. The skull is a 
big, well-filled ovoid, with sloping forehead and moderate superciliary 
ridges. The face is short and broad, witb small, narrow nose and 
very flat orbits. The jaw is heavily built, but its form is Proto- 
Egyptian. L. 187, B. 141, F.B. 95, H. 138, Big. 131, T.F. 110, 
U.F. 67, Interorb. 25, R.O. 40x30-5, L.O. 38x30-5, N. 53x24. 

2173 D. This is a child of nine or ten years, with a typical Proto- 
Egyptian pentagonoid skull. 

2172 B. This is a woman of twenty years, or perhaps a little 
more, with a small head of Proto-Egyptian type, and well filled 
pentagono-ovoid form; the nose has a small horizontal, elliptical, 
flattened bridge; small mandible, with a very pointed chin: the 
zygomatic arches are laterally compressed. The teeth are in excellent 
condition and practically unworn. L. 178, B. 128, F.B. 85, H. 129, 
Biz. 116 (estimated), T.F. Ill, U.F. 68, G.B. 98, F.B. 94, Interorb. 
24, R.O. 38x27, L.O. 35x28, N. 46x24^5, Big. 82, Sym. 35, Sig. 45. 

2172 E.B. A woman with very perfect, small, well-filled ovoid or 
ellipsoid cranium. The face might be Proto-Egyptian, but the large 
orbits and prominent-spined nOiSe suggest alien affinities. The coronal 
suture is beginning to close. L. 173, B. 130, F.B. 90, H. 138-5, 
Biz. 121, T.F. 102, Interorb. 20, R.O. 37x32, L.O. 38x32, N. 48x23. 

2172 a (? or j8). This is a man with teeth moderately worn, but 
quite healthy. Sutures all open. Long pentagonoid cranium with a 
markedly bombS occipital. Prominent superciliary ridges thickening 
whole upper edge of orbits meet across the mid-line, overhanging the 
depressed and flattened root of the nose. Orbits flattened ; nose wide ; 
typical Proto-Egyptian jaw, with pointed chin and characteristic 
ramus. L. 194, JB. 136-5, H. 141, F. 95, T.F. 107, U.F. 66, Biz. 130, 
N. 49x30, L.O. 38x30, R.O. 39x29, Interorb. 23-5. 

2173. A woman about twenty-one years of age. Teeth healthy. 



222 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Typical Proto-Egyptian pentagonoid skull, with small, broad, flat- 
bridged nose (nasals fused), not separated by any depression from the 
frontal; oblique orbits, and typical high ramus and coronoid process 
of the alien type of iaw. L. 173, B. 133, H. 133, F. 92, T.P. 110, 
U.F. 67, N. 47x23-5, Interorb. 24, E.O. smashed. 

2173 A. This is a woman with teeth well worn; left upper molars 
carious, abscesses at all upper molars. Temporal part of coronal 
suture closed, as well as the whole sagittal and part of lambdoid. 
Big broad ovoid head, with senile thinning commencing. Broad face 
with out-curved zygomatic arches and out-splayed angles of jaw. 
Long, very narrow nose, with prominent spine, but not very, high 
bridge. Large square orbits, with deficient lateral walls. Left femur 
is severely affected by osteomyelitis, according to Professor Ferguson, 
of Cairo, who had taken the bone before I arrived at Saqqara. Large 
inflammatory excavation in front of right sacro-iliac joint. L. 183, 
B. 137, F. 96-5, H. 135. Biz. 133, T.F. 125, U.F. 80, Interorb. 23, 
E.O. 39x36-5, L.O. 40x37, N. 55x23, Big. 106. 

2173 D. A woman's skull, almost edentulous, but all the sutures 
are still open. A broad, flat, beloid cranium associated with a small 
infantile face. L. 175, B. 138, F.B. 90, H. 117, Biz. 119, T.F. 101, 
U.F. 69, E.O. 37x30, L.O. 36x31, N. 52x22. 

2175. A man with all upper incisors and right canine teeth gone, 
probably the result of some alveolar disease, leaving now a large hole 
about 27 mm. in diameter. The three principal sutures are closed. 
Has a large, lofty, well-filled ovoid skull. Face very long, narrow 
and ovoid, with Proto-Egyptian type of orbits; but small, narrow, 
high-bridged, sharp-margined nose. Pointed jaw with a high ramus, 
set at so oblique an angle that the sigmoid height cannot be measured. 
L. 185-5, B. 144, F.B. 96, H. 140, Biz. 131, T.P. 130, U.F. 73 
(estimated), Interorb. 21, E.O. 41x32, L.O. 40x32, N. 50x24. 

2262. A woman with a perfect set of healthy, almost unworn 
teeth; temporal part of coronal suture closed. A iDig broad pentago- 
noid skull with large alien jaw and rounded orbits. L. 189, B. 141, 
F.B. 95, H. 131, Biz. 122, T.F. 119, U.F. 72, Interorb. 24, E.O. 
37x33, L.O. 36x33-5, N. 49x24. 

This individual exhibits signs suggestive of some form of mummifi- 
cation having heen attempted. If so, it is the earliest authentic 
evidence of such a practice. The skeleton was found completely 
invested in a large series of bandages — more than sixteen layers still 
intact, and probably at least as many more destroyed — ten layers of 
fine bandage (warp seventeen and woof forty-eight threads to the 
centimetre), then six layers somewhat coarser cloth, and next to the 
body a series of badly corroded, very irregularly woven cloth, much 
coarser (warp six and woof fourteen per centimetre) than the inter- 
mediate and outer layers. Each leg was wrapped separately, and 
there was a large pad on the perineum. Tlie bandages were broad 
sheets of linen rather than the usual narrow bandages. The body was 
flexed, as was usual at this period. 

In the wide interval between the bandages and the bones there 
was a large mass of extremely corroded linen, whereas the int/ermediate 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 223 

and superficial layers of cloth were quite well preserved and free from 
corrosion, except along a line where the cloth was corroded to repre- 
sent the rima pudendi — a fact of great interest when it is recalled 
that in the Fifth and probably the Fourth Dynasties it was the custom 
to fashion (in the case of male mummies) an artificial phallus. 

The corrosion is presumptive evidence that some material (probably 
crude natron) was applied to the surface of the body with a view to 
its preservation. If so, this is the earliest body with unequivocal 
evidence of an attempt artificially to preserve or prevent decomposition 
in the soft tissues. 

2262 N. (?) Woman aged twenty years of age. The teeth are 
healthy and almost unworn. Cranial sutures all open. Small 
infantile face of characteristic Proto-Egyptian type. Broad pentagonoid 




Fig. 4. 

cranium and flat orbits. L. 185, B. 142, F.B. 83, H. 136, Biz. 124, 
T.F. 105, U.F. 63, Interorb. 2r5, E. 0.39-5x30, L.O. 37x30, 

N. 48x23. 

2262 B.N. A small tornb containing a man aged about forty years. 
Teeth extremely worn ; right lower molar carious ; severe alveolar 
abscesses in upper jaw; only a few stumps left. Typical Proto- 
Egyptian pentagonoides, shading into ovoides. Low, very slightly 
oblique orbits; narrow nose with high bridge, very sharp margin and 
prominent spine. Semitic curve of nasal bones. Mandible with widely 
splayed angles. The face as a whole, while Proto-Egyptian in type, 
has a suggestion of the criminal Blemmye type in jaw, nose, and 
orbits — ? a Sinaitic Arab. Three lower incisors (two right and one 
left removed), left zygomatic arch fractured, and rejoined with inward 



224 REPORTS ON The state op science. — 1914. 

bend. L. 189, B. 135, F.B. 97-5, H. 141, Biz. 130, T.F. 110, U.F. 70, 
C.B. 105, F.B. 93, Interorb. 23, E.O. 38-5x30-5, L.O. 39-5x31, 
N. 50x23, P. 53x37, Big. 108, H.S. 28. 

2262 J.N. A man of about twenty years of age. Basilar recently 
closed. Teeth healthy and only slightly worn. Perfect Proto- 
Egyptian type. Long ovoid, fairly broad. L. 183, B. 137'5, H. 135, 
F. 89, U.F. 69, Biz. 120, N. 50x23, Interorb. 22, L.O. 36x29 
(flat, horizontal, oblong), E.O. 38x30. 

2196. This is a man whose coronal is beginning to close. Very 
full broad ovoid; large squarish orbits; very naiTow, long, high-bridged 
nose; no jaw. L. 188, B. 137, H. 145, F. 91, U.F. 75, N. 55x23, 
Biz. 130 (curved out), Interorb. 20, L.O. 37x33, E.O. 37-5 x 31-5. 

2187. A woman of about twenty-five years, with teeth quite 
healthy. Flattened beloid skull, with Proto-Egyptian jaw and hori- 
zontal flattened orbits. Small Proto-Egyptian nose and slight 
prognathism. L. 171, B. 140, H. 132, F. 90, Interorb. 22, L.O. 
37-5x29, E.O. 38x29, N. 44x23, Biz. 120, U.F. 62-5, T.F. 105. 

2256 N. A man almost edentulous, seven stumps flush with gum. 
Coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid closed. Big, well-filled ovoid head; 
oblique squarish orbits, and narrow prominent nose of alien type. 
L. 186, B. 138, H. 134, F. 104, U.F. 73, Biz. 132 (well curved out), 
Interorb. 24, L.O. 40x32, E.O. 37x33 (right occiput much more 
prominent), N. 54x24. 

2256 S. A child of thirteen or fourteen years. Flat beloid skull 
175x133, H. 133. Small elliptical horizontal orbits. Very narrow, 
sharp-edged, prominent nose. 

2256 S. (2nd.) Child about seven years old. Long, narrow, 
pentagonoid skull. L. 176, B. 127. 

2191. Woman. Coronal and sagittal sutures beginning to close. 
Metopic suture present. Teeth moderately worn and perfectly healthy, 
with slight tartar. Slender beloid skull. Fronto-nasal profile an 
unbroken line, sharp-edged nose of type suggestive of Giza (that is, 
from the necropolis of the Great Pyramids) aliens. L. 174, B. 130, 
H. 124, U.F. 65, N. 48x24, L.O. 39x31, F. 87-5, Interorb. 22. 

No. ? A man aged fifty years ; principal sutures closing, but teeth 
only slightly worn and quite healthy. Large beloid skull, but face 
of Proto-Egyptian type, with small pointed mandible. Nose probably of 
bulbous type (like that of King Mycerinus, as displayed in his statues). 
L. 189, B. 144, P. 97, H. 141, Biz. 129, T.F. 73, Interorb. 26, 
E.O. 40x32, L. 39 x 32, N. 50 x 28, Femur E. 468, head 45. 

No. ? Man with small, regular, well-worn, perfectly healthy 
teeth. Temporal part of coronal suture closed. A somewhat 
effeminate skull with typical small-featured Proto-Egyptian face, but 
well-filled ovoid cranium. L. 179, B. 138, P. 96, H. 137, Biz. 123, 
T.F. 108, U.F. 70, Interorb. 25, E.O. 36-5x31, L.O. 36x30, 
N. 49-5x24. 

2307. A skeleton, probably female, obtained from a large mastaba, 
but not certain. Coronal, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures closed. Well- 
filled ovoid skull. L. 185, B. 137, H. 126, F. 100. 

2311 B. A woman forty-five years of age. Large, well-filled, 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 225 

broad ovoid, almost ellipsoid cranium. Face of Proto-Egyptian type; 
moderately large, almost horizontal orbits; moderate nose; typical 
pointed Proto-Egyptian jaw; low ramus, with small coronoid. Vertical 
forehead, passing without interruption into line of nose. Femur E. 
413, head 40. Femur small, with no pronounced features, slenderly 
built. Diameter of hea'd, 40 mm. L. 181, B. 137, F. 93, H. 139, 
Biz. 127, T.F. 116, U.P. 73, C.B. 99, F.B. 92. Interorb. 24, P.O. 
38x31, L.O. 40x31, N. 50x24, Big. 84, Sym. 30, Sig. 47, Cir. 510. 
2313 W. A man with healthy but well-worn teeth; left upper 




Fig. 5. 



incisor missing and a curiously regular bevelled V-shaped hole in its 
place. Coronal and sagittal sutures closing. A big, high, ovoid cranium, 
with very narrow, high-bridged, prominent, sharp-margined, promi- 
nent-spined nose. Large squarish orbits; jaw with moderate ramus; 
beard on chin; race certainly alien. L. 186, B. 143, F. 92, H. 138, 
Biz. 130. T.F. 124, U.F. 76, Interorb. 21, P.O. 40x34, L.O. 39x35, 
N. 55x23. 

2314 0. Man. Small pentagonoid skull of Proto-Egyptian type, 
cranium greatly thickened (parietal, 11 mm.). 

2315 N.E. A man's skull, with coronal suture just beginning to 
close. Ovoid head with prominent superciliary margin; a small, 
narrow, sharp-margined, prominent-spined nose, otherwise typical 
small-featured Proto-Egyptian. L. 180, B. 139-5, F. 90, H. 143, 
Biz. 125, T.F. 119, U.F. 72, Interorb. 21-5, P.O. 39x31, L.O. 
38x32, N. 50x25. Some tartar on the teeth, which are well worn. 

1914. Q 



226 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

An abscess, starting from the infection of the pulp cavity of the worn 
left upper molars, has eroded large holes in palate and into maxillary 
antrum. 

2316. Probably a fem.ale about thirty-five years. Cranium is a 
well-filled ovoid, with flattened occiput, with fairly broad, sloping 
forehead. Moderately large squarish orbits, and small, narrow, and 
not very prominent nose. Teeth perfectly regular, and only very 
slightly worn. Mandible with somewhat curved body, and a narrow 
ramus, but not very high. In the temporal fossa there is a very marked 
prominence in the postero-lateral corner of the frontal. On the left 
side series of four lumbar vertebrte and the sacrum probably belonging 
to this body ankylosed by severe inflammatory process, which also 
affects the sacro-iliac joints, although there is no fusion of the bones 
in these joints. L. 174, B. 134, F. 96, H. 130, Biz. 123, T.P. Ill, 
U.F. 70, O.B. 97, F.B. 95, Interorb. 26, E.O. 40x33, L.O. 39-5x34, 
N. 50x24-5. 

2323 0. Woman with temporal suture closing and parietal thin- 
ning becoming apparent. Thick mass of tartar on teeth. Alveolar 
abscesses around upper molars. Very small head with typical Proto- 
Egyptian face, but rather well-filled ovoid cranium. L. 167, B. 129, 
P. 86, H. 129-5, Biz. 115, T.F. 105, U.F. 65, Interorb. 20, E.O. 
35 X 30, L.O. 35 x 30, N. 49 x 23. 

2338. Probably a man with very effeminate skull. The femur 
suggests masculine sex. Coronal suture closing. Large tartar deposits 
on the teeth; alveolar abscesses at the two lower molars on both sides. 
Typical Proto-Egyptian pentagonoid skull; large square orbits, but 
otheriAase characteristic Proto-Egyptian face with suggestion of negroid 
influence. Very slender humeri, the right coronoid fossa perforated, 
anterior lamella only of left gone. Femur E. 443, head 44, L. 184, 
B. 132, P. 91, H. 134, Biz. 123, T.F. 118, U.F. 69-5, C.B. 95, F.B. 93, 
Interorb. 24, E.O. 39x36, L.O. 39x36, N. 50x23-5. 

2344 A. Woman about forty years of age. Typical Predynastic 
narrow pentagonoid skull. Orbits were small, horizontal, and ellij^ti- 
cal. Mandible was missing. Long and very slender femur with no 
outstanding peculiarities. Diameter of head 38. Femur E. 440, 
oblique. L. 175, B. 131, F. 83, H. 135, Biz. 120, U.F. 69, Interorb. 24, 
E.O. 35x31-5, L.O. 35x31-5, N. 40x24. 

2347 C. A woman's cranium of Proto-Egyptian type, with sutures 
open. Facial skeleton missing. L. 180, B. 134, H. 131, F. 91. 

2358. A woman with perfectly healthy, only slightly worn teeth. 
Temporal part of coronal suture closing. Perfect ovoid skull, with 
sloping forehead and uninterrupted line of forehead and nose. 
Bounded oi'bits and shai'p-edged narrow nose of somewhat alien 
appearance. L. 180, H. 135, B. 137-5, P. 89, U.F. 67, Biz. 120, 
N. 49x23, Interorb. 20, L.O. 37x33, E.O. 38x33. 

Skull found on stair noiih of 2376. Man. Teeth healthy and 
only slightly worn. Cranial sutures all open. Flattened beloid skull, 
with sloping forehead; jaw with broad chin and moderate ramus. 
Femur E. 445, head 42. Tibia curved and platycnemic. L. 182, 
B. 140, P. 97, H. 130. 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 227 

2416. A man with coronal suture beginning to close and sagittal 
half-closed. Big broad pentagonoid skull, the face being Dynastic- 
Egyptian in type, with Proto-Egyptian jaw. Three lower incisors 
removed at some time. L. 187, B. 141, F. 99, H. 139, T.F. 120, 
U.P. 74, Biz. 137 (established), Interorb. 27, E.O. 38x31, L.O. 
smashed, N. 52x20. 

2433. Sex uncertain. Temporal part of coronal suture closed. 
Mandible healthy and well worn. Left upper first molar and first 
premolar alveolar abscesses due to infection through the pulp cavities 
exposed by the wearing down of the teeth. Large abscess destroyed 
alveolus from second lower right molar to the premolars (inclusive). 
Small well-filled ovoid cranium. The nose has a somewhat flattened 
bridge, the jaw being rather a pronounced featiure, typically Lower 
Egyptian. L. 171, B. 132, F. 90, H. 13r5, Biz. 128, T.F. 106, 
U.F. 67, C.B. 98, F.B. 94, Interorb. 22, E.O. 39x33, L.O. 37x31, 
N. 50x23 (moderately large orbits, not very oblique). Big. 86, 
Sym. 27, Sig. 52 (moderate outward curve of zygomatic processes). 

The Significance of these Data. 

In discussing the facts thus set forth I cannot refrain from 
expressing regret that it was not possible to examine each skeleton 
in situ in the tomb. For in removing human remains from tombs, 
not only does the material suffer considerable damage, but a great 
deal of the most valuable kind of evidence is destroyed. In this 
particular instance the loss of this opportunity is particularly regx'etted, 
because I feel sure important facts bearing upon the early practice of 
mummification might have been recovered. 

In making these remarks I am not unmindful of the fact that 
Mr. Quibell removed the material from the tombs into his workroom 
with the object of facilitating my work and enabling me to do as 
much as possible in the limited time which I was able to spend upon 
this work at Saqqara. 

Apart from supplying what is perhaps the earliest evidence of 
attempts at mummification (see the account of No. 2262 above), this 
group of remains has also provided the earliest known instances of 
symmetrical thinning of the parietal bones not due to senile changes. 
That this parietal atrophy was not due to old age is quite certain, 
because the best-marked case occurred in the skull of a young woman 
(No. 2323 C) who could not have been much more than thirty years 
of age. This is interesting in view of the fact that such parietal 
thinning has not hitherto been known to occur at so early a period, 
although it became exceedingly common in the Pyramid Age, two 
Dynasties later. Its causation seems to be associated with the habit 
of constantly wearing heavy wigs, which by pressure affect the 
blood supply of the parietal bones." 

Another interesting feature of the material discussed in this report 
is the rarity of dental caries, which became so common and wrought 
such appalling havoc in the successors of these people of Memphis a 

° Elliot Smith, ' The Causation of the Symmetrical Thinning of the 
Parietal Bones in Ancient Egyptians,' Journnl of Anatomy and Physiology, 
vol. xli., 1907. 

Q 2 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

few years later during the Pyramid Age. Alveolar abscesses are 
common enough, but they are not, as a rule, the result of dental 
caries, ats I have explained above. 

The contrast presented by this collection of human remains to 
those of the Proto-Egyptian population of the Predynastic period is 
so profound, and the alien features so widely diffused amongst them, 
that a fundamental problem is raised for discussion. This question is 
so large that I propose specially to consider its bearings in a separate 
communication to the Association. 

The intimate blending of this Egyptian population with a people 
of foreign type and origin at so early a period as the Second and Third 
Dynasties points to the fact that we have to deal, not with a recent 
admixture, but one which must have been taking place for many 
generations before the time of the Second Dynasty. But we have no 
evidence to indicate whether the Western Asiatic element — for thei'e 
can be no doubt as to the nature of the alien strain — had been percolat- 
ing into the Delta gradually, or Came more suddenly in larger volume 
possibly as a people already mixed to some extent with Egyptian blood 
in Syria or elsewhere. 

The important result emerges from such considerations that the 
people who developed the wonderful and precocious civilisation of 
Egypt were not pure Proto-Egyptians. The gi'owth of early Egyptian 
civilisation no doubt represents the gradual evol-ution of the ideas and 
the arts and crafts which we know to have had their origin among the 
Predynastic people of Upper Egypt ; but their full fruition came only 
when the contact of peoples of diverse origin in Lower Egypt brought 
the influence of new ideas and new manners of thought^probably 
also a more vii'ile type of intellect — to stimulate and help in the 
development of the Egyptian civilisation. 

B. The Human Remains of the Hyksos Period found in the Southern 
Part of the Kerma Basin {Sudan). 

At the end of 19] 3 I received from Professor George A. Eeisner, 
who, working on behalf of Harvard University and the Boston 
Museum, had excavated a site at the south of the Kerma Basin, in 
the Dongola Province, a series of skeletons of the Hyksos Period. 
These bones were sent to me for examination, with the consent of the 
Archaeological Committee of the Sudan Government and the approval 
of the Governor-General, Sir Eeginald Wingate, whose interest in the 
anthropology of the Sudan is well known. 

As only a part of the material has yet been sent to me, and as 
Dr. Reisner has not yet communicated the details of the archaeological 
evidence, it would perhaps be preferable if I withhold my report until 
next year. 

I may say that the tombs of the wealthier people contained the 
remains of typical Egyptians, such as we know to have lived in the 
Thebaid during the times of the New Empire; while the other tombs 
contained skeletons of Proto-Egyptian and Middle Nubian (C group) 
types. Although slight negi'oid traits are common, there is a sur- 
prising absence of the more obtrusive negro features. 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 229 



Artificial Islands in the Lochs of the Hiyhlands of Scotland. — 
Fourth Report of the Committee, eonsistincj of Professor Bo\d 
Dawkins {Chairman), Mr. A. J. B. Wace (Secretary), and 
Professors T. H. Bryce, J. L. Myres, and W. Eidgeway. 

Since, owing to the meeting of the Association in Australia tliis year, 
reports have tO' he sent in at a much earher date than usual, the Com- 
mittee have so far little to record. The Eev. F. O. Blundell, the Com- 
mittee's correspondent at Fort Augustus, continues to collect and 
tabulate information. He desires to thank the Committee for their 
assistance and for their encouragement in his investigations of a subject 
which, though full of interest, presents many difficulties that can 
scarcely be realised by those who have not taken part in the work. 

By the courtesy of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, fifty 
reprints of the paper read befoi'e that Society, containing numerous 
illustrations, have been circulated amongst the correspondents of this 
Committee, and this has again stimulated interest in the subject. The 
Paper, which was compiled largely from the replies to the British 
Association inquiry, was printed in full in the ' Transactions ' of the 
Society, and elicited numerous letters of congratulation on the results 
obtained by the Association. Mr. Gilbert Goudie, F. S.A.Scot., writes 
amongst others : — ' May I be allowed to add that I have been much 
impressed by your paper on Artificial Islands in the " Proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland ' ' ? These I had previously 
regarded as entirely exceptional and rare, but the numerous instances 
you adduce go far to show that they were almost the normal idea — ■ 
quite a new conception which will influence me largely in looking at 
these things in future.' 

One of the main objects of the Committee is to secure a suitable 
site for excavation. The artificial island in Loch Kinellan was pro- 
visionally fixed upon last year for excavation this year. Now Mr. F. C. 
Diack of Aberdeen has sent photographs and particulars of the ' Island * 
in the Loch of Leys, Banchory. The loch is now completely dry, and 
therefore this island is a much more suitable site for excavation than 
that in Loch Kinellan. The Secretary proposes to visit the site with 
the Eev. F. 0. Blundell in July, and hopes to receive the permission 
of the proprietor. Sir Thomas Burnett, Bart., of Crathes, for the pro- 
posed excavation. It is hoped that the funds at the disposal of the 
Committee, together with a grant made by the Carnegie Trust to Dr. 
R. Munro for the excavation of the island in Loch Kinellan, will be 
sufficient for a preliminary excavation. 

The Committee desires to be reappointed and that a grant of 51. 
should be applied for at the next meeting of the British Association. 

It will be necessary for a new Secretary to be appointed — Professor 
r. H. Bryce is suggested. 



230 REPORTS ON The state of science. — 1914. 



Exploration of the Palccolithic Site known as La Cotte de St. 
Brelade, Jersey, during IQli.—RejJort of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. E. E. Marbtt {Chairman), Dr. A. Keith, Dr. 
C. Andrews, Dr. A. Dunlop, Mr. G. de Gruchy, Col. E. 
Gardner Warton (Secretary), appointed to excavate a Paleo- 
lithic Site in Jersey. 

Scheme of Operations. 

The Committee arranged with Mr. Ernest Daghorn, who had for the 
three previous years canied out the excavation of tliis site with signal 
success, that for the sum of 50Z. (being the full grant authorised by 
the British Association) he should supply throughout the months of 
March and April 1914, viz., for forty-eight working days, the services 
of three experienced quarrymen, while himself superintending their 
labours; that he should bear the responsibility for all accidents; 
and that he should fui-nish whatever tools or other appliances might 
be required for the work. The Committee has to thank Mr. Daghorn 
for having amply fulfilled all that was expected of him. The men 
worked with a will, and great intelligence was displayed in the 
execution of orders. 

Attention was exclusively directed to the main cave, already 
partially excavated by the Societe Jersiaise in 1911 and 1912. Mean- 
while it was hoped that it might be found to extend round the back 
of the ravine, up to now masked by talus, and so to be continuous 
with the smaller cave opposite, which Messrs. Marett and de Gruchy 
uncovered in 1913. Hitherto exploration of the main cave had been 
confined to the outer or western side, where the roof is somewhat 
lower^ and the pile of superincumbent debris consequently less. As 
the side contiguous with the back of the ravine is approached, the 
mass overlying the palaeolithic floor and reaching up to the roof passes 
from about twenty-five to some forty feet of thickness; so that for 
every square foot of floor to be cleared an amount of material weighing 
approximately a ton has to be removed. It was now decided to tackle 
this heavier part of the task and, as far as might be possible in the 
time, to carry the clearing right across the mouth of the cave to 
whatever might prove to be its inner or eastern limit. 

For the first three weeks the attack concentrated on the upper 
portions of the cave-filling, the extreme top being demolished by a 
successful piece of blasting which brought down some eighty tons. 
The ultimate aim being to open up the floor outwards from a line 
running parallel to the mouth about eighteen feet from it, it was 
necessary to cut back the higher portions of the detritus to the extent 
of another ten or twelve feet, so as to provide some sort of slope, and 
thus minimise the result of sudden downfalls. This was done without 
revealing either the true back of the cave or the supposed chimney 
through which the clay and rock-rubbish, other than what is due to 
roof-collapse, must have descended. It may be noted, however, that 
a tentative excavation on the further or northern side of the cliff into 



ON PALEOLITHIC EXPLORATION IN JERSEY. 231 

which the cave penetrates brought to hght a considerable fissure, 
about twenty feet higher than the level of what is to be seen of the 
cave-roof; and this may very well turn out to be the upper end of this 
hypothetical funnel. For the rest, these topmost parts of the cave- 
filling proved to be absolutely sterile, with the single curious exception 
that right at the back of the cave, some thirty-five feet above the floor, 
a piece of bone was noticed to jut out When this was with some 
difficulty rescued from its rather inaccessible position, it was found 
to have all the appearance of extreme antiquity, and is probably 
assignable to Bos. Presumably, therefore, it is contemporary with 
the cave-filling, and came down therewith from above. 

It was calculated that it would be just possible with two months' 
work to carry a clearing about eighteen feet broad right across the 
mouth of the cave to its eastern side-wall, since its upper and visible 
portion, distant about thirty feet from the opposite side-wall, showed 
a perpendicular drop which might be presumed to extend indefinitely 
downwards. On April 8, however, it was discovered that this wall, 
along the whole breadth of the eighteen feet in process of clearance, 
was undercut, at a point about sixteen feet above floor-level, by a 
further cavity. To judge by the narrow section opened up, there is 
not less than twelve feet of additional penetration to be reckoned with 
on this side. Shielded as it is by its lower roof, this annexe would 
appear to be at once remarkably dry and free from shattering falls of 
rock. Thus it offers conditions more favourable to the preservation 
of bone than the high-domed cave on which it borders, and would be 
an ideal place in which to come upon human remains. This discoveiy 
led to a modification of the original plan, the breadth of the clearing 
being reduced to about ten feet, so as, consistently with thorough 
exploration of the portion of floor uncovered, to stretch forth a 
' feeler ' in this tempting direction. Nothing short of a fresh bout 
of excavation, however, supported by a grant no less substantial than 
the last, will enable the Committee to cope with this unexpected 
lateral extension of the main cave ; not to speak of the rearward parts 
of the cf.vern which are likely to prove more or less prolific also. 

In proceeding towards the eastern wall it was at first impossible to 
note any stratification in the gradually thickening floor owing to the 
large blocks distributed through it. At about twenty feet, as measured 
from the western side, there was, for the first time, clear evidence of 
some sort of stratification. For three feet above floor level there was 
a bed of thick ashes of a deep black colour. Above for about one 
foot succeeded an almost completely sterile layer. Then, for another 
two feet, occuiTed frequent implements in a layer of brownish clay, 
interspersed with slight traces of a darker matter. It was at first 
thought that the implements of the lower layer were rougher, and 
that, in particular, the typical Mousterian ' point ' was absent. Sub- 
sequent observation, however, controlled by careful segregation of the 
finds from each layer, failed to bear out this view, some of the 
finest points (one of them, however, being worked on both sides, and 
in this way suggesting an older style of manufacture) being found in 
the lower bed. Of course a more detailed examination of the products 



232 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914, 

of the different layers may establish some sort of sequence in their 
forms. When the recess on the eastern side was reached the height 
of the implementiferous soil amounted to as much as twelve feet above 
the point taken to represent floor-level. At the very top of this bed 
were found three mammoth teeth and a large number of well-made 
implements. It is even possible to distinguish these highest portions 
as a third stratum, since in one place the top of the layer immediately 
above the sterile bed already mentioned was marked for about six feet 
by a thin line of almost pure sand. This sand was not such as might 
result from disintegration of the local rock, and its occurrence almost 
suggested that the inhabitants of the cave must at one time have 
indulged in the luxury of a sanded floor. This line of sand stood at 
al)out six feet above floor-level. 

Osteological Remains. 

At least 5,000 portions of bone, mostly very fragmentary, were 
discovered. It has been found possible only to submit thciSe to the 
roughest preliminary examination. Dr. Andrews reports as follows 
on tlie selection of bones submitted to him at tlie British Museum : — 

Hyceiia Crocula, var. Sprlrea. — Portions of premolar teeth. 

Canis Vulpes. — Maxilla. 

Cervus Megaceros (Irish Elk). ^Unworn upper molar, fragment 
of mandible with molars. 

Cervus Elaphiis (Eed Deer). — Portions of jaw, with teeth. 

Raugifer tarandus (Reindeer). — Numerous teeth, bones, and pieces 
of antler. 

? Capreolus Cciprea (Roe deer). — A tooth. 

(joat or Sheep. — A tooth. 

Bos primigenius. — Fragments of bones and teeth. 

Equiis. — Numerous teeth of a horse. The teeth are large, but it 
does not follow that the horse was. 

Elephas primigenius (Mammoth). — Portions of a thin plated tooth. 

Myodes lorquatus (Arctic lemming). — Numerous lower jaws and 
bones. 

A metatarsus of some species of Grouse. 

This brings up the list of species (exclusive of varieties as in the 
case of Equidcs and Bovidcs) from six to thirteen, Rhinoceros ticho- 
rhinus having been found on previous occasions, and yields what may 
be described as a thoroughly representative Pleistocene fauna of the 
cold, or tundra, type. 

Artefacts. 

The amount of worked flint unearthed in the course of the recent 
excavation proved simply immense, over 3 cwt. of implements and 
chips (including hammer stones) having been extracted. It must be 
remembered that flint is not found in situ in the Channel Islands, so 
that it is perfectly certain that all flint found in the cave has been 
brought there by man. It is impossible briefly to convey an impres- 
sion of the full extent of the material awaiting detailed study. This 
site will assuredly bear comparison with any other Mousterian site as 



ON PALAEOLITHIC EXPLORATION IN JERSEY. 233 

a source of a representative series of types. Very symmetrical ' points ' 
adorned with the finest secondary chipping occurred to the number of 
several dozen. The largest measured 130x88 mm. Curiously 
enough, a small piece broken from the side of this specimen was 
recovered at a spot distant several yards away, though at the same 
level, the patina proving that the fi'acture was ancient. Some of the 
' points ' were of the graceful elongated type that has been termed 
' hemi-Solutrian.' The most characteristic of these measured 
97x63 nnn. It is to be noted that the implement _ from the lowest 
layer worked on both sides was of this shape, measuring 115x52 mm. 
It is made of a piece of flint of a ' knotty ' kind which may well have 
invited additional trimming. Several cases of double patination occur, 
the most noticeable being that of a well- formed ' point ' measuring 
70x50 mm., which, having first been blocked out in true Mousterian 
style, has afterwards had time to acquire a white patina (very similar 
to that characteristic of the Neolithic in Jersey, and thus possibly 
standing for some 5,000 years), and has been subsequently subjected 
to elaborate re-chipping along the edges. A ' point ' beautifully 
worked in jasper, but, unfortunately, broken at the base, is something 
of a curiosity. For the rest, every known type of scraper abounds. 
Special notice may be taken of a frequent type in which the core has 
been utilised as a handle. A certain number of small pieces, the best 
examples measuring 50x22, 35x22, and 30x20 mm., bear a strong 
resemblance to arrow-heads, the more so as they have notched bases; 
though to ascribe tlie bow to Mousterian times may be somewhat 
unorthodox. One specimen, again, is of that ' rostrocarinate ' type of 
which so much has lately been heard. Apart from the worked flint, 
there is a very interesting series of utilised pebbles, every variety of 
hammer stone being found. It seems to have been customary with 
the inhabitants of this cave to split pebbles, especially those formed 
of diabase, and to use the longitudinal sections as _ scrapers or 
polissoirs. By good fortune it was possible to re-constitute such a 
pebble out of three portions found in different parts of the lowest bed, 
at some distance from each other. Occasionally pieces of stone other 
than flint had been trimmed into the rough semblance of 'points,' 
the best example being of the hard sandstone (gres Armoricain) found 
in Alderney. A very interesting series has been provisionally con- 
structed of granite implements. These occurred in the heart of the 
bed of ashes, side by side with flint implements of similar form, under 
such conditions as almost certainly to exclude the possibility of their 
being accidental splinters from the roof. Certain bone fragments 
showed clearly the signs of having been cut with a flint knife, and it 
is possible that they will have to be ranked as implements, one of 
them, for instance^ whether by accident or design, making a very 
convenient spatula. It only remains to add that everything_that can 
possibly be of human workmanship, including all the inevitable 
dehitage d'atclier, has been carefully preserved and stored by the 
kindness of the Societe Jersiaise in a special room, where the student 
can work over the whole material at his leisure, with every chance of 
constructing a truly classical series. 



234 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

AcTcnowledgments. 

The Chairman, Dr. E. E. Maretfc, directed operations from 
March 21 to April 22, inclusive, the Secretary, Colonel Warton, 
assuming responsibility for the rest of the time. Nine members of 
the Oxford University Anthropological Society, including Dr. F. C. S. 
Schiller and Mr. W. McDougall, F.E.S., took an active part in the 
work, while there were also many local helpers, most of them 
Hiembers of the Socis^t^ Jersiaise. Special thanks are due to Mrs. 
JBriard for the use of her car and for her personal assistance in the 
important matter of transport; to Mrs. Coltart and Miss Bayly for 
their help both in finding and in dealing with the finds ; to Mr. G. de 
Gruchy, the proprietor of the site, who helped in the actual work 
of excavation for about a fortnight; to Captain A. H. Coltart (Exeter 
College), who actively superintended the work during its final stages, 
and took a leading part in arranging the material at the Museum ; to 
Mr. B. de Chrustchoff (Lincoln College), who for a month inhabited 
a small cabin upon the site itself, and acted as custodian of the 
treasure; to Mr. T. B. Kiitredge (Exeter College), who was constantly 
at work for a month, and afforded great assistance in every way; 
to Mr. Emile Guiton, of the Societe Jersiaise, who acted as photo- 
grapher-in-chief; to Mr. Joseph Sinel, curator of the Museum of the 
Society Jersiaise, who took efficient steps to secure the preservation of 
the osteological remains ; and last, but not least, to Dr. Smith Wood- 
ward and Dr. Andrews, of the British Museum, for the determination 
of the fauna represented by these remains. 

Future Policy. 

The Committee wishes to apply to the British Aissociation for a 
grant of not less than the sum previously given, in order that the 
work may be continued without delay. It is well-nigh a certainty 
that a rich store of remains awaits excavation, and, indeed, that it lies 
exceedingly near to hand, more especially along the eastern side, 
where the hearth deposits are particularly rich. Any such grant will 
be devoted entirely to the work of removing the debris. All incidental 
expenses will be met by local contributions, as in the present case. 



The Production of Certified Copies of Hausa Manuscripts. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. S. Hartland 
(Chairman), Pnofessor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. W. 
Crooke, and Major A. J. N. Tremearne. 

The sum of 20L, placed at the disposal of the Committee in 1912, 
has been expended in payment of the printer. 

Copies have been presented as follows : To the Committee for 
Anthropology, Oxford; the Syndicate for Anthropology, Cambridge; 
the Imperial Institute; the London School of Economics; I'Ecole 
d'Anthropologie, Paris; the University Library, Berlin; the India 
Office Library; Exeter College, Oxford; Christ's College, Cambridge; 
King's College, London; and to various missionary and other religious 



ON THE PRODUCTION OF CERTIFIED COPIES OF HAUSA MSS. 235 

societies where texts in Hausa will be accessible and useful to students. 
The usual copies have also been deposited in pursuance of the Copy- 
right Acts. There remain three copies in hand which the Committee 
hope to distribute in a similar way shortly. 



The Prehistoric Civilisation of the Western Mediterranean.— 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Eidge- 
WAY (Chairman), Dr. T. Ashby (Secretary), Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Mr. D. Gr. Hogarth, Sir A. J. Evans, and 
Professor J. L. Myres, appointed to report on the present 
state of knowledge of the Prehistoric Civilisation of the 
Western Mediterranean tvith a view to future research. 
(Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 

Our knowledge on this subject has made considerable progress in 
recent years, though one of the main hypotheses — that of the advance 
of the so-called ' Mediterranean ' race (to which several scholars 
attribute the megalithic civilisation of the end of the Neolithic and 
the dawn of the Bi'onze Age) from North Africa — has yet to be tested 
by further research in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, which we may hope 
that ItaUan archaeologists will shortly be able to undertake. In the 
meantime, the megalithic remains of Malta have been studied to 
some extent by the British School at Eome, though more work might 
be profitably undertaken there; a considerable number of dolmens are 
now known in Sardinia ; and a new group of them has recently been 
found in the neighbourhood of Bari, in the south-east of Italy. 

It would be important to study the intermediate links in the chain, 
which seems to connect the megalithic civilisation of the Western 
Mediterranean with that of our own islands : and the dolmens of 
Spain and Portugal might with some profit be further examined. 



The Teaching of Anthropology . — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir Richard Temple (Chairman) , Dr. A. C. Haddon 
(Secretary), Sir E. F. IM Thurn, Mr. W. Crooke, Dr. C. G. 
Seligmann, Professor G. Elliot Smith, Dr. R. R. Marett, 
Professor P. E. Newberry, Dr. G. A. Auden, Profes'sors T. H. 
Bryce, p. Thompson, R. W. Eeid, H. J. Flbuke, and J. L. 
Myres, afid Sir B. C. A. Windlb, a2)i)ointed to investigate 
the above subject. 

The President of Section H, Sir Richard Temple, initiated a discus- 
sion at the Birmingham Meeting on the practical application of 
anthropological teaching in Universities. A report of this discussion 
was printed in Man, 1913, No. 102, giving the President's opening 
statement, extracts from letters from distinguished administrators and 
ethnologists, and an abstract of the speeches made by Sir Everard im 



236 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Thurii, Ml-. W. Crooke, Lieut. -Colonel Guidon, Dr. Haddon, Dr. 
Marett, and Professor P. Thompson. 

A Committee was appointed by the British Association lor the 
purpose of devising practical mea'sures for the organisation of anthro- 
pological teaching at the Universities in the British Islands. With 
this committee was associated a committee appointed by the Council 
of the Royal Anthropological Institute. These committees met in 
joint session at tlie Institute, under the chairmanship of Sir Richard 
Temple, and passed the following resolutions : ' (a) It is necessary to 
organise the systematic teaching of Anthropology to persons either 
about to proceed to, or actually working in, those parts of the British 
Empire which contain populations alien to the British people, {h) The 
organisation can best be dealt with by the collaboration of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute, the British Association, and the Universi- 
ties, with the support and co-operation of the Government, the Foreign 
Office, the India Office, the Colonial Office, and the Civil Service 
Commissioners, (c) It would be well for the organisation to take the 
form of encouraging the existing Schools of Anthropology at the 
Universities and the formation of such schools where none exist. 
(d) As laboratories, a library, and a museum, readily available for 
teaching students, are indispensable adjuncts to each school, it is 
desirable to encourage their formation where they are not already in 
existence. ' 

By the courtesy of the Master and Wardens of the Worshipful 
Company of Drapers of the City of London, a conference to consider 
the findings and recommendations of the Joint Committee was held in 
the Hall of that Company on February 19, 1914. The President of 
the Conference was the Right Hon. the Earl of Selborne. A large 
number of representatives of various Home and Colonial Government 
Departments, Universities, Societies, as well as politicians, adminis- 
trators, and others, were present or sent letters of regret at their 
inability to be present at the Conference, and expressing their sym- 
pathy with the purpose of the Conference. A full report of this 
Conference will be found in Man, 1914, No. 35. 

In November 1913 Sir Richard Temple addressed the Indian 
Civil Service students at Exeter College, Oxford. In February 1914 
he published a pamphlet entitled 'Anthropology a Practical Science,' 
which included his Birmingham Address (1913), an Address delivered 
in Camibridge in 1904, and extracts from that given at Oxford (1913). 
In March he addressed the American Luncheon Club, and also the 
Sphinx Club, both mercantile institutions, on Anthropology in its 
' Ijusiness ' aspects. And he has engaged to do the same at the 
Merchants' Luncheon Club at Hull. 

It has not yet been possible to place the findings of the Conference 
before the Prime Minister, whose time has been, and is still, taken up 
with urgent matters of State. An endeavour to secure an audience 
with the Prime Minister will be made when an opportune moment 
arrives. 



ON THE DUCTLESS GLANDS, 237 



The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor Sir Edward Sch.afer (Chairman) , Professor Swale 
Vincent {Secretary), Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore, and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. {Drawn up bij the 
Secretary.) 

Mr. a. T. Cameron has cpntinued his investigations on the presence 
and function of iodine in different tissues. Examination of the thyroids 
of the elasmohranchs ScylUum canicula and Raid clavata gave positive 
results, th,ose for female ScylUum thyroids (1'16 per cent.) Being 
higher than any previously reported.^ Examination of the thyroids of 
the dog-fish Acanthias vulgaris, oi the frog, of the alligator, and of 
the pigeon gave positive results, the variations found being traceable 
to variations in diet. Comparison of the iodine content of thyroid and 
parathyroid tissue in the dog gave such marked differences as to 
warrant the assumption that the parathyroid is not concerned with the 
production of iodine compounds, and, therefore, as far as these are 
concerned, that there is a differentiation of function between the two 
glands.^ 

A wider investigation has shown, in comparison with data previously 
published by others, that iodine is an almost invariable constituent 
of all organisms, plant and animal, the amount depending on the diet 
and medmm of the organism. With higher development there is greater 
specificity of the tissue concerned in storing iodine, until in the 
vertebrates no tissue except thyroid contains appreciable quantities. 
Thymus especially has been examined in a large number of species, 
with negative results. All normal thyroids contain iodine, the amount 
varying with the diet, and between the limits O'Ol and 11 per cent, 
(dry tissue). Other observers have shown previously that sponges and 
corals (besides many algte) contain quantities of iodine comparable with 
that_ in the thyroid. Three other types of tissue have been found in 
marine organisms which contain amounts of iodine over 01 per cent, 
(dry tissue) viz. : the horny tubes of Eunicid worms, the external 
cutaneous tissues of the ' foot ' of the horse-clam, and the test of a 
tunicate. Further work will be carried out to determine the type of 
iodine compound in these tissues, with a view to throwing further light 
upon the type of iodine compound in the thyroid. The above results 
are in course of publication. 

Mr. Cameron is also engaged in work on the effects of feeding iodine 
compounds (and thyroid) on the amount of iodine present in the thyroid 
gland, with a view to determine the rate of increase or diminution. 
These results are not yet ready for publication. 

The Secretary has been engaged upon various problems connected 
with the ductless glands. The effects of varying conditions upon the 
histological structure of the thyroid and parathyroid have been investi- 
gated in a preliminary fashion, but the results are conflicting and 
difficult to interpret. The variations in structure in normal thyroids 



1 Biochem. J., 7, 466, 1913. « j. £^^7. chem., 16, 465, 1914. 



238 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

are so great that the effects of feeding, drugs, &c., cannot be sum- 
marised in a definite manner.^ 

The pharmacodynamics of different extracts have also been studied. 
Among other facts to which attention will be called in subsequent 
publications it may be mentioned that large doses of adrenin by no 
means always interfere with the normal action of the vagus, that the 
rise of blood-pressure due to injection of adrenin is of a double nature, 
and that comparatively small doses of the last-mentioned drug 
frequently cause an unexpected fatal result in dogs. 

The effects of adrenin and thyroid extracts upon the activity of the 
vagus have led to an inquiry as to the effect of hormones upon 
vaso-motor reflexes, and owing to the unsatisfactory accounts given 
in the majority of books as to the actual facts in connection with these 
reflexes, it has been necessary to extend the inquiry so as to include 
a consideration of the vaso-motor reflexes in general. So far, the only 
hormone which appears to give any interesting results is the extract of 
pituitary, the effect of injection of the extract being to change the nature 
of the reflex, so that in cases where, for example, stimulation of the 
cenlral end of the sciatic produces a fall of blood-pressure, afteir 
injection of pituitary extract a similar stimulation produces a rise. 

This work is nearly ready for publication. 

The Committee desire to be reappointed with a grant of 4:01. 



Galorimetric Observations on Man. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. S. Macdonald (Chairman), Dr. 
F. A. DuFFiELD (Secretary), and Dr. Keith Lucas, appointed 
to make Galorimetric Observations on Man in Health and in 
Febrile Conditions. (Draion up by the Secretary.) 

In furnishing a report upon the calorimetric work undertaken during 
the past year, it is necessary to refer to a paper published by Professor 
Macdonald and pi'inted in the 'Proceedings of the Royal Society,' 
B, vol. 87, 1913, and to a communication to the Physiological Society, 
May 1914. The commencement of the first paper, containing a de- 
scription of the apparatus and of the method of procedure followed 
in these experiments, may be omitted here, since these have been in- 
cluded in previous repoi'ts of this Committee. The latter part, which 
IS the collected and digested results of a very large number of experi- 
ments made upon a variety of individuals, forms a large part of this 
report. 

The experiments all through have been carried out by Professor 
Macdonald with the apparatus and in the manner already described 
by himself in the earlier reports. The subject, shut up within the 
calorimeter, was made to perform a definite measured amount of 
mechanical work upon the cycle. The degree of work was varied in 
different experiments, and from the data of these heat-production 

" See discussion, Lancet, 1914 (March and April), by Bell, McGarrison, 
Chalmers, Watson, and Vincent. 



ON CALORlMETRlC OBSERVATIONS ON MAN. 239 

figures have been obtained which fall into four groups corresponding 
to the grades of mechanical work done. It has been found that these 
results may be expressed by a constant multiplied by a function of 
the subject's weight, which varies with the amount of mechanical 
work performed in the different groups, i.e. '02, 'OS, '07 and "09 h.-p. 

Group A — Heat-production = K„W^'* 
„ B- „ =K,W^/^ 

„ C— „ =K,W« 

., D- » .=K, 

From these results it is evident that the weight becomes less and 
less of a handicap as the mechanical work increases. And, to carry 
this a stage further, the query arises as to the likelihood of the weight 
becoming a positive advantage at a still higher grade of mechanical 
vv'ork. 

The communication to the Physiological Society contains a formula 
for one of the subjects cycling at a revolution rate varying from 40 
to 98 revolutions per minute, and performing external work against a 
brake varying in different experiments from to 73 calories per hour — 

V gg.g 

43V '^1 + r^jTr^j-nX work in Kals. per hour = Kals. per hour. 

The first part of the formula represents the heat-production associated 
with the rate of movement 'V,' and is the same no matter what the 
value of the external work performed by the movement. The second 
is the ' coefficient of efficiency ' multiplied by the external work done, 
and fully represents the heat-production associated with the perform- 
ance of external work. It will be noticed that this coefficient of 
efficiency is represented as varying inversely with the two-thirds 
power of the subject's weight, and that the ' efficiency ' which is its 
reciprocal therefore varies directly with this value. This has been 
found universally the case in the data from all the remaining subjects, 
and explains the fact that in the heavier work experiments the results 
become independent of the subject's weight, if consideration is paid 
to the other fact, also elicited from these data, that the heat-production 
associated with movements per se (irrespective of the mechanical work 
performed by them) varies, on the other hand, directly with the function 
of the weight. In fact the total energy transformation is the sum 
of the two factors, one due to the subject's movements per se varying 
directly, the other due to performance of mechanical work in the 
course of these movements varying inversely as the subject's weight; 
but in neither case in a simple linear fashion. The general formula 
given (Proc. Physio. Soc, March 1914), is 

vw! 56.3 
87WV^™ + W's ^ '^°^^- 

The first fraction is probably expressible in the foUov/ing form— 

KJV 

KWV » ' where ' v' is the natural rate due to the ' pendular 
character ' of the limb movements, and V is the particular rate 
imposed in each experiment. 



240 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 191 4. 

Professor Macdonald also finds analogies between these results and 
those of walking experiments described by Douglas and Haldane in 
'Phil. Trans.' B, ciii., p. 245. A full consideration of the matter will 
be found in a paper communicated, June 1914, to the ' Proc. Eoy. 
See' on the ' Mechanical Efficiency of Man.' 

The section of the work dealing with the respiratory changes has 
also been continued during the past year. A number of experiments 
have been performed in which the respiratory interchange of a man, 
doing a measured amount of mechanical work upon a cycle in the 
calorimeter, has been investigated. The calorimeter is ventilated by 
means of a stream of air drawn through it at a uniform rate by a 
pump and measured by a meter placed on the distal side of the latter. 
All three are connected by tubing, through which the air flows, and 
the air as it leaves is sampled by suitable means every ten minutes. 
The samples thus obtained are examined by the gas-analysis apparatus 
devised by Dr. Haldane, and the carbon dioxide and oxygen percentage 
deteiTuined. The carbon dioxide figures, w"hen plotted against the time 
on squared paper, take the form of a cur\e rising steadily to a horizontal 
asymptote. 

In order to understand the figures thus obtained it was obviously 
necessary to inquire into the question of storage of gases within the 
calorimeter, and to do this a number of calibration experiments (17 in 
all) were made, in which a stream of carbon dioxide, measured by a 
gas-meter and generated by a modification of the apparatus described 
in a paper by Young and Caudwell (' Soc. Chem. Ind.,' March 1907), 
was passed into the calorimeter at a uniform rate, and the ten minutes' 
samples examined in the manner described in the experiments on the 
human subject. Attempts were then made to discover the relation 
which exists between the curve of the carbon dioxide in the leaving air 
and that of the carbon dioxide introduced from the generating appara- 
tus ; but so far the results appear so complicated that no definite relation 
has been arrived at. However, quite recently Mr. G. H. Livens, M.A., 
Lecturer on Mathematics to the University, has rendered most valuable 
assistance towards solving this problem. A fairly accurate empirical 
formula has been obtained from the actual readings, but it is not of 
such good agreement with the theoretical formula as is desired, and 
further experiments are being made to detect the cause of the dis- 
crepancy. 

Ownig to the appearance of a considerable error in the readings of 
the large meter used for measuring the volume of the air-flow through 
the calorimeter, it became necessary to replace it by a water-meter 
supplied by Messrs. Parkinson and Cowan, Ltd. Also, a large number 
of tests were made, both in the Physiological Laboratory and through 
the courtesy of the Sheffield Gas Company at their test-room, on the 
small meter which is used for measuring the volume of carbon dioxide 
introduced into the calorimeter in the calibration experiments men- 
tioned above. I am now certain that the error in our estimation 
on these accounts is well under 2 per cent. 



ON iSFFECT OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS. '24.i 

The Effect of Low Temperature on Cold-blooded Animals. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Swale 
Vincent (Chairman) and Mr. A. T. Cameron (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Mr. a. T. Cameron has continued the experiments of Cameron and 
Brownlee on frogs communicated in the last report, and has arrived at 
the following conclusions: — 

(1) The death-temperature of R. pipiciis from cold is - l"ib° ± 
015° C. 

(2) There is no climatic adaptation, nor any periodic adaptation due 
to hibernation, in R. pipiens. 

(3) The cause of death is a specific temperature effect on the co- 
ordinating centres in the central nervous system. Those controlling 
lung-respiration may be specially concerned. 

(4) Frogs survivmg degrees of cold such as those occurring during a 
Manitoban winter do so below the surface, near the margin of springs, 
and are themselves never subject to temperatures below the freezing- 
point of water. 

(5) There seems to be a slight variation in the death-temperature 
from cold, of different species of frogs, amounting to some tenths 
of a degree Centigrade. 

(6) Frogs heated rapidly to normal room-temperature from a tem- 
perature just below the freezing-point of their body-fluids (and not itself 
capable of causing death) are thrown into a peculiar hypersensitive 
condition, in which cessation of lung-breathing takes place for long 
periods. 

These results are deduced from experiments with R. pipiens from 
Manitoba, Minnesota, and Illinois, with R. clamitans from Minnesota, 
and with R. sphenocephala from C. Carolina. The experimental details 
will be published elsewhere. The Committee do not wish to be re- 
appointed. 



Miners' Nystagmus.— Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor J. H. Muirhead (Chairman) , Dr. T. G. 
Maitland (Secretary), Dr. J. Jameson Evans, a)id Dr. 
C. S. Myers, appointed to investigate the Physiological and 
Psychological Factors in the Production of Miners' 
Nystagmus. 

Factors concerned: (a) Internal; central and peripheral, (b) External. 

Two features have long been admitted to be provoking agencies in the 
production of miners' nystagmus — an external factor, defective lighting, 
and an internal or peripheral factor, viz., muscular strain. The former, 
defective lighting, is found to be the more important, and our examina- 
tion led us to conclude that where this factor is in greatest evidence 
there we find the greatest incidence of cases. Miners' nystagmus is 
a disease limited practically to coal-mining, and, further, it is associated 
with the use of lamps of small illuminating power, such as the Davy 
1914. B 



212 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

or its modifications, so that it is rare, even in coal-mines, to find 
cases of nystagmus where more powerful illuminants such as candles 
and electric lamps are used. Moreover, the great absorption of light by 
the coal-surface diminishes the illuminating value of the lamp employed. 
This absence of reflections from walls, floor, and ceiUngs interferes 
with clear visualisation, since direct rays are never so satisfactory as 
diffuse rays. The other factor mentioned above — muscular strain, 
especially of the elevators of the eyeballs — is also taken into considera- 
tion, notwithstanding the difference of opinion on the importance of 
this. Snell has collected several cases of nystagmus which, as in the 
case of compositors, has followed strain in this way, and we have 
ourselves found that there is a larger number of cases of miners' 
nystagmus associated with ' hohng ' than in any other occupa- 
tion underground — under conditions, therefore, which demand an 
awkward posture with straining of the head and eyes. Other sources 
of peripheral irritation are opacities of the media, errors of refraction, 
pigmentary and other ocular defects, which tend to produce or aggi-avate 
nystagmus by either modifying illumination or by causing muscular 
strain or by interfering with the direct rays on the fovea. 

Taking all these factors, however, into consideration — factors which 
are generally acknowledged — the fact remains that, working under 
similar conditions of illumination and strain, a large percentage of 
miners do not develop nystagmus, and it is our object to find out what 
is the decisive factor. Admitting the external factors in those who 
develop nystagmus to be more or less constant, admitting the occa- 
sional possibility of peripheral factors such as those above mentioned, 
there remains some factor unaccounted for which explains the selection 
of certain miners for this trouble. At this stage of our inquiry, how- 
ever, we investigated what seemed to us a neglected field — the relative 
sensibility of the retina in the foveal and in the perifoveal regions — 
and for this reason. The peculiar modifications which the dark-adapted 
eye undergoes might bring about a still further interference with the 
illumination by a reactive function on the part of the percipient. 

A consideration of the conditions of work in the coal-mine sug- 
gested very strongly the importance of the possession by the miners 
of delicate vision sensibility. Before dark- adaptation could be fully 
developed the miner at his first entry into the pit would have to 
strain his vision under the most trying circumstances to avoid roof 
obstacles as he made his way to his work. Such a strain would display 
itself in the muscles chiefly involved, such as the elevators of the 
eyelids and of the eyes. It is interesting clinically to find the initial 
symptom complained of is a heaviness of the lids. 

At work on the coal-face the miner with his eyes on the coal- 
surface would be subjected only to a few reflected rays from smooth 
facets of coal and some little diffused light from the coal-surface 
generally. Very dim light would bring out the latent differences in 
the visual sense, such as the differences of acuity between foveal and 
perifoveal vision. If the rays were too feeble to excite foveal sensation 
they might yet stimulate perifoveal sensation. 

Our theory regarding this particular feature of the eye was that a 



ON miners' nystagmus. 243 

perifoveal sensation, in the absence of foveal sensation, oi' a perifoveal 
sensation of greater intensity than a foveal sensation, would excite 
a fixational or movement reflex. This would bring the exciting point 
in the marginal field on to the fovea, and would then either cease 
altogether to excite sensation or would be so diminished in intensity 
as to lay the eye open again to marginal stimulation. With a central 
stigma, a neurasthenic diathesis, there would be present all the material 
for the development of a habit spasm. 

A large number of observations were made on students, assistants, 
and ourselves with a piece of apparatus described in the appendix. 
This apparatus was arranged to present a spot of light the intensity of 
which was controllable. The open eye was directed on this spot while 
the room was in full daylight, and then the room was suddenly plunged 
into darkness. At the end of five seconds the subject was examined as 
to his ability with direct vision to perceive this faintly illuminated spot, 
its intensity rapidly altered until the subject was only just able to per- 
ceive it. The time for this, the minimum visibile, usually took about 
five seconds, and the degree of illumination was remarkably constant in 
all these cases, so much so that we were able to fix on this degree of 
light intensity as our zero. The direct vision was contrasted with 
indirect vision, the subject being directed to look slightly away from the 
spot of light, which at once appeared to become more vivid. The inten- 
sity was then diminished until here again the spot was only just dis- 
cerned, and so we obtained a minimum vision visibile for indirect or 
perifoveal vision. 

At intervals of two and a half minutes the minimum visibile was 
estimated for both fovea and perifovea, and we were able to represent 
in graphic form the increasing sensibility of the retina to faint illumina- 
tion. In general the dark adaptability of fovea and perifovea increased 
rapidly up to the end of half an hour, less rapidly up to the end of two 
hours ; arriving then at its maximum sensibility it remained stationary. 
The perifovea throughout this development of dark adaptation not only 
retained its primary advantage, but slightly increased that advantage up 
to the limit of change. In our experience in the coal-mines we never, 
however, felt that the maximum amount of sensibility was ever in 
demand, and while the light was indeed feeble enough to be exces- 
sively irritating to our unaccustomed eyes, yet nowhere did we find 
working conchtions approaching our experimental conditions. Was the 
miner's eye differently equipped from our own, did it possess a greater 
adaptability through use and habit ? 

This led to an examination of the dark-adaptability of miners who 
had been afflicted with nystagmus, and here we found without exception 
a totally unexpected condition, yet one which now rendered plausible 
our fixational hypothesis. Instead of finding a greatly increased adapt- 
ability as a result of long use and cultivation of the eye in the dark, 
we found that in this respect it was greatly inferior to the ' normal ' eye. 
In the first place the 'zero ' was not perceived until after about five 
minutes of exposure to the dark, and then once perceived it remained 
without an appreciable development through the two hours' experiment. 
This peculiarity on the subjective side amounted to the same thing in 

R 2 



244 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

its effects as a modification of the external factors of the illumination, 
so that the differences observed in the normal eye, under the experi- 
mental condition described above, might in the case of the miner come 
into operation under the condition of his work owing to the altered 
sensational values following retinal insensitiveness. The fact is that 
the theory of ' fixational reflexes ' might yet be true of the behaviour 
of the miner's eye in the coal-mine. 

The conclusion of the research so far then seemed more and more 
to lay stress on the one well-recognised agency, that of illumination, and 
that insensitiveness of the retina really amounted to the same thing 
as an absolute decrease in the illuminant. 

There remains for examination the actual excursion of the eye, and 
an examination into the nervous system of the afflicted miner. 

Since this was written an examination of unaffected miners has been 
made, with the result that there is no appreciable difference between 
their dark-adaptability and what we describe as the normal. 

The Apparatus for estimating the Minimum Light Sensibility in the Process of 

Dark-adaptation. 

It consists of an oblong box, the front of which is pierced by a round hole 
with a diameter of 20 mm., which is covered by an opal disc. At the back of the 
box exactly facing this aperture is a sheet of white paper which reflects light 
thrown upon it on to the disc. At the side of the box is another aperture into 
which a tube nearly 2 m. long fits. This tube carries within it a small 2-volt 
lamp which can be moved quite freely from end to end. The light from this 
lamp is thrown on a mirror so placed that it reflects this light on to the sheet of 
paper, which then reflects it on to the disc. It was only in this way the light 
could be sufficiently diminished to obtain marginal stimuli. 

After a number of experiments we arbitrarily decided upon our zero — that is, 
the light that could be only just perceived five seconds after the room was 
plunged in darkness. At intervals of two and a half minutes the subject was 
tested again, and the lamp was gradually moved away from the box until the 
subject failed to perceive the disc. 



The Investigation of the Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Seward 
{Chairman), Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas (Secretary), Mr. 
Harold Wager, and Professor F. E. Weiss. 

This year attention has been concentrated on the plant beds on and 
near Roseberry Topping, North East Yorkshire, more especially on the 
Thinnfeldia beds. A careful search was made for the reproductive 
structures of Thinnfeldia, and this was rewarded by the discovery of 
numerous associated seed-like bodies, whose structure has yet to be 
investigated, and which may, perhaps, prove to belong to this 
plant. A new example of a Williavisoniella flower-bud was found, 
which is of interest in greatly extending the range of this form. Some 
fruits and seeds, probably referable to the provisional genus Caytonia, 
were also discovered, though they were previously known only from 
Gristhorpe. One or two new forms were found, and many duplicates 
of the more interesting species were collected. It is not proposed to 
continue field-work and collecting in the future on the same scale as 



ON INVESTIGATION OF THE JURASSIC FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. 245 

during the past three years until tlie existing collections have been 
fully investigated. 

The Committee does not seek re-appointment. 



The Vegetation of Ditcham Park, Hampshire. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. G. Tansley (Chair- 
man), Mr. E. S. Adamson (Secretary), Dr. C. E. Moss, and 
Professor E. H. Yapp, appointed for the Investigation thereof. 

Since the date of tlie last report a large number of experiments have 
been cai'ried out with evaporimeters. Especially, a large series of 
simultaneous readings have been taken, covering a considerable period, 
from instruments placed in various positions in beech-woods, coppices, 
and in open grassland. Several of the results suggest further lines of 
experimentation and research, but a much larger number of readings 
must be obtained before any generalisation can be enunciated. The 
evaporimeter readings have been run concurrently with a series of 
readings of wet and dry bulb thermometers, and also of maximum and 
minimum thermometers which have been placed in association with the 
evaporimeters. 

The work on soils has commenced, but so far has been mainly 
preliminary. Experiments have been made on soil temperatures, 
especially in relation to exposure, drainage, woodland canopy, &c. 

The general preliminary mapping of the various associations com- 
posing the area has been completed, and an analysis of them has been 
made from the topographical and floristic standpoints as a basis for 
experimental woi'k in the coming season. In this connection special 
attention has been paid to the successive changes occurring after 
coppicing till the re-forming of the full canopy, and also to the question 
of the recolonisation by trees of cleared areas and grasslands. Data 
have been collected which serve as a starting-point for a more detailed 
study. 

The areas enclosed against rabbits, &c., have also been under 
observation, and the changes occurring have been examined and 
recorded. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, without a grant. 



Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity. — Report of 
Committee, consisting of Professor F. F. Blackman (Chair- 
man), Mr. E. P. Gregory (Secretary), Professor W. 
Bateson, and Professor F. Keeblb. 

The grant of 30?. has been expended in part payment of the cost of 
experiments conducted by Miss E. E. Saunders, Mr. R. P. Gregory, 
and Miss A. Gairdner. Miss Saunders' experiments with stocks have 
had for their main objects : — 

(1) The investigation of the condition known as half-lioarincss anrl 



246 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 1914. 

its relations to the glabrous and fully-hoary forms. A new half-hoary 
race, which has been obtained after some difficulty, has made it possible 
to design a complete series of experiments, which is now in progress. 

(2) The further study of the gametic coupling already shown to exist 
between the factors for double-flowers and plastid-colour. This in- 
vestigation promises to give results of great intei'est, but a further 
generation must be raised before a statement can be made. 

(3) A result of some interest is tlie discovery that the double- 
flowered plants, at least in some strains, have a more rapid and vigorous 
growi^h than the singles. It is thus possible, by means of selection 
based on this difference, to obtain a far higher percentage of doubles in 
the flower-bed than would be expected from the normal output of 
doubles by a double-throwing single. 

(4) A beginning has also been made with the work of obtaining a 
complete series of types of known factorial constitution, so that a supply 
of material may be available for testing the view which has been put 
forward as to the inter-relations between the factors determining hoari- 
ness and sap-colour. 

Experiments with foxgloves have been designed for the investigation 
of a curious condition of partial hoariness, as well as for observations 
on the range of variability in the hepiandra form. 

Experiments by Mr. Gregory with Primula sinensis have been 
designed chiefly with a view to the investigation of the cytology and 
genetics of certain giant races, which have been shown to be in the 
tetraploid condition ; that is to say, they have 4.t (48) chromosomes in 
the somatic cells and 2x (24) chromosomes in the gametic cells, whereas 
in the diploid races the numbers are 2x (24) and x (12) respectively. 
These experiments have given results of very great interest, which may 
he briefly summarised by saying that the reduplication of the chromo- 
somes has been found to be accompanied by a reduplication of the 
series of factors. An account of this work has been published in the 
'Proc. Roy. Soc.,' B., Vol. 87, p. 484, 1914, and it is hoped that a 
further statement will be made at the meeting of the British Association 
in Australia. Further experiments with these tetraploid plants are 
designed especially to investigate the phenomena of coupling and repul- 
sion between certain factors. These experiments promise to yield 
results of very great interest, both as regards the genetics of tetraploid 
plants and as regards cytological theory as to the possible relations 
between factors and chromosomes. 

In the experiments with the ordinary diploid races, an interesting 
case has been discovered in which the coupling between the factors for 
magenta and green stigma is on the system 7:1; whereas in a very 
large number of other experiments the coupling (or repulsion) between 
these factors is of a very low order, apparently less than 3:1. 

A paper is in the course of preparation, and will shortly be 
published in the 'Journal of Genetics,' oai the inheritance of green, 
variegated, and yellow leaves in Primula. The variegated plants consist 
of a mosaic of two kinds of cells, respectively like those of the pure 
green and jiure yellow-leaved plants. The characters of the chloro- 
plasts, on which greenness and yellowness depend, have been found to 



ON EXPERIMENTAI. STUDIES IN THE PHYSIOLOGY OP HEREDITY. 247 

be inherited through the egg-cell only, the male gamete playing no part 
in determining the nature of the offspring in resper.t of these characters. 

The experiments of Mr. E. P. Gregory and Miss Gairdner on the 
inheritance of variegation and other characters in Tropceohmi have been 
continued. It is lioped that sufficient data will have been gained by 
the end of the present season to permit of the publication of an account 
of this work. Present I'esults indicate that in Tropceolum variegation 
is inherited in the usual way from both the father and the mother, and 
is a Mendelian recessive character. Other characters in Trofaolum 
which are being studied are those of colour and habit (dwarf or trailing). 

The experiments on the gynandrous variety of the Wallflower and 
its relation to the normal type are nearing completion, and it is hoped 
that an account of them will be published next year. 

The Committee ask for reappointment with a grant of 45L The 
expenses of these experiments involve an annual outlay of about 110?.. 
to 120?. By far the largest item in this expenditure is the cost of 
labour, which has increased during the last few years with the general 
rise in wages which has taken place. Other important items are those 
of the rent of the garden and the cost of heating the Primula house. 
During the present year Miss Saunders and Mr. Gregory jointly receive 
a grant from the Eoyal Society of 60?. in aid of the cost of this work. 



Breeding Experiments with CEnotheras.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. Batbson (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor F. Keeblb {Secretary), and jNIr. K. P. Gregory, 
appointed to carry out the Experiments. 

The Committee have received the following Eeport from Dr. E. E. 
Gates on the experiments which he has made : — 

' The grant of 20?. made by the British Association for CE)iothera- 
breeding has been applied to the expenses of these experiments during 
the last year. In the season of 1913 about 10,000 plants were grown, 
representing a great many races and hybrids of QSnothera. The plants 
were grown at Eothamsted on a two-acre plot set apart for the purpose. 
They developed vei'y successfully, nearly every individual reaching 
maturity. The largest series of hybrids were the F3 from (E. grandi- 
flora, (E. rubricalyx and its reciprocal, and the F3 of crosses between 
CE. grandifiora and CE. Lamarckiana. The F3 generation of the former 
cross confirms and extends the results of the Fj and F, generations 
already published in ' Zeitschr. f. Abst. u. Vererb.,' vol. xi. They 
show in particular that both blending and alternative inheritance of 
characters occur. Some of the plants, which have been examined 
cytologically in conjunction with Miss Nesta Thomas, further emphasise 
the fact that mutation and hybridisation in OEiiothera are separate 
processes, both of which may go on together. Some of these results 
\vill be incorporated in a book now in preparation. ' 



248 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 1914. 

The Renting of Gincliona Botanic Station in Jamaica.— Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor F. O. Bower 
(Chairman), Professor E. H. Yapp (Secretary), Professors K. 
BuLLER, F. W. Oliver, and F. E. Weiss. 

The Committee has met twice. The negotiations with the Jamaican 
Government are progressing favourably, the Committee having been 
assisted by the advice of Sir David Prain. There is every prospect of 
the house and buildings being let to the Committee on an annual tenancy 
to commence from October 1, 1914, at a rent of 251. There has, 
however, been considerable delay, partly owing to the long posts, partly 
to the progress of papers through official channels. 

As no agreement has yet been signed the grant of 25L has not 
been drawn. But in view of the prospect of negotiations being com- 
pleted on the terms above stated, the Committee ask that they may be 
reappointed, and that the grant of 25/. be carried over to the ensuing 
year as an unexpended balance. 



Mental and Physical Factors involved' in Education. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman), 
Professor J. A. Green (Secretary), Professor J. Adams, Dr. 
G. A. Auden, Sir Edward Br.'^brogk, Dr. W. Brown, 
Professor E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Miss B. 
FoxLEY, Professor E. A. Gregory, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 
Professor McDoug.\ll, Drs. T. P. Nunn, W. H. E. Eivers, 
and F. C. Shrubs all, Mr. H. Bompas Smith, Professor C. 
Spearman, Mr. A. E. Twentyman, and Dr. F. Warner, 
appointed to inquire into and report upon tJie metliods and 
results of research into the Mental and Physical Factors 
involved in Education. 

The Committee has to report the retirement of its Chairman, Pro- 
fessor J. J. Findlay, and the election of Dr. C. S. Myers in his place. 
They have been engaged in collating the data which was pro- 
visionally reported upon at Birmingham, and hope to present the 
results in a definite form for the Manchester Meeting in 1915. The 
Committee asks to lie reappointed, and applies for a grant of 30/.. 
to include the unexpended balance from this year's grant. 



Influence of School-hooks upon Eyesight. — Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. G. A. Auden (Chairman) , 
Mr. G. F. Daniell (Secretary), Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. 
W. D. Egg.\r, Professor E. A. Gregory, Mr. N. Bishop 
H.\RM.\N, Mr. J. L. Holland, and Mr. W. T. H. Walsh. 

In previous reports (193 2 and 1913) reference was made to the injurious 
effect of shiny paper, in particular to the interference with binocular 



ON INFLUENCE OP SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 249 

vision whicli may result fi'om excess of speculiir reflection. The 
Committee is investigating the proportion of specular to diffusive 
reflection in the case of books and writing-papers used in schools, and 
has received valuable assistance from Mr. A. P. Trotter, who has 
devised a gloss-tester. The Committee desires to continue this investi- 
gation in the hope of arriving at an objective standard the adoption of 
which would prevent injury to eyesight through the use of glossy paper, 
and therefore asks to be reappointed with a grant of 61. in addition to 
the unexpended balance of last year's grant. 



Museums. — Report of tJie CotMnittee, eonsistiruj of Professor 
J. A. Gree\ (Chairman), Mr. H. Bolton and Dr. J, A. 
Clubb (Secretaries), Dr. Bather, Mr. E. Gray, Mr. M. D. 
Hill, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Professors E. J. Garwood and 
P. Newberry, Sir Eichard Temple, Mr. H. H. Thomas, 
Professor F. E. Weiss, and Mrs. J. White, appointed to 
examine the Character, Worh, and Maintenance of Museums. 

The Committee report that a detailed schedule of inquiry upon 
Museums has been drawn up and presented to the House of Lords by 
Lord Sudeley. It is hoped that the schedule will be issued by the 
Board of Education, and that the information obtained will be available 
for the purposes of the Committee. Opinions and reports have been 
obtained upon various sections of museum work and their relation to 
various divisions of Education. Other inquiries of a similar nature 
are also being made. Offers of assistance have been received from the 
American Association of Museums. Two members of the Committee 
will examine overseas museums during their journey tO' and from 
Australia and report. 

A deputation will report upon the educational work of Museums 
in France. 

The following questions are receiving special consideration: — 

The requirements of (1) students; (2) school children; (.3) general 
visitors to museums. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of ,30/., includ- 
ing the balance, 11. 9s. 2(/., of last year"s grant, now in hand. 



250 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 



On Salts Coloured by CaUiode Rays. 
By Professor E. Goldstein. 

[Ordered, on behalf of the General Committee, to be printed in extenso.'] 

Perhaps a part of the phenomena which I am about to discuss is 
already familiar to you all. I shall not bring forward many hypo- 
theses. So you will perhaps ask why I should speak at all. And, 
in fact, apart from reference to certain facts not published hitherto, 
my int-ention is mainly to invite the interest of men younger and abler 
than myself in a class of phenomena which seem to constitute a new 
condition of matter, but on which very few have yet worked. 

If cathode rays fall on certain salts — for example, common salt, or 
chloride of potassium, or potassium bromide — vivid colours are pro- 
duced immediately on these salts. ^ Thus common salt becomes 
yellow-brown (like amber), potassium chloride turns into a beautiful 
violet, potassium bromide becomes a deep blue colour quite like copper 
sulphate. Here you see a specimen of common salt transformed in 
this way on the surface of the single crystals into a yellow-brown 
substance. I show also sodium fluoride, which takes a fine rosy 
colour. 

The colours so acquired in a very small fraction of a second may 
be preserved for a long time, even for many years, if the coloured 
substances are kept in the dark and at low temperatures. But in 
the daylight, and also under heat, the colours will gradually disappear 
till the original white condition is reached again. 

The colours of different salts are sensitive to heating in a very 
different degree. I could show you the yellow sodium chloride, pre- 
pared some months ago in Europe, but I cannot show you here the 
violet KCl and the blue KBr, because these colours, even in the dark, 
do not stand the heat of the Equator. The same salt, if dissolved, 
may kee() very different colours, according to the medium in which 
it has been dissolved, even when the pure medium itself cannot be 
coloured at all by cathode rays. I am speaking of solid solutions, 
produced by fusing a small quantity — for instance, of common salt 
or of certain other alkali salts — together with a great mass of a 
salt which remains itself colourless in the cathode rays, as, for example, 
the pure potassium sulphate. Lithium chloride acquires a bright 
yellow colour in the cathode rays ; but if dissolved in potassium sul- 
phate a lilac hue is produced, as you may see in this specimen. Like- 
wise the pure carbonate of potassium acquires a reddish tint, but 
after dissolving it in the potassium sulphate it becomes a vivid green 
in the cathode rays, as you see here. 

Very small admixtures are sufiicient to produce intense colours. 
So •5-5-0-OT5- of carbonate will produce the green colour in the potassium 

1 E. Goldstein, Wiedem. Ann. 54, 371 ; 60,491 ; Phis. Zeitschr. 3, 149 ; Sitzuntjslf^r. 
Bed. AJcad. d. Wiss. 1901, 222. 



ON SALTS COLOURED BY CATHODE RAYS. 251 

sulpliate; even ^-^^i^^^ gives a marked colour, and an amount of 
certain admixtures, which I estimated as ruoooo only, may produce 
a slight but quite perceptible colouration in some salts. 80 if you 
work with potassium sulphate which you obtain from chemical fac- 
tories guaranteed as chemically pure, you may observe a set of 
different colours in these preparations under the cathode rays, by 
which you will detect the nature of the different small ad- 
mixtures which adhere to the pretended pure preparations of the 
different factories. In this way a new analytical proof, much more 
sensitive than the ordinary chemical methods, is obtained, and im- 
purities may be detected even when a certain specimen of salt contains 
more than a single impurity, because the colours produced by different 
admixtures generally disappear with different speed in the daylight or 
under rise of temperature. Eor instance, the ordinary potassium 
sulphate turns to a dark gray with a slight greenish tint at first. 
After a short while the very sensitive gray will disappear, simply under 
the ordinary temperature of the laboratory room, and a vivid green 
comes out. The gray hue indicates a very small amount of sodium 
chloride, lomroo O"^ so, and the remaining green indicates the admix- 
ture of a carbonate. Here are some preparations of potassium sul- 
phate each containing a single small admixture (KoCOg, Li.GOg, 
LiOl, KOI, KBr). You will notice how different are the colours of 
the originally white substance, varying from green to bluish gray, ash- 
gray, grayish blue, and violet. 

By fractional crystallisation one may finally get a really pure pre- 
paration of potassium sulphate, which is no longer coloured by 
cathode rays (or only in a very slight degree, indicating minimal traces 
of sodium chloride). But there are other preparations which, so far 
as I know, cannot be acquired in pure condition by any means, not 
even by fractional crystallisation. I never came across a pure sodium 
sulphate — the purity exists only on the manufacturers' labels. Even 
the best preparations of this salt contain an amount of sodium car- 
bonate which up to the present cannot be separated from it, not 
even by frequent fractional crystallisation. The colour produced by 
the small admixture, which always remains, is a very marked ash- 
gray. By an intentional further addition of sodium carbonate the 
colour becomes nearly black. 

The question aiises : What may be the cause of these colourations 
in pure salts and also in solid solutions of them? Shortly after the 
colours of the alkali salts had been discovered, an explanation was 
given^, according to which the phenomenon mainly consists in a 
chemical reduction. For instance, in the case of potassium chloride 
the chlorine would be set free, while the remaining potassium is dis- 
solved in the unaltered main quantity of the salt, colouring it at 
the same time. And it seemed a convincing proof for this theory 
when GieseP and also Kreutz, simply by heating rock salt in the 
vapours of sodium or of potassium, produced colours in this rock 
salt quite similar to those produced by cathode rays. It seemed that 

2 E. Wiedemann and G. C. Sshmidt, Wied. Ann. 54, 618. 
8 F. Giesel, Ber. D. Chem. Ges. 30, 156. 



252 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1914. 

the problem was settled finally. However, it was soon discovered 
that the coloured Giesel salts, although they look to the eye quite 
like the cathode-ray salts, in all other respects behave quite differently. 
For instance : — 

(1) The cathode-ray salts, as I mentipned before, are very sensitive 
to daylight : after an exposure to diffuse dayliglit of a few minutes — or 
in some salts even of several seconds only — the colouration diminishes, 
whilst the Giesel salts remain unaltered even when they are kept in full 
sunshine for days or even weeks. 

(2) The cathode-ray salts, if dissolved in distilled water, show 
absolute neutral reaction ; the Giesel salts are strongly alkaline. 

(3) The cathode-ray salts give vei'y marked photoelectric effects (as 
Elster and Geitel * observed) ; the Giesel salts are quite ineffective. 

(4) Under certain cii'cumstances, which will be mentioned further 
on, the cathode-ray salts may emit a phosphorescent light, the Giesel 
salts none at all. Therefore the question arose again, whether there 
is not a marked internal difference between the cathode-ray salts and 
the Giesel salts, and what is the nature of the latter? 

I have succeeded in settling this question, having produced salts 
by cathode rays, the behaviour of which is in every respect absolutely 
identical with the Giesel salts. You may produce such substances if 
you allow the cathode rays to fall on the original salts not for a short 
moment only, but for a somewhat prolonged time, until the salts are 
strongly heated. Produced in this way the salts will keep colours; but 
the substances coloured in this way are not sensitive to light; they 
show no photoelectric effect; they give strong alkaline reaction, and 
they are not suited for phosphorescence — all like the Giesel salts. It 
is quite sui'e, and you may test it also directly by spectroscopic proof, 
that in this case, if for instance you have worked on sodium chloride, 
the cJilorine is set free. Then of course an amount of free sodium is 
left, which dissolves itself in a deeper layer of unaltered sodium 
chloride, to which the cathode rays could not penetrate. I call these 
non-sensitive colours the after-colours of the second class, while the 
ordinary sensitive after-colours, produced in a short time on cool 
salts, are called after-colours of the first class. 

Now, if the after-colours of the second class are identical with 
the Giesel salts, then, of course, the very different substances of the 
first class cannot be also identical with the Giesel salts. Therefore the 
question arises anew what is the nature of the first-class after-colours ? 

One observes with regard to solid solutions that the first-class colours 
depend not only upon the metal contained in the small admixture, but 
they vary greatly, for instance, in the case of the admixture consisting 
of potassium chloride or bromide or iodide. This indicates that the 
metals alone do not cause the after-colours. It becomes much more 
clear when we expose some ammonium salts to the cathode rays. (The 
ammonium salts are cooled by liquid air in the discharge-tube to prevent 
their evaporation.) Then you get strongly marked after-colours hke- 
wise ; for instance, ammonium chloride becomes yellow-greenish, the 
bromide becomes yellow-brown, the iodide becomes brown, and the 

* J. Elster and H. Geitel, Wied. Aun. 59, 487. 



ON SALTS COLOURED BY CATHODE RAYS. 253 

fluoride a deep blue. In the daylight these colours are gradually 
destroyed, quite like other after-colours of the first class. The colours 
themselves — yellow-greenish for the chloride, yellow-brown for the 
bromide, and so on — induce us to presume that the after-colours in this 
case are produced by the haloids, and not by the hypothetical 
ammonium radical. This presumption becomes a strong conviction 
when we observe that also a great number of organic preparations 
which contain no metal at all (and not any metal-like radical) acquire 
marked after-colours of the first class in the cathode rays also. (The 
part of the discharge-tube which contains the organic substances is 
cooled by liquid air.) 

Then you may observe that solid acetic acid (C^H^O,) remains 
quite colourless in the cathode rays ; but if you substitute a hydrogen 
atom by chlorine, the substance thus produced (the monochloro-acetic 
acid) acquires a marked yellow-green after-colour. If you introduce 
an atom of bromine instead of chlorine, you get 02H3Br02 and the 
after-colour is of a marked yellow. Bromoform (CHBr^) turns into 
the colour of loam, and chloral (CoHCljO) becomes a deep yellow. 
In this way we see that not only salts, but likewise substituted acids, 
substituted hydrocarbons, and substituted aldehydes acquire after- 
colours if they contain any haloid. 

Now, it seems highly improbable that in the case of alkali salts the 
electro-positive component is absorbed only (producing the after-colour), 
and that, on the other hand, in the ammonium salts and in the organic 
substances the electro-negative component is efficient only. The most 
probable inference is that in each case both components remain and 
that both are efficient, but that under the same conditions the haloids 
produce a slighter colour than the metals, so that in the case of the 
salts the haloid colour is overwhelmed by the metal colour. 

Therefore we are compelled to suppose that we have not to deal 
with a decomposition in the ordinary form, by which the different com- 
ponents are finally separated from each other and at least one of them 
is set entirely free, but that the components detained by absorption 
remain at a quite short distance from each other, so that they may 
easily meet again. I realise that — for instance, in the case of sodium 
chloride — at every point of the coloured layer there is an atom (or 
perhaps a molecule) of chlorine and an atom (or a molecule) of sodium ; 
but they cannot combine, because they are fixed by absorption and dis- 
tended from each other by the absorptive power, which in this case 
surpasses the chemical affinity. But the absorptive power may be 
weakened by heating and the chemical affinity or the amplitude of the 
molecular vibrations may be strengthened by the energy of daylight. 

If we grant these assumptions, it is immediately evident why the 
reaction of all dissolved colour substances of the first class is a 
neutral one, for the two components may combine again and re- 
establish the original substance. The other special qualities of the 
first-class colours, and especially tlieir differences from the Giesel 
salts, which contain the electropositive component only, may be de- 
duced likewise from this retention of both components and their oppor- 
tunity of meeting each other again when the absorptive power is 



254 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

weakened or the chemical affinity is strengthened. Now, the two 
components in the coloured substances being distended in some degree, 
I propose for this special condition of matter the name of distension. If 
we accept this, have we created a new name only, or does ma^tter in 
this condition really show new qualities? It seems to me that we 
have to deal with a peculiar condition of matter, which deserves a 
more elaborate study than it has met till now. I will not enter again 
into some special qualities, which have already been mentioned — ^the 
photoelectric effect and so on — but I should like to point out that 
matter in the distension state shows a strongly strengthened absorption 
of light. 

We noticed with regard to ammonium chloride the yellow -greenish 
after-colour of the chlorine. Now, cathode rays, as used in these 
experiments, will not penetrate any deeper than one-hundredth of a 
millimetre into the salt. In such a thin layer even pure liquefied 
chlorine would not show any perceptible colour. But besides this it 
must be noticed that we observe this after-colour at the temperature 
of liquid air, and that chlorine at this temperature, as Dewar and 
Moissan observed, is snow-white, even in thick layers. In a similar 
degree the brown colour of bromine is weakened at low temperatures. 
Now, if nevertheless we observe at this very low temperature the marked 
characteristic colours of chlorine and bromine, we must conclude that 
the absorptive power of these substances has become a multiple of 
its ordinary value. One may observe this strengthening of the absorp- 
tive power directly in the pure sulphur. Sulphur likewise turns into 
a snow-white substance if cooled by liquid air. But when the cathode 
rays fall on the white sulphur it takes immediately a yellow -reddish 
colour. It is a real after-colour, because at constant low temperature 
the colour is destroyed by daylight. 

Now, since the strengthening of light-absorption occurs in this 
elementary substance, it becomes evident that the cause cannot be 
any chemical process, but only a physical allotropy. The special 
character of this allotropy (which may be connected with an absorp- 
tion of electrons) will not be entered on in a discussion here. Probably 
we have to deal with a polymerisation, so that, for instance, the 
yellow-reddish sulphur would be analogous to polymerised oxygen — to 
ozone. 

I have mentioned already that the first-class after-colours are 
gradually destroyed by incident daylight. A peculiar phenomenon is 
connected with this destruction of colour. I found that after the day- 
light had fallen on the coloured substances, even for the shortest timei' 
most of them showed a marked phosphorescence of long duration. 
I have observed this phosphorescence even in substances which had 
been coloured twelve years ago and had been kept in the dark since 
that time. The diffused dim light of a gloomy November day, when 
falling through a window on the coloured substance for one or two 
seconds only, is sufficient for the production of this phosphorescence 
in a marked degree. If you allow the daylight to fall several times 
on the same spot, then the colour is weakened at this spot, and we 
come to the presumption that the loss of colouration is generally 



ON SALTS COLOURED BY CATHODE RAYS. 255 

attended by the emission of phosphorescent hght. This is in accord- 
ance- with the experience of Wiedemann and Schmidt that if the 
destruction of the colour is produced by heating, Ukewise a phos- 
phorescent hght is produced, which in this case is strong but of a 
short duration, corresponding to the quick destruction of the after- 
colours by strong heating. 

If the salts, after having been coloured in the condition of a fine 
powder and then having been put between two glass plates (in order 
to obtain a plane surface), are placed in a photographic camera instead 
of the photographic plate, you may get a fine phosphorescent picture 
of a landscape or of architecture after a very short exposure. 

Time does not allow me to mention in detail several other 
peculiarities which are shown by matter in the distension state. In 
one direction only I may be allowed to make some remarks. 

The first-class after-colours may be produced not only by cathode 
rays but also by the /3 rays of radioactive substances, as you probably 
know. But they may also be produced by ultra-violet light, for 
instance, by ultra-violet spark light, even when a quartz plate is inter- 
posed between the spark and the salt. More than thirty years ago I 
brought forward a hypothesis, according to which in every point where 
cathode rays strike a solid body a thin layer of ultra-violet light- 
radiating molecules is produced in the gas, to which ultra-violet light of 
very short wave-lengths, for instance, the phosphorescence of the glass 
walls in the cathode rays, is due. But I came further to the assumption 
that nearly all effects which are commonly ascribed to special qualities 
of the cathode rays, and likewise of /3 rays and x rays, are mere effects 
of the ultra-violet light which is produced by the stopping of these rays. 
I have been guided by this assumption during many years, and have 
very often been aided by it in foreseeing new phenomena. For 
instance, in this way I was induced to expect that the after-colours 
would be produced not only by cathode rays but also by the ordinary 
ultra-violet light ; further I could guess that also the x rays would 
produce after-colours (which in this case have been observed by 
Holzknecht), and in recent times I could foresee that solid aromatic 
substances (the benzene derivatives) in the ultra-violet light must change 
their spectra of ordinary phosphorescence, composed of broad bands, 
and turn to peculiar spectra composed of narrow stripes, the wave- 
lengths of which are characteristic of the single aromatic substances. ° 
So I believe also that the after-colours are produced not directly by the 
cathode rays or by /3 rays, but by the aforesaid ultra-violet light which 
is connected with the stopping of the other rays. 

In this way the after-colours enter at once into a great class of 
phenomena known as reversible effects of light. You know that certain 
effects of the visible spectral rays are destroyed by rays of longer 
wave-lengths, by the infra-red rays. And the analogy to this 
phenomenon is in my opinion the destruction of the after-colours : they 
are produced by the ultra-violet light of the stopped cathode rays and 
are annihilated by the longer visible wave-lengths of daylight. In this 
way you may likewise understand, for instance, that the coloured 

« E. Goldstein, Verhandl, d. D. Physik. Oea. 12. 



256 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ^19 14. 

spots, produced by x rays on the luminescent screens after long 
exposure, may be destroyed again by exposure of the screens to day- 
light. You may also explain the peculiar medical observation that 
therapeutic radium effects in parts of the human body not covered, 
specially in the face, are often not of long duration — for the face is 
exposed to the counteracting visible rays of daylight. 

We notice here a connection of our subject with a department of 
great practical importance. For all therapeutic effects of x rays, 
radium rays, and mesothorium rays would, according to this view, be 
effects only of ultra-violet light produced by the stopping of these rays 
in the human body, and the special character of the radium- and meso- 
thorium- and d:-ray treatment would consist mainly in the carriage into 
the interior of the body, by the rays, of the ultra-violet light, which 
is not confined to the surface of the body, but is produced at every place 
where any of the entering rays are stopped. You may notice further 
that this view of the medical ray-effects presents a heuristic method 
for the treatment itself, which up to the present followed quite fortui- 
tous and merely empirical paths. For it may be hoped that treatment 
by radioactive substances will be useful in eveiy disease in which ultra- 
violet light has been proved to be efficient in some degree ; you will 
avoid such treatment in the well-known cases in which light of short 
wave-lengths is noxious, and you may be justified in substituting an 
ultra-violet light treatment where radium or mesothorium is not obtain- 
able. At the same time it becomes evident why the treatment of certain 
diseases by the j3 rays has effects very similar to those produced by 
fulgiiration — that is, by the light of very strong sparks: the efficient 
agent is in both cases the ultra-violet light. 

But it cannot be a physicist's task to enter too far in medical 
questions : it was only my intention to show how interesting are some 
of the problems which are connected with the salts coloured by cathode 
ravs. 



The Problem of the Visual Requirements of the Sailor and the 
Railway Employee. By James W. Barrett, C.M.G., M.D., 
M.S.,F.R.C.S.Eng. 

[Ordered, on behalf of the General Committee, to be printed in extenso.'] 

The discussions which have taken place on this subject are apparently 
interminable. They have for the most part resolved themselves into 
discussions amongst oculists and communications made by deputation 
or otherwise to the Board of Trade presenting their point of view. 

The Board of Trade, whilst it has collected a certain amount of 
valuable information, has not materially modified its methods, and 
apparently does not propose to do so. As its authority weighs heavily 
in the Dominions, which are as a rule not consulted by it before it takes 
action, various anomalies make their appearance. I venture therefore 
to bring before this meeting of the Physiological Section of the British 
Association a summary of the present position. 



VISUAL REQUIREMENTS OP SAILOR AND RAILWAY EMPLOYEE. 257 

Until recently the standard adopted by the Board of Trade was 
normal colour vision as tested by coloured wools and a form vision 
equal to 6/12 partly with both eyes open. In other words, the theo- 
retical objective was normal colour vision, and form vision of such a 
standard that one eye might be totally blind and the other possess 
somewhat less than half vision. The Board, however, appointed an 
expert committee in 1910, which took evidence and made a number of 
recommendations. This committee sat for two years, and in its report 
recommended that the form vision required should be 6/6 in one eye 
and 6/12 in the other, and that colour vision should be tested by wools 
and by coloured lanterns. It did not, however, definitely recommend 
that the eyes of those who enter dangerous services should be subjected 
to a complete ophthalmological examination when the boy first goes to 
sea. Apparently such changes would have required fresh legislation. 

Since this report, however, the Board of Trade has again altered 
its requirements, and now requires the candidate to read 6/9 partly and 
6/6 partly with both eyes open, which means, simply, that the old 
standard has been I'everted to as regards form vision, except that the 
minimum has been raised from 6/12 partly to 6/9 partly. During the 
course of its long inquiry the expert committee apparently did not 
consult those in the Dominions who were dealing with the matter, witli 
the exception of the examination of two witnesses, nor did they 
apparently seek to make any careful reference to the various accidents 
which have taken place by sea and land and can be attributed to 
defective vision. 

Clause 13 of the Eeport of the Departmental Committee on Sight 
Tests states: — 'Sir Walter Howell informed us that the Board of 
Trade were not awai-e of any casualty which could be traced to defective 
vision. He explained that the Board could raise any question they 
pleased on an official inquiry into a marine casualty ; that the smallest 
question as to the colour vision of any officer concerned would be probed 
to the bottom; that if there were any question of confusion the men 
concerned would be re-tested ; but that such a question had not been 
raised in a single instance. We have examined a large number of the 
Eeports of Board of Trade inquiries, and the result of our examinations 
has confirmed the view that no official evidence exists of casualties due 
to this cause. We have examined eight master mariners of long 
experience, none of whom knew of any case in which a casualty had 
arisen from defective vision.' 

Clause 14. — ' At our request the Liverpool Steamship Owners' 
Association ascertained that, of its members, the owners of 857 steam 
vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 3,776,695 tons, knew of no instances 
in which mistakes due to defective form or colour vision had been made 
in the reading of lights at sea, and of no instance of difficulty of reading 
signals ; while the owners of 59 steam vessels of 192,494 tons knew of 
some few instances in which a man's sight had been or had been 
alleged to have been defective, but of no casualty resulting therefrom.' 

Clause 15. — ' The Secretary of the Joint Arbitration Committee at 
Grimsby, whicli investigates the circumstances of a large number of 
collisions CA-ery year, has never known of a collision caused through 
1914. S 



258 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE. — 1914. 

the mistaking of the colour of a hght. The Manager of the Hull Steam 
Trawlers' Mutual Insurance and Protection Co., Ltd., who in 12 years 
has had to deal with an average of 100 coUisions a year, knows of 
only four cases in which any question of defective vision has arisen. 
Two of these cases were in elderly men, and in the other two the 
witness considered the danger was caused by excessive smoking. ' 

Clause 17. — ' The Board of Trade casualty returns, which include 
collisions to foreign ships on or near the coast of the United Kingdom 
and of British Possessions, show no case in which a sea casualty has 
been atti'ibuted to the defective vision either of an officer or a look-out 
man ; but they show that since the adoption of the 1894 sight tests 
there have been reported on the average each year 100 collisions 
attributed to bad look-out and 429 strandings attributed to causes con- 
nected with navigation and seamanship. The strandings resulting 
from bad look-out are not shown separately. From these returns it is 
not possible to ariive at any reliable estimate of the total number that 
might have been occasioned by the defective vision of the officer in 
charge or of the man on the look-out. Further, the returns, as they 
do not distinguish the vessels commanded by officers who have passed 
tiie 1894 sight test, afford only a general basis of determining how far 
the existing system has been successful in eliminating dangerously 
defective men ; but they do show that amongst the vessels registered in 
the United Kingdom the total number of collisions attributable to bad 
look-out and of strandings attributable to all causes relating to naviga- 
tion and seamanship is less than 500 a year. The Board of Trade has 
no record of the actual number of voyages made by British vessels, but 
on a rough estimate that number cannot be less than 300,000 a year.' 

Clause 18. — ' There appears to be no evidence showing conclusively 
that defective vision has caused any appreciable number of accidents at 
sea, although we do not think that it necessarily follows from this that 
the present method, even where it has been employed, has been success- 
ful in excluding all dangerous persons from the Mercantile Marine, or 
that no accidents have been caused in this way, since it has not been 
the practice, in conducting inquiries into the causes of casualties, to 
test the vision of persons implicated. We think it regrettable that 
effect has not been given to the recommendation as to the testing of 
witnesses contained in the report of the committee of the Eoyal Society 
in 1894, and we desire to repeat that recommendation — that in case 
of judicial inquiries as to collisions or accidents witnesses giving 
evidence as to the nature or position of coloured signals and lights 
should be themselves tested for colour and form vision.' 

Sir Norman Hill, who signed the Minority Eeport, states that ' in 
the absence of all evidence of any single casualty resulting from defec- 
tive form vision I am opposed to the retention of the new standard 
under which 10 per cent, of the candidates who have for many years 
proved their competency would have been excluded from the service.' 
Mr. Nettleship, however, one of the members, since the publication of 
the Eeport, made a collection of the cases in which disaster at sea or 
land seemed to be actually or potentially due to these causes, and was 
in communication with the writer in regard to the details of a number 



VISUAL REQUIREMENTS OF SAILOR AND RAILWAY EMPLOYEE. 250 

of Other cases at the time of his death. In that work Mr. Nettleship 
makes the following pertinent observation (p. 3) :—' For reasons 
such as the above, defects in sight are regarded by those who have to 
inquire into accidents as of such little importance that in the official 
investigations the question of defects of sight in the men who are 
on look-out or corresponding duty is scarcely ever raised. Naturally, 
therefore, no accidents are discovered to have had visual defects for 
their cause. Continuing to reason in a circle, the conclusion is that 
defects of sight do not cause accidents ! It would be ludicrous if the 
matter were not so grave that though precautions of greater or less 
efficacy are taken to exclude men with conspicuous defects of sight from 
entering the sea or railroad services because such defects are admittedly 
dangerous, yet, when the accident happens, no trouble is taken to find 
out whether the man responsible for it has efficient sight or not. Every 
possible cause for the casualty is sought out, but the possibility that his 
vision either was defective when he entered the service or has become 
so since is never even considered.' 

Yet in spite of the foregoing the fact remains that Dr. Orr and I 
reported in the Lancet, October 29, 1904, the account of the wreck of 
the Australia and the previous grounding of the Indraghiri by a pilot 
whose form vision was very defective. In spite of this Eeport, the 
statements of Sir Walter Howell and Sir Norman Hill appear in the 
Expert Committee's Eeport. I propose now to refer to the methods 
adopted in the Victorian Eailways, the Victorian Pilot Service, and the 
Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand. The history of vision-testing in the 
Victorian Eailways is too lengthy for detailed reference. The number 
of candidates who have to be dealt with is very large, and the Depart- 
ment has adopted a rough-and-ready plan with which I ani not in 
complete sympathy, but which undoubtedly eliminates the majority of 
the defective cases. Colour vision is tested by the lantern and form 
vision by Snellin's types. For those entering the service the vision 
required is 6/6 in each eye and 6/6 in both together. The pupil is then 
dilated with homatropine and the vision is again tested. It must now 
not be less than 6/12 in each eye or 6/12 in both together. Once the 
applicants are admitted to the service they are re-tested without the 
use of homatropine, and must possess 6/12 vision in each eye and 6/9 in 
both together. 

I propose now to indicate the steps that have been taken by the 
Marine Board of Victoria to provide for the thorough examination of 
the vision of pilots who enter their service, and for their re-examination 
since the disaster of 1904. I also quote Clauses 100, 102, 104 and 
105 of the regulations which provide for the contingencies to which 
Mr. Nettleship referred. 

Victoriav Pilot Firgulations. 

Pilots must be examined prior to admission io tlie service, and 
I heir vision must be as follows: — 

1 . Vision to be 6/6 in each eye without glasses. 

2. The total error of refraction not to exceed 1 d, and of this 

s 2 



260 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

astigmatism not to exceed '5 d. This estimate to be made by 
retinoscopy with the eye under the influence of a mydriatic. 

3. Tlae pupillary reflex to be normal, the fundus to be free from 
disease, visual fields normal, and balance of colour muscles to be 
normal. Candidate to possess binocular vision. 

4. Colour vision to be normal as tested by coloured wools and 
coloured discs. 

If persons possessing these qualifications are admitted, on re- 
examination the standard required is : — 

1. The same as in the case of an applicant for a licence, except that 
after admission into the service deterioration of vision will be allowed, 
provided that the vision is not less than 6/9 fully and 6/6 partly in 
each eye. 

2. There must be no evidence of any morbid or other condition 
in either eye which would render it probable that the vision would 
deteriorate before the next periodical examination. 

Clause 100 provides that ' every pilot until he arrives at the full 
age of sixty years, whether licensed before or after the coming into 
force of tbese regulations, shall at intervals of not more than twelve 
calendar months, and in the case of a pilot who under the regulations 
does not necessarily retire at the age of sixty years, after he attains that 
age, at intervals of not more than six calendar months, have his 
eyes examined and vision tested, and pass as satisfying the prescribed 
standard by an expert oculist to be approved by the Marine Board.' 

Clause 102 provides: — ' If, on the occasion of any examination or 
testing of a pilot or of his eyesight or vision (whether biennial, sixth 
monthly, or casual) any ijhysical, mental, or visual defect is discovered 
wliich in the opinion of the medical examiner or expert oculist, as the 
case may be, does not immediately, but may within a variable time, 
render the pilot unfit for service, such pilot shall submit himself for 
re-examination within such lesser intea'vals than those hereinbefore pre- 
scribed as the examiner or oculist, as the case may be, may certify 
to be necessary, any longer interval hereinbefore limited to the contrary 
notwithstanding.' 

Clause 104 provides: — ' In the event of any casualty or accident 
occurring to or in connexion with any vessel or incidental to the naviga- 
tion thereof, which in tlie opinion of the Marine Board may be due to or 
of which in its opinion one of the contributing causes may have been 
some defect in health or vision of the pilot in charge, such pilot shall 
if required by the Board forthwith submit himself and be examined 
by a medical practitioner or expert oculist to be nominated by the 
Board, or by both, as the Board may direct, and until such practitioner 
or oculist or both, as the case may be, shall certify that such pilot is fit 
physically and mentally or visually, and such certificate be lodged with 
the Secretary to the Board, such pilot shall not follow his calhng.' 

Clause 105: — 'If any pilot be absent from duty on account of 
illness, and such absence shall extend beyond twenty-eight days, or in 
case of illness of any duration, if the Marine Board think it advisable, 
or when from any other cause any pilot has been absent from duty and 



VISUAL REQUIREMENTS OF SAILOR AND RAILWAY EMPLOYEE. 261 

such absence shall have extended for six calendar months or upwards, 
such pilot shall not return to duty unless and until, as regards his 
condition physical and mental, a medical practitioner and, as regards 
his vision and eyesight, an expert oculist, to be in both cases nominated 
by the Marine Board, have respectively certified to the Board that such 
pilot is in a fit condition physically, mentally, and visually to perlorni 
his duties as a pilot. ' 

The annual examination of the pilots has probably averted disaster, 
as one pilot was retired with high blood-pressure and retinal hemor- 
rhages detected in the course of periodical examination. 

The Union Steamship Company of New Zealand adopts a like 
standard for those who enter its service, and provides for periodical 
testing of form vision. 

what standard of form and colour vision is necessary for safe 
navigation or railway service? 

So far as colour vision is concerned the results of the ordinary tests 
with wools and lanterns seem to coincide with the quantitative measure- 
ments made by Sir William Abney, and I have never seen any prac- 
tical difficulty in detecting a dangerous degree of colour defect by the 
combination of these means. 

With regard to form vision, however, the matter is not nearly so 
simple. Two questions arise : What standard of form vision shall be 
required? and. Are two eyes necessary? Some time ago, in the 
Ophihalmic Review, Mr. Fergus gave an account of his own experi- 
ence in motor navigation with defective vision. Apart from theoretical 
disquisition which I was unable to follow, he stated correctly enough 
that lowered form vision means for the most part a loss of detail. A 
house is still seen as a house at a distance when the form vision 
is lowered, and a ship is still seen as a ship in like circumstances. I, 
however, set to work to make myself artificially myopic with bi-convex 
glasses, and to reduce my form vision to different degrees in order to 
repeat his experience. In passing, however, it should never be for- 
gotten that the standards given by Snellin's types are at best approxi- 
mate. They depend on the illumination of the types, on the contrast 
between the letters and the background, on the illumination of the 
room, a,nd the size of the pupil. They nearly always give better results 
in daylight than by artificial illumination. At best they have approxi- 
mate significance. 

Rendering my eyes artificially myopic in this way, I reduced my 
vision to 6/9 partly and 6/12, and found, as Mr. Fergus said, that 
houses, men, dogs, and objects of various kinds were still recognised 
as such, but certain details could not be detected. For example, a 
man and a dog at five hundred yards' distance were seen as one mass; 
a flag on a flagpole at a distance of a mile was indefinite, so that one 
could not tell which way the wind was blowing. Outside Dunedin 
Harbour I mistook a ship on the rocks for the rocks themselves. By 
bright ordinary daylight I should have experienced little or no difficulty 
in navigating. Furthermore, in a long motor run there was not the 
least difficulty in seeing details on the road, and there would ha^e been 
no difficulty in steering the motor. At evening, however, and at niglit, 



262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

the matter was entirely different, and with this reduced vision motor 
driving would have been full of difficulty and danger by reason of the 
reduction of the range of vision. When, however, I lowered the vision 
to 6/18 partly navigation and motor driving would have been dangerous 
by night or day. 

The experimental evidence obtained by the Expert Committee at 
Shoeburyness was to the effect that vision of less than 6/12 seriously 
affects colour perception, and that consequently 6/12 represents the 
minimum of vision compatible with safety. This accords with my own 
personal experience, with the x'eservation that anyone who possesses 
6/6 vision will be a much safer navigator, other things being equal, 
than anyone who possesses 6/12 vision. 

Mr. Fergus seems to draw a distinction between myopia and hyper- 
opia, but when I have rendered my vision defective by rendering my 
eyes hyperopic — that is, by the wearing of concave spectacles — I have 
been unable to detect any practical difference in the result. In both 
cases one makes many failures when one's colour vision is tested by 
the lantern. When the aperture is small and the light a little dim, 
no colour can be seen at all, probably for the reason that Sir William 
Abney instances. 

In Sir William Abney 's work, dated 1913, ' Researches in Colour 
Vision ' (p. 409), reference to similar experunental work is made. 
The writer, a few years ago, when considering other causes than those 
of deficient colour sensation which might prevent the recognition of 
colour, came to the conclusion that the optical condition of the eye 
might be of such a nature that small discs of coloured light might be 
taken as colourless or not seen at all. To confirm or disprove his 
diagnosis he made his eye myopic and observed a ship 's light from the 
sea-coast and also known stars, and found that with about half normal 
vision the ship's light at two miles was sometimes invisible or colour- 
less, and that only stars above the fourth or fifth magnitude could make 
any impression on the retina. 

Conclusion. 

There is abundant evidence to show that a number of disasters by 
land and sea are attributable to defective vision. There is also good 
reason for thinking that a larger number of accidents have occurred 
which have not been reported, and, as Mr. Nettleship says, they never 
will be reported under existing conditions. It is clear that, so long as 
the present mode of lighting ships and the present method of using 
railway signals are continued, form vision below 6/12 is dangerous 
as regards its effect on colour perception, and is dangerous by reason 
of the limitation of the range of vision in dull light, and I am of 
opinion that for the purposes of safety the minimum visual require- 
ments should be 6/9 in one eye and 6/18 in the other. A hyper- 
metropia of two diopti'es with astigmatism not exceeding '75 D might 
be permitted. The colour vision should be normal and tested both with 
wools and lights, and there should be no ocular disease. To satisfy 
these requirements it is necessary that all those who go to sea or 
enter the raihvay service to earn a livelihood should be examined at 



VISUAL REQUIREMENTS OF SAILOR AND RAILWAY EMPLOYEE. 268 

the outset of their career, since one complete ophthalmological 
examination at that period of life will enable the future vision of the 
examinee to be predicted with tolerable certainty. _ 

It will be seen that the method adopted by the Victorian Eailways 
would eliminate those who have a high degree of hypermetropia ; but 
it may admit those suffering from choroiditis with contracted fields, 
from glaucoma, and, in fact, any eye disease which is not obvious and 
which has no lowered central form vision. 

Stress need hardly be laid on the injustice perpetrated in allowing 
anyone to enter a seafaring life, to spend some years in acquiring pro- 
ficiency, and then subject him to a visual examination when he makes 
his appearance for his first professional examination. The sensible 
course is obviously to insist on a complete examination when the boy 
first goes to sea. 



Drij-Farmiuq Investigations in the United States. By Lyman J. 

Briggs, M.S., Ph.D. 

[Pr,ATE v.] 

(Ordered, on behalf of the General Committee, to be printed in ertmso.) 

The term ' dry-farming ' is now generally applied to agricultural 
practice in recfions where rainfall is the primary limiting factor m 
crop production. The determination of the tillage methods which are 
most efficient in the storage and conservation of moisture, and the 
development of varieties which are especially suited to dry-land con- 
ditions, are economic problems worthy of the best efforts of the 
agi'onomist. The most efficient methods are not always the most 
profitable methods, for the margin of profit in dry-farming is normally 
small, and the cost of tillage must always be compared with the 
return. Efficiency in the use of the limited rainfall is, however, the 
basis upon which dry-farming practice must be built. 

Before taking up the discussion of dry-fanning investigations in 
the United States, a word regarding the organisation of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in this connection may be of interest. Five 
offices in the Bureau of Plant Industry are devoting a large part of 
their energies to dry-farming problems. The Office of Dry-Land 
Agriculture operates over a score of experimental farms in various 
sections of the Great Plains. This office is concerned chiefly with the 
determination of the crop rotations and tillage methods which are best 
adapted to the various dry-farming sections. It was early recognised 
in the development of this work that dry-farming problems are often 
of an extremely local character, and that numerous experimental 
stations are necessary to cover the field. Each experimental farm is 
superintended by a trained agi-iculturist, usually an agricultural college 
graduate. These farms also afford experimental facilities for other 
offices engaged in dry-farming problems. The offices of Cereal Investi- 
gations, Forage Crop Investigations, and AlkaU and Drought-Resistant 
Plant Investigations ai-e engaged in the investigations of crops suited to 



201 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

dry-land conditions ; while the Office of Biophysical Investigations, in co- 
operation with the above-named offices, is concerned with the study 
of the influence of various tillage methods on the absorption and reten- 
tion of rainfall, the water requirement of crops under field conditions, 
and the influence of climatic conditions on the growth of dry-land 
crops. Over oO.OOOZ. is now appropriated annually by Congress lor 
the support of the diy-land work. In addition to this, several of 
the States are also conducting dry-farming investigations on an exten- 
sive scale, either independently or in co-operation with the Govern- 
ment. The field of investigation is so extensive that the present paper 
will be confined largely to the biophysical phases of the work. 

Dnj-Farming Areas iu the United States. 

Two great dry-farming areas occur in the United States. One, 
the Intermountain area, lies between tlie Rocky Mountains on the 
east and the Sierra Nevada Mountains on the west. It is essen- 
tially a region of winter and spring rainfall. The other, the Great 
Plains area, extends from the Canadian boundary along the eastern 
side of the Eocky Mountains nearly to the Mexican boundary, and 
embraces over 200,000 square miles of land whose productivity is 
limited by the rainfall. This area, in contrast to the other, is a 
region of summer rainfall. 

These two great areas differ gi-eatly in their physiographic features 
and in their native plant cover. The Intermountain district is broken 
into numerous valleys, and the vegetation consists mainly of shrubby 
perennial plants, such as the sage-brush {Artemisia tridentata) 
(Plate V.) and a salt-bush (Atriplex confertifoUa). The size and 
character of this vegetation affords a good index of the productivity 
of the land.' The larger the sage-brush the greater the water-supply 
and the better the farm. The soils occupied by salt-bush, on the other 
hand, are apt to be so saline in character as to be unsuited to dry- 
farming. 

In the Great Plains no trees or shrubs are found except along 
the water-courses, while the gently undulating, grass-covered plain 
stretches unbroken to the horizon save for the buildings of the settlers. 
Much of this country is covered with buffalo grass (Bucliloe dacty- 
Inides) and grama grass (Boueteloua oligostachya) (Plate V.), while 
fartlier to the east, where the rainfall is somewhat heavier, the taller 
bunch grass [Andropogon scoparius) and wire grass (Aristida 
long-seta) make their appearance. ^ This striking difference in the 
vegetation, characterised by the shrubby plants in the Intermountain 
districts and by grasses on the plains, reflects the difference in the dis- 
tribution of the annual rainfall, which has had a marked effect upon 
the dry-farming development of the two sections. 

1 ' Indicator Significance of Vegetation in Tooele Valley, Utah,' Kearney, Briggs, 
Shantz, McLane, and Piemeissel, Journal of Agricultural Besearch, United States 
Department of Agriculture, 1, p. 365, 1914. 

■' Shantz, H. L., yatural Vegetation as an Indicator of the Capabilities of Land 
for Crop Production in the Great Plai7is Area,V.fi. Department of Agriculture, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, Bulletin 201, 1911. 



British Association, Sith Beport, Australia, 1914.] 



[Plate V. 





Showing; the native sage-brush vegetation on virgin land in the Intermountain 
district (above), and the short-grass vegetation of the virgin Great Plains 
(below). The Intermountain district has a winter rainfall and the Great 
Plains a summer rainfall. (Photographed by H. L. Shantz.) 

Illustrating the Report on Dry-Farming Investigations in the 

United States. 

[ To face page 264. 



ON DRY-FARMING INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 265 

Rainfall. 

It has become customary to use the average annual rahifall as a 
measure of the relative value of different areas for dry-farming pur- 
poses. Since the water-supply is usually the primary limiting factor, 
the annual rainfall must of course be emphasised. All who are 
engaged in dry-farming investigations recognise, however, the severe 
limitations of this classification. The seasonal distribution and tlie 
character of the rainfall — whether ton-ential or in the form of 
numerous light showers, or occurring as steady, soaking-rains — are often 
more important than the total annual rainfall in determining the pro- 
ductivity of a dry-farming region. The uncertainty of the rainfall 
should also be considered whenever sufficient statistical evidence is 
available. 



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Fro. 1.— Chart sliowing the monthly distribution of the rainfall at representative 
stations in the Great Plains, Intermountain, and Pacific coast regions. The 
length of the black lines in each diagram represents the monthly precipitation 
at that place, beginning with January on the left. The scale in inches given 
on the right of each diagram can be used to find the actual amount of the 
monthly rainfall. For example, the average monthly rainfall at Bismarck, 
N. Dak., for June is seen to be 3-J inches, while for July it is only a little more 
than 2 inches. It will be noted that in the Pacific coast region the rain comes 
principally at the beginning and end of the year, that is, in the winter ; in the 
Intermountain districts during the winter and spring months ; and in the Great 
Plains during the summer months. 

Eainfall is not the only factor of importance, however. We shall 
refer later to the desirabihty of knowing the seasonal evaporation as 
measured from freely exposed tanks, which affords a summation of 
those factors which determine the rate of transpiration. The maximum 
temperatures and the wind velocity are also important factors. For 
an adequate comparison of widely separated dry-farming areas, a know- 
ledge at least of the annual rainfall, its seasonal distribution, the 



266 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 

seasonal evaporation, and the depth and character of the soil appears 
to be indispensable. 

Eeference has already been made to the striking difference in the 
monthly distribution of the rainfall in the Great Plains as compared 
with the Intermountain districts. This difference is illustrated in 
fig. 1, which shows the monthly distribution of rainfall, at repre- 
sentative stations in each area. Three Pacific Slope stations with 
a distinctly winter type of rainfall are also included. In this latter 
region, owing to the mildness of the climate, an annual crop of wheat 
is gi^own during the winter months either for grain or hay. 

Grain-farming under the alternating fallow and cropping system 
has been satisfactorily established in Utah, where the annual rainfall 
is 13 inches or more. In the southern part of the State of Washing- 
ton, where the conditions are unusually favourable, land with an 
annual rainfall as low as 10 inches is used for growing winter wheat 
by the summer-fallow method,^ but the returns are uncertain. When 
the annual rainfall is reduced to 8"5 inches the crop will barely return 
the cost of production. 

The rainfall required when the rain comes chiefly in the summer 
is higher than for winter rainfall. This appears to be due to the 
greater evaporation-loss from the fallow when wet frequently by 
summer rains. In the Great Plains, where a summer rainfall prevails, 
dry-farming is not successfully conducted on an annual rainfall less 
than 14 inches, and this minimum is still higher in the southern part 
of the area, due, as we shall see, to the higher rate of evaporation. 

Evaporation. 

The evaporation-rate may faii'ly be considered as ranking next in 
importance to the annual rainfall in detennining the dry-farming 
possibilities of a region. The evaporation from a free-water surface 
represents a summation of the intensity of solar radiation, temperature, 
saturation-deficit, and wind velocity, all of which enter also into the 
determination of the transpiration-rate of the growing crop, though 
not necessarily in the same proportion as in free evaporation. Evapora- 
tion has been measured daily during the summer months at each of 
the experimental farms located in the dry-farming sections. Tanks 
6 or 8 feet in diameter and 2 feet deep are used, the tanks being 
sunk in the ground to within four inches at the top. The free-water 
surface is maintained at ground-level, i.e., about 4 inches from 
the top of the tank. Observations are now available for seven years 
at the stations first established. The observations are limited to 
the six months from April to September inclusive, since freezing 
weather is encountered at the stations during most of the remaining 
months. The average seasonal (April to September inclusive) evapora- 
tion in inches for each station, together with its location, is shown 
on the accompanying map (fig. 2). The evaporation increases rapidly 
as one proceeds southward in the Great Plains ; the evaporation in 
Northern Texas, for example, is 54 inches, compared with 31 inches 

^ Briggs, L. J., and Belz, J. 0., Dry Farming in relation to Rainfall and Evaporn- 
i»o», U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 1S8, p. 25. 



ON DRY-FARMING INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 267 




268 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1914. 



in the central part of North Dakota. Such differences have a profound 
influence upon the water-requirement of plants. 

Shantz * has shown that under practically uniform soil conditions 
a pure short-grass formation is found in Northern Texas with an 
annual rainfall of about 21 inches; in Eastern Colorado with an 
annual rainfall of about 17 inches; and in Montana with an annual 
rainfall of approximately 14 inches. The region throughout has a 
summer rainfall. The same plant formation then requires 50 per 
cent, more rainfall in Northern Texas than in Montana. The explana- 
tion of this is to be found in the difference in the evaporation-rate 
in the two sections. Eeference to fig. 2 will show that the evapora- 
tion in Northern Texas is approximately 60 per cent, higher than in 
Central Montana. A similar comparison between Northern Texas and 
North-E astern Colorado shows that short-grass requires about approx- 
imately 27 per cent, more rainfall in Northern Texas, where the 
evaporation is 23 per cent, higher than in North-Eastern Colorado. 
The effectiveness of rainfall depends of course upon its penetration 
into the soil, so that any relationship which may be developed 
between evaporation and precipitation will necessarily be an approxi- 
mate one. The above figures indicate, however, a rather close 
parallelism between the evaporation and the rainfall reqmired to 
maintain a given plant formation, and emphasise the necessity of 
knowing the evaporation as well as the rainfall in judging the dry- 
farming possibilities of a region.^ 

A direct relationship between evaporation and water-requirement — 
i.e., the pounds of water required by a plant in the production of a 
pound of dry matter — is shown in the following measurements by 
Briggs and Shantz of the water-requirement of the same strain of 
alfalfa when grown in different parts of the Great Plains (Table I.). 

Table l.— Water-reguirement of Grimm alfalfa (second cntttng) at different 
Stations in the Great Plains, 1912. 



Loeatiou 



Growth period Days 



Water-re- 
quirement 
(to produce 
1 lb. dry 
matter) 



WiUistou, N.D. 
Newell, S.D. 
Akron, Col. 
Dalhart, Tex. 



July 29-Sept. 16 

Aug. 9-Sept. 24 

July 2C-Sept. 6 

July 26-Aug. 31 



Evap. 

in 
inches 



Daily 

Evap. in 

inches 



47 
46 
42 
36 



lb. 
518 
630 
853 
1005 



oz. 




12 


7-5 


8 


8-6 


13 


9-5 


8 


110 



0159 
0187 
0-226 
0-306 



Ratio of 

W.-R. to 

Daily 

Evap. 



33 
34 
38 
34 



It will be seen that the water-requirement increases steadily as 
one proceeds southward through the Great Plains, being twice as 
great in Northern Texas as in North Dakota. The daily evaporation 

^ Shantz, H. L., Natural Vegetation as an Indicator of the Capabilities of Land 
for Crop Production in the Great Plains Area, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, Bulletin 201, 1911, p. 12. 

« Briggs, L. J., and Belz, J. 0., Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 188, 1911, 
p. 20. 



ON DRY-PARMING INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 269 



also increases in a corresponding manner, so that the ratio of the 
water-requirement to the daily evaporation is approximately constant. 
Montgomery and Kiesselbach ° have shown that maize grown in a 
dry house and in a humid house varied in its water-requirement 
exactly in proportion to the relative evaporation-rates in the two 
houses. 

The water-requirement is not, however, always proportional to the 
evaporation. Other factors such as temperature may have a profound 
influence in determining the development of the plant. This may be 
illustrated by comparing the water-requirement of wheat and sorghum 
in Colorado and in Northern Texas (Table 11.).^ When the difference 
in evaporation is considered, sorghum is seen to have made a more 
efficient use of its water-supply in Texas than in Colorado, while the 
reverse is true in the case of wheat. 

Table II.— Comparison of the Relative Evaporation and of the Relative 
Water-requirement in the Great Plains in 1910 and 1911. 



1 








Evaporation 


Water-re- 
quirement 


station 


Year 


Crop 


Growing period 


Actual 


Rela- 
tive 


Actual 


Rela- 
tive 


Akron, Colo. . 
Amarillo, Tex. 


1910 


wheat 


April 18- Aug. 2 
April 5- July 19 


27-7 
340 


100 
122 


664 
853 


100 
128 


Akron, Colo. . 
Amarillo, Tex. 


1910 


sorghum 


May 25-Sept. 28 
May 10-Aug. 28 


330 
37-7 


100 
114 


356 
359 


100 
101 J 


Akron, Colo. . 
Dalhart, Tex. . 


1911 


wheat 


May 13-Aug. 2 
April 25-July 18 


24-8 
28-5 


100 
115 


468 
673 


100 
143 


Akron, Colo. . 
Dalhart, Tex. . 


1911 


sorghum 


May 12-Sept. 4 
May 14-Sept. 12 


350 
41-9 


100 
120 


298 
313 


100 
105 



Influence of the Distribution of Rainfall on Farm Practice. 

The different distribution of the rainfall in the Intermountain district 
and the Great Plains has led to interesting differences in the farm 
practice of these regions. 

Spring wheat is not a successful crop in the Intermountain district 
for two reasons : (1) The land cannot be fitted for sowing until late in 
the season, owing to the spring rains ; and (2) the driest part of the 
season occurs when the spring wheat crop is maturing. A large acreage 
of winter wheat is, however, grown. In fact, the dry-farming activities 
of this section are devoted almost wholly to the growing of winter wheat. 
The stubble is. not usually ploughed until spring, the land being very 
dry and hard in the fall. The stubble also keeps the winter snows from 
drifting and thus holds the precipitation on the land. As soon as the 

^ Studies in the Water-requirement of Corn, Nebraska Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Bulletin 128, 1912. 

' Briggs, L. J., and Shantz, H. L., Water -requirement of Plants, I., U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 284. p. 45 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

spring rains have ceased, the stubble and the early growth of weeds 
are turned under, and the land is kept fallow until the following 
autumn. The low rainfall during the summer makes it possible to 
destroy the weed-growth and maintain an efficient surface-mulch at 
a comparatively low cost. In the autumn, wheat is again sown. The 
crop makes a good part of its gi'owth while the temperature is cool 
and the evaporation low, and in addition to the stored moisture has the 
advantage of the seasonal precipitation during its growth period. 

One serious difficulty in dry-farming operations in regions of winter 
rainfall occurs in connection with the seeding of winter wheat on fallow 
land. The surface-mulch of the fallow is often dust-dry in the fall to 
a depth of 4 inches or more. If the farmer drills his grain in the 
dust, the seed remains inert until a rain occurs. If the first rain is 
insufficient in amount to soak through the dry mulch to the damp soil 
below, the seeds germinate, but the rootlets of the seedling plants do 
not reach the stored moisture below the intervening dry layer, and the 
plants soon die. On this account, farmers usually wait for fall rains 
before sowing wheat. If the seeding is thereby delayed until late in 
the fall, and freezing weather follows, the young plants are injured and 
weakened. And if this is followed by an ' open winter, ' so that the 
wheat plants are not protected by a covering of snow, ' winter killing ' 
is often very severe, and the crop is practically a failure. 

Drilling the wheat to a depth sufficient to place the seed in moist 
soil would appear to be a possible solution of this problem, but this is 
often found impracticable, and the seedling plants have gi'eat difficulty 
in forcing their leaves to the surface. It is possible that a solution of 
the difficulty may be found in a seed-drill which has recently been 
developed, which throws the dry surface-soil in ridges, and plants the 
grain in moist soil at moderate depths in the intervening furrows. This 
plan is not practicable in windy regions, for tHe furrows would soon 
fill with dry soil. 

In striking contrast with Intermountain practice, spring wheat is 
grown extensively in the Great Plains, especially in the central and 
northern part. The spring-sown crop escapes the dry fall and all 
danger from winter-killing, while the land, having been recently 
worked, is in better condition to absorb the summer rainfall. Inter- 
tilled crops are also grown to a much greater extent than in the 
Intermountain district, maize being especially popular in the noi'thern 
part of the Great Plains, and the non-saccharine sorghums (milo, kafir, 
sorgo) in the southern part. The intertilled crop has in many sections 
largely taken the place of fallow, spring wheat now being extensively 
grown on disked corn-land. 

Fallow, is used extensively in the Great Plains, but the experiments 
by the Office of Dry-Land Agriculture, under the direction of E. G. 
Chilcott,* have shown that alternate cropping and summer tillage in 
many sections is less profitable than simple three-year rotations, 
especially those in which spring wheat is grown on disked corn-land, and 
even less profitable than continuous cropping. Summer tillage is not 

* A Study of Crop Rotations and Cultivation Methods for the Cheat Plains Area, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 187, p. 8, 1910. 



ON DRY-FARMING INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 271 

SO well adapted to a suinnier rainfall as to a winter precipitation, for the 
summer rains I'epeatedly pack the mulch, which necessitates frequent 
cultivation to keep the land in a receptive condition and to destroy 
the weeds v/hich spring up after each rain. Summer tillage, however, 
affords some insurance against total loss of a crop during a diy season, 
which means disaster to the farmer with work-animals and cows to feed, 
and this element of insurance will doubtless always be a factor with 
the small farmer, even if summer tillage does not give the greatest 
returns. 

Owing to the frequent high winds in the Plains, the blowing of the 
mulch on summer-tilled land sometimes becomes a serious problem. 
It is highly important in fallowing the Plains to keep the surface of 
the soil in a rough condition ; in other words, to maintain a clod-mulch 
on the fallow rather than a dust-mulch, a practice which is also 
advantageous in the absorption of rainfall. On lands subject to 
blowdng, the practice of cultivating in strips is sometimes followed. 
The strips are laid out at right angles to the prevailing winds, and 
alternating strips are planted to grain or an intertilled crop. Jardine ^ 
has i-ecently emphasised the value of the lister in checking blowing in 
extreme cases. This implement opens a broad shallow furrow, 
throwing the dirt on both sides. Groups of two or three furrows each 
are .listed at distances of from five to twenty rods across the field at 
right angles to the wind. The lister tends to form clods, while the 
disk harrow, except in moist ground, tends to pulverise the soil, and 
this must always be avoided in soils subject to blowing. 

Depth of Root Systevi in relation to Storage of Soil Moisture. 

The great depth to which the roots of many of our cultivated 
plants extend has a very important bearing on the practicability of 
storing moisture in the soil. Burr " has found that oats, spring 
wheat, barley, and corn growing on the loess soils of Eastern Nebraska 
use the water to a depth of 4 feet or more, while winter wheat 
feeds to a depth of 6 or 7 feet. Excavations made in winter- 
wheat plats in Utah showed the root system to extend to a depth of 
7 feet." 

In a soil which can store 6 per cent, of 'growth water,' there 
would be available in a section 6 feet in depth 600 tons of w-ater 
per acre, or enough for the production of thirteen bushels of wheat 
in the central Great Plains. i- For a root penetration of 4 feet, this 
amount would be reduced approximately one-third. 

When the system of alternate cropping and fallowing is employed, 
water seldom moves below the zone occupied by the roots of the 
wheat plant. This has taken place, however, at the Dickinson experi- 
mental farm in western North Dakota. The water which moves below 
the feeding zone is practically lost to the plant, and remains undisturbed 

» Jour. Am. Soc. Agron. 5, 213, 1913. 

10 Research Bulletin No. 5, Nebraska Experiment Station, 1914. 

11 Merrill, Bulletin 112, Utah Experiment Station, 1910. 

12 Briggs and Shantz, 'Relative Water-i-equii-ement of Plants,' Jour. Agri- 
cultural Besearch, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3, 1, 191-1. 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

from year to year. An argument often advanced in favour of deep- 
ploughing is that the depth of root penetration is thereby increased. 
Tire futihty of this argument so far as dry-farm soils are concerned 
becomes evident when it is realised that the normal penetration of roots 
in the Intermountain and Great Plains soils is far below any depth 
that could possibly be reached with the plough. Deep ploughing may 
possibly increase the absorption-rate of rainfall when the precipitation- 
rate is so high as to saturate the surface soil temporarily, but this effect 
can also be secured by leaving the surface rough and corrugated when 
cultivating. Many of the field tests of the Office of Dry-Land Agricul- 
ture have failed to show any increase in yield from deep ploughing, 
an operation which means an added expense to an industry in which 
economy in labour must be rigidly exercised to show a reasonable 
profit. 

Loss of Water from Weeds. 

A relatively small propoi'tion of the total annual rainfall is con- 
served in the fallow. The maximum quantity of stored moisture 
available for the crop seldom exceeds 4 inches of rainfall in section^ 
where the annual rainfall ranges from ]3 to 18 inches. 
This low efficiency is due in part to loss from run-off, but mainly to 
surface evaporation and to loss through the transpiration of weeds. 
Numerous measurements have shown that a rainfall of less than one- 
half-inch does not contribute to the permanent store of moisture in 
the soil unless the surface soil is already wet from previous rains. 
If the rainfall penetrates the soil below a depth of 6 inches, its rate 
of loss due to evaporation is low. But if the fallow is weedy, the 
stored water is lost through the transpiration of the plants almost as 
rapidly as if the moist subsoil were freely exposed to the air. Tha 
water-requirement of weeds is fully as high as some of our most 
valuable crop plants. For example, pigweed (Amarannius retroflexus), 
tumble-weed {Amarantlixis gracizans), and Eussian thistle {Salsola 
jiestifer) have a water requirement as high as the millets and sorghums, 
while sunflower {Helianlhiis peliolarus) and lamb's quarters (Cheue- 
podmm album) rank higher than many of the legumes." The dry- 
farmer can, therefore, produce a valuable forage or grain crop with 
no greater expenditure of water per pound of dry matter than is lost 
through the weeds on his fallow. 

Determinations by W. W. Burr^' in Nebraska, E. W. Edwards '^ 
and J. G. Lill ^^ in Kansas, and C. B. Burmeister " in Texas, all 
unite in showing that the evaporation loss from land from which the 
weeds are sliced off with a hoe is but little greater than from culti- 
vated plants. In other words, cultivation is effective in conserving 
water mainly through the destruction of weeds rather than in the re- 
duction of surface evaporation. This is well illustrated by Dili's 
measurements at Gai'den City, Kansas, as shown in fig 3. The 

" Briggs and Shaiitz, Jour. Agricultural Research, U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture, 3, 60, 1914. 

" Research Bulletin No. 5, Nebraska Experiment Station, p. 61, 1914. In co- 
operation with the Office of Dry-Land Agriculture and Biophysical Investigations. 

'■5 Office of Dry-Land Agriculture in co operation with the Office of Biophysical 
Investigations. 



ON DRY-FARMiNG INVESTIGATIOKS IN THE UNITED STATES. 273 



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Fig. 3. — Loss of moisture from a mulched plat in compaiisoiiwithaplat the surface 
of which has been scraped with a hoe to cut the weeds, and with a plat on 
which the weeds were allowed to grow. It will be seen that the mulched plat 
and the scraped plat differ little in effectiveness in conserving water, while the 
weeds reduce the moisture content to a depth of 3 feet. 

19U. T 



274 REl'ORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

moislure content of the mulched plat did not differ markedly from tlie 
plat on. which the weeds were kept sliced off with a sharp hoe; while 
the plat on which the weeds were allowed to grow was dried out to 
a depth of 3 feet. 

A striking example of the loss of moisture from ^^■eeds is also 
shown in experiments by P. V. Cardon, conducted at Nephi, Utah.^"^ 
Winter wheat was grown on four plats by the summer fallow system., 
one-half the plats being in wheat each year. Two plats were fall- 
ploughed each j'ear, and during the following summer, one plat was 
cultivated to destroy the weeds, while the other was left untouched 
except to clip the weeds in time to prevent the seeds maturing. In 
the autumn both plats were sown to winter wheat. The experiment 
was conducted for four years, and during this time the yield from the 
cultivated plat averaged four bushels more per acre than from the 
weedy plat. 

The loss of moisture in these plats as the season advanced, due to 
the demand made by the weeds, is illustrated in the accompanying 
graphs, fig. 4. That this loss is primarily due to the weed cover and 
not to direct evaporation is supported by the fact that in other experi- 
ments at this station spring-ploughed uncultivated fallow on which the 
weed-growth was slight was practically as effective as cultivated fallow 
in conserving moistm-e. The average moisture content (6 feet in 
depth) of the weedy Nephi plat was at the time of the spring sampling 
0'8 per cent, below the cultivated plat, and at the time of the Fall 
sampling 4^5 per cent, below the cultivated plat. This loss in moisture 
during the simimer is equivalent to 3'5 inches of rainfall stored in the 
soil. This amount of water is sufficient, according to the water- 
requirement measurements of Briggs and Shantz," to produce ten 
bushels of wheat per acre at Akron, Colorado, where the evaporation is 
the same as at Nephi. In 1911 the actual increase in yield of the 
cultivated plat over the weedy plat was eleven bushels per acre. 
During the other years the yield was reduced by winter killing, so that 
the water-supply was not the primary factor in determining production. 
Surely no more convincing proof is needed of the necessity of keeping 
fallow land free from weeds in regions where the moisture supply is 
of primary importance. 

Growth-water. 

It has long been known that a part of the soil-moisture is held so 
tenaciously that it is not available for the growth, of plants. Sachs 
in 1859 appears to have been the first to relcognise that the percentage 
of non-available moisture varies greatly with the type of soil. This is 
a matter of fundamental importance in the interpretation of soil- 
moistm-e observations, for the water unavailable for growth ranges 
from 1 per cent, or less in sand to 30 per cent, or more in the heaviest 

16 Office of Cereal Investigations in Co-operation with the Office of Biophysical 
Investigations. See Tillage and Rotation Experiments at the Nephi mih-station, 'Utah, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 157, 1914. 

" Briggs, L. J., and Shantz, H. L., ' Eelative Water-requirement of Plants,' Journal 
of Aijricultwral Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3, 1, 1914. 



ON DRY-FARMING INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 275 





















X 


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JO II le IS ^/4 15 16 17 /a 19 xo 
PER C£NT OF M(y<SrU/?E IN JO/L . 

J"io. 4. — Loss oi wafer from cultivated ar.d -weedy plats at Nephi, Utah, as the 

season advances. 



T 2 



276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

types of clay.'* Obviously, then, the percentage of water in the soil 
that is available for the growth of plants, or the ' growth-water ' as 
Fuller^' has termed it, cannot be determined until this unavailable 
residue is known. 

Alway -° has used the hygroscopic coefficient, i.e., the percentage 
amount of water that a dry soil absorbs on exposure to a saturated 
atmosphere, to represent the unavailable portion. Briggs and Shantz -^ 
have measured the moisture-content at which plants undergo permanent 
wilting when gi'owing in a limited soil mass, protected from surface 
evaporation. By permanent wilting is meant a condition from which 
the plants cannot recover when exposed to a saturated atmosphere. ^^ 
The percentage of moisture remaining in the soil under such conditions 
has been termed the ' wilting coefficient ' of that particular soil, and 
has been found to vary slightly with the kind of plant used as an indi- 
cator. The ' wilting coefficient ' in connection with a total moisture 
determination provides a means for calculating the ' growth-water,' 
the latter being the surplus above the wilting coefficient. By the aid 
of such determinations it is possible to calculate the amount of stored 
growth-water — the bank-balance, so to speak, in the water account, 
against which the crop may draw. 

It is not necessary always to measure the wilting coefficient directly, 
since it can be calculated from other physical properties of soils that 
can be more readily measured. Thus the moisture equivalent, hygro- 
scopic coefficient, and mechanical composition have all been shown 
to bear a linear relationship to the wilting coefficient.-^ Of these 
indirect methods, that based on the moisture equivalent ^* is the most 
rapid and satisfactoiw. The latter represents the percentage of moisture 
remaining in the soil when brought into equilibrium with a centrifugal 
force 1,000 times that of gi'avity. The wilting coefficient is approxi- 
mately one-half the moisture equivalent. 

Where a small grain-crop has extended its root-system to a depth 
of 4 feet or more, the moisture-content of the second and third feet 
is sometimes reduced below the wilting coefficient. This is practically 
sure to occur if the crop is suffering for water, for plants are able to 
reduce the moisture-content far below the wilting coefficient while in a 
wilted condition, or during the ripening process. But it appears also 
to take place while the crop is still growing, provided the root-system 
is in contact with growth-water in some other part of the soil mass.-^ 

'* Briggs, L. J., and Shantz, H. L., The Wilting Coefficient jor Different Plants and 
?Y.s Indirect Determination, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 
Bulletin 230, 1912, pp. 56-59. 

19 Botanical Gazette, 53, p. 513, 1912. 

20 Journal of Agricvltural Science, 2. 1908, p. 334. '' Op. cit. 

2- As the plant approaches a wilted condition its transpiration is reduced. Further- 
more, as soon as wilting occurs it is necessary to transfer the plant to a saturated 
atmosphere, in order to determine whether the observed wilting is temporary or per- 
manent. Consequently during the final stages of a wilting coefficient determination 
the transpiration rate is greatly reduced. 

^^ Briggs and Shantz, op. cit. 

-* Briggs and McLane, Jour. Am. Soc. Agron. 2, 1910, p. 138. 

2'' Briggs, L. J., and Shantz, H. L., 'Application of Wilting Coefficient Determi- 
nations to Agronomic Investigations,' Jour. Am. Soc. Agron. 3, 1911, p. 250. 



ON DRY-FARMING INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 277 



Spring Wueat. Akkon, Colorado, 1911. 



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Fjg. 5. — Moisture conditions in spring wheat and fallow plats at Akron, Colorado, 
to a depth oi 6 feet. The dotted lines represent the wilting cccfficient for 
each foot-section. 



In other words, where the root-system is ah-eady estabhshed the 
crop is able to reduce tlie moisture-content below the wilting coefficient, 
and can use this to supplement the growth-water that it is drawing 
from lower levels. {Sec fig. 5, 1911.) On the other hand, crop-plants 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

show no tendency to send new roots into soil in which tlie moisture- 
content is reduced to the wilting coefficient. {See fig. 6, 1911.) 

An example of the application of the wilting coefficient to the inter- 
pretation of moisture determinations is shown in the accompanying 
measurements by W. M. Osborne -" at Akron, Colorado (fig. 5). The 
change in moisture during the season in each foot-section to a depth of 
6 feet is shown graphically by the solid lines. The dotted lines 
represent the wilting coefficient for each foot-section. The first chart 
(1911) represents the inoistm-e conditions under a crop of spring wheat 
during a dry season, the crop being practically a failure. It will be 
seen that in the spring there was available moisture in small amounts 
to a depth of 6 feet, the greater part being in the upper 3 feet. 
The crop had removed the growth-water from the first foot by June 1 ; 
from the second and third feet by June 15; from the fourth foot by 
July 15 ; while the fifth and sixth feet still contained a limited amount 
of growth-wat-er at harvest time, although the moisture had been 
reduced in each case. 

The second chart (1912) shows the moisture conditions in the 
same plat during the next summer while the land was in fallow. At 
the time the spring samples w^ere taken the moisture-content of the 
sui'face foot of soil was practically up to the field-carrying capacity of 
this soil. With the advent of the seasonal rains the surface foot began 
to deliver to the section below. It will be noted that the change in 
moisture-content does not take place simultaneously through the soil- 
mass, but is progressive from foot to foot, each section delivering water 
to the section below as it rises to its field-caiTying capacity. When 
the moisture supply is below a certain percentage, dependent upon 
the soil in question, capillary adjustment in that soil is very slow. 
_ Plants in order to avail themselves of all the growth-water must 
consequently develop a root-system which permeates the soil-mass 
from which water is being drawn. In other words, when the moisture 
supply is limited the capillary distribution becomes so slow as to be 
effective only through very small distances. Plants having a coarse 
root-system, such as maize, when used as indicator-plants, might be 
expected to give a somewhat higher wilting coefficient than plants 
with fine root-systems like the small gi'ains, and this has been observed 
to be the case.*' 

The first chart in fig. 6 represents the moisture conditions as 
measured by J. 0. Thysell -* in a barley plat at Dickinson, North 
Dakota, during the dry season of 1911. This plat is normally seeded 
to barley each year. Inspection of the chart will show that at the 
beginning of the season the moisture-content of the second and third 
feet was at the wilting coefficient, to which it had been reduced by 
the preceding crop. A good supply of growtk-water was present in 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth feet of the soil, but the roots were unable 

^^ Office of Dry-Land Agriculture in Co-oijeration with the Office of Biophysical 
liiAebtigatious. 

^' Briggs and Shautz, op. cit. 

"^ Office of Dry-Laud Agriculture in Co-operation Avith the Office of Bioj)hysical 
Investigations. 



ON 



DRY-PARMTNG INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 270 



Barley. Dkkinson, N.D., 1911. 



Barlev. Dickinson, N.D., 1913. 



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Y\Q. 6. — Moisture conditions in a barley plat at Dickinson, North Dakota, 
dotted lines represent the wilting coefficient for each foot-section. 



The 



to penetrate the intervening dry layer, and the crop was a faikire. 
In 1912 the crop was destroyed by hail, so that the plat was virtually 
in fallow during this season. The rainfall in 1912 was ample and the 
soil was well supplied with water in the spring of 1913, as shown 
in the second part of the chart. During this year a heavy crop of 
barley was grown, which was produced in part with water present in 



280 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1914. 

llie soil in 1911, but unavnilable to tlie 1911 crop because the inter 
vening soil was reduced to the wilting coefficient before the root 
systein was established. It would be difficult to interpret thess 
moisture conditions without the aid of the wilting coefficient determina- 
tions, especially where the moisture-retentivity of the soil and sub- 
soil is not the same, as in the case of the Dickinson soils. 

The growth-water content at seedtime and harvest in two plats -at 
Akron, Colorado, is .shown graphically in fig. 7 for six years. These 
plats form part of the cultural experiments of the Office of Dry-Land 
Agriculture, and are continuously cropped to spring wheat, A being 
spring-ploughed and B fall-ploughed. The width of the shaded 
portion in each foot-section shows the amount of growth-water. It 
will be noted that the growth-water was in every instance practically 
exhausted at harvest-time, with the exception of the surface-foot, which 
in some instances had been moistened by rains near the harvest 
period. It also appears that at this station the time of ploughing has 
htlle influence on the soil moisture-content. 

Maintenance of the Fertilihj of Ihe Dry-Farm. 

The maintenance of fertility under a system of continuous grain- 
farming, such as is practised in many dry-farming sections, bids fan- 
to become a more and more serious problem as the years advance. 
The period of cultivation of much of the dry-farm land has been so 
short as to afford no information on this point. In any event, it is 
hardly a problem that can be taken up with the man who breaks the 
virgin land. His first concern is for bread, and his chief desire is to 
draw upon the resources of his land to its fullest cajiacity. It is only 
after a marked decrease in production has occurred that he will listen 
to measures designed to maintain the fertility of the soil. Happily, 
gi'ain-farming as practised on some of the oldest dry-farms in Utali 
does not yet appear to have diminished the productiveness of the soil. 
This is doulitless clue in part at least to the fact that the wheat has 
been cut with a header (or more recently with a combined harvester), 
which leaves most of the straw on the land. Stewart and Hirst"' 
have found that the humus and nitrogen content of the surface soil of 
the wheat lands farmed for ten years or more has not fallen below 
that of adjacent virgin soils. In an earlier investigation, Stewart '"' 
found that the oldest wheat lands in Utah, under cultivation for fourteen 
to forty-one years, either continuously or by summer-fallowing methods, 
had showed no loss in humus or nitrogen in the surface-foot. The second 
foot of the cultivated soils showed, however, a slightly lower nitrogen- 
content than the virgin land. The yield also appears to have been 
maintained. 

A wanton waste of organic matter occurs in many dry-farming 
sections in the northarn Great Plains and in California. The stubble 
is burned to make the ploughing easier and to destroy weed-seeds, and 
the straw-stacks are burned in the field because they are in the path 
of the ploughs. As the ploughing-season approaches, the horizon is 

^ Jour. Am. Soc. Agron. 6, 49, 1914. 

™ Utah Experiment Station, Bulletin 109, 1910. 



ON DKY-FARMING INVESTIGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 2?Sl 

ofleu ligliled at niftlit in every direction by the flames of the burning 
stacks. Even whei'e the sti'aw alone has been removed, grain-farming 
in the Great Plains has resulted in a marked decrease in the nitrogen 
and humus of the soil. Alway '■" has shown that the cultivation of 
the loess soils of Nebraska lias been accompanied by a marked re- 
duction in nitrates, total organic matter, and humus. He attributes 



Available Spring and Harvest Moisture content. Akron, Colorado. 
aohftf (908 1909 1909 1910 1910 1911 1911 |9II 19)2 I9l2 1912 1913 [9l3 



S«ffl| 



ipling 



8-27 4-7 «'2S >n 7-10 4-8 8-IS 10-30 4-9 



I- 




0-30 4-9 8-7 10-29 4-S 7-24 

llllll 



CO 





nil 



Fig. 7. — Growth -water at seed-t.me and harvest in sprhig-ploughed (A) and fall- 
ploughed (B) plats conthiuously cropped to grain. 

the greatest loss of these components to the washing or blowing away 
of the surface soil. 

Snyder 32 found that tlie loss of nitrogen from four Minnesota 
grain-farms in ten years was from four to six times that removed 
by the crops. This loss he attributes to the rapid bi-eaking-up of the 

"' Bulletin 111, Nebraska Experiment Station, 1900. 
■'^ Bulletin 94, Minnesota Experiment Station, 1900. 



282 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1014. 



humus under cultivation. Where legumes were grown, croi> rotations 
practised, live-stock kept, and the farm-manure used, the nitrogen 
content of tlae soil was maintained. This practice the dry-farmer of the 
Great Plains must eventually adopt as far as his conditions will permit, 
if a permanent agriculture is to he assured in these sec-tions. The 
American dry-farmer has much to learn from Australian practice in 
the use of stock, especially sheep, on the dry-farm. 

The Water-requirement of Different Dry-Farm Crops. 

A word must be said in regard to the importance of considering 
the water-requirement of crops grown on the dry-farm. Other things 
being equal, those crops which are most efficient in the use of water 
are obviously best adapted to dry-land conditions. The great success 
of millet, sorghum, and maize in American dry-farming is due in part 
at least to their remarkable efficiency in the use of water. The amount 
of water required for the production of a pound of dry matter of some 
strains of alfalfa is four times that required by millet, where the two 
crops are growing side by side. Different varieties of the same crop 
often exhibit wide differences in water-requirement. The following 
figui-es represent the range in water-requii'ement due to varietal differ 
ences as measured by Briggs and Shantz '^ in the Great Plains. 

Table III. — Varietal Range in the Water-requirement of different Crops. 



Crop 



Pounds water reqviired to produce one pound of dry 
matter of the 



Most efficient variety 



Lea.st efficient variety 



Millet 

Proso 

Sorghum 

Maize 

Wheat 

Barley 

Oats . 

Clover 

Alfalfa 



lb. 


07. 


261 


15 


268 


1 


285 


3 


315 


3 


473 


S 


502 


4 


559 


8 


789 


9 


651 


12 



lb. 


07 


444 


9 


341 


10 


467 


9 


413 


5 


559 


4 


578 


13 


622 


9 


805 


8 


963 


9 



These wide crop and varietal differences in water-requirement 
suggest great possibilities in the development of strains for dry-land 
conditions. In fact, the measurement of the water-requirement affords 
a novel and promising method of attack in the breeding and selection 
of dry -land crops. 



'•' Jovr. Agricultural Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3, 58, 1914. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section- A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

PliKSIDENT 'OF THE SECTION : 

rrofessor F. T. Trouton, M.A., Sc.D., F.E.S. 



Melbouene. 

Fin DAY, AUGUST 14. 

In the absence of the President, his Address was read by Professor 
A. W. Porter, F.R.S. :— 

We have lost sinee the last meeting of the Section several distinguished members 
who have in the past added so much to the usefulness of our discussions. These 
include Sir Robert Ball, who was one of our oldest attendants, and was President 
of the Section at the Manchester Meeting in 1887 : Professor Poynting, who was 
President of the Section at Dover in 1899 ; and Sir David Gill, who was 
President of the Association at Leicester in 1907. 

It seems appropriate at this meeting in the City of Melbourne to mention one 
who passed away from his scientific labours somewhat previous to the last meet- 
ing. I allude to W. Sutherland of 'this city, whose writings have thrown .so 
much light on Molecular Physics and whose scientific perspicacity was only 
equalled by his modesty. 

This meeting of the Briti.sh Association will be a memorable one as being 
indicative, as it were, of the scientific coming of age of Australia. Not that the 
maturity of Australian science was unknown to those best able to judge ; indeed 
the fact could not but be known abroad, for in England alone there are many 
workers in science hailing from Australia and New Zealand, who have enhanced 
science with their investigations and who hold many important scientific posts 
in that country. In short, one finds it best nowadays to ask of any young 
investigator if he comes from the Antipodes. 

This speaks well for the Universities and their staffs, who have so successfully 
set the example of scientific investigation to their pupils. 

Radio-activity and kindred phenomena seem to have attracted them most of 
late years, and it would perhaps have been appropriate to have shortly revieAved 
in this address our knowledge in these subjects, to which the sons of Australasia 
have so largely contributed. 

Twenty-five years ago FitzGerald and others were speculating on the possi- 
bility of unlocking and utilising the internal energy of the atom. Then came the 
epoch-making discovery of Becquerel, to be followed by the brilliant work of 
Rutherford and others showing us tliat no key was required to unlock this 
energy — the door lay open. 

We liave still facing us the analogous case of a hitherto untapped source of 
energy arising from our motion through the ether. All attempts, it is true, to 
realise this have failed, but nevertheless he would be a brave prophet who would 



286 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

deny the possibility of tapping this energy despite the ingenious theories of 
relativity which have been put forward to explain matters away. There is no 
doubt but that up to the present nothing hopeful has been accomplished towards 
reaching this energy and there are grave difficulties in the way ; but ' Relativity ' 
is, as it were, merely trying to remove the lion in the path by laying down the 
general proposition that the existence of lions is an impossibility. The readiness 
with which the fundamental hypotheses of ' Relativity ' were accepted by many 
is characteristic of present-day Physics, or perhaps, more correctly speaking, 
is an exaggerated example of it. 

Such an acceptance as this could hardly be thought of as taking place half-a- 
century ago, when a purely dynamical basis was expected for the full explanation 
of all phenomena, and when facts were only iheld to be completely understood if 
amenable to such treatment; while, if not so, they were put temporarily into 
a kind of suspense account, waiting the time when the phenomenon would 
succumb to treatment based on dynamics. 

Many things, perhaps not the least among them radio-activity, have conspired 
to change all this and to produce an attitude of mind prepared to be content with 
a much less rigid basis than would have been required by the Natural Philo- 
sophers of a past generation. These were the sturdy Protestants of Science, to 
use an analogy, while we of the present day are much more catholic in our 
scientific beliefs, and in fact it would seem that nowadays to be used to anything 
is synonymous with understanding it. 

Leaving, however, these interesting questions, I will confine my remarks to a 
rather neglected corner of physics, namely, to the phenomena of Absorption and 
Adsorption of solutions. The term Adsorption was introduced to distinguish 
between Absorption which takes place throughout the mass of the absorbing 
material and those cases in which it takes place only over its surface. If, for 
instance, glass, powdered so as to provide a large surface, is introduced into a 
solution of a salt in water, we have in general some of the salt leaving the body 
of the solution and adhering in one form or other to the surface of the glass. It 
is to this the term Adsorption has been applied. Physicists have now begun to 
take up the question seriously, but it was to Biologists, and especially Physio- 
logical Chemists, that most of our knowledge of the subject in the past was due, 
the phenomenon being particularly attractive to them, seeing that so many of the 
processes they are interested in take place across surfaces. 

As far as investigations already made go the laws of Adsorption appear to be 
very complicated, and no doubt many of the conflicting experimental results 
which have been obtained are in part due to this, workers under somewhat 
different conditions obtaining apparently contradictory effects. 

On the whole, however, it may be said that the amount adsorbed increases 
with the strength of solution according to a simple power law, and diminishes 
with rise of temperature ; but there are many exceptions to these simple rules. 
For instance, in the case of certain sulphates and nitrates the amount adsorbed 
by the surface of, say, precipitated silica only increases up to a certain critical 
point as the strength of the solution is increased. Then further increase in the 
strength of the solution causes the surface to give up some of the salt it has 
already adsorbed, or the amount adsorbed is actually less now than that adsorbed 
from weaker solutions. Beyond this stage for still greater concentrations of the 
solutions the amount adsorbed goes on increasing as before the critical point was 
reached. 

There is some reason for thinking that there are two modes in which the salt 
is taken up or adsorbed by the solid surface. The first of them results from a 
simple strengthening of the solution in the surface layers; the second, which 
takes place with rather stronger concentrations, is a deposition in what is 
apparently analogous to the solid form. It would seem that the first reaches out 
from the solid surface to about lO-^ cm. — which is the order of the range of 
attraction of the particles of the solid substance. 

The cause of the diminution in the adsorption layer at a certain critical value 
of the concentration is difficult to understand. Something analogous has been 
observed by Lord Rayleigh in the thickness of layers of oil floating on the surface 
of water. As oil is supplied the thickness goes on increasing up to a certain 
point ; bevond this, on further addition of oil, the layer thins itself at some 



PKESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 287 

[jlaces and bccumes much thicker at others, intermediate tliicknesses to these 
being apparently unstable and unable to exist. As helping towards an explana- 
tion of the diminution in the adsorption layer, we may suppose that as the 
strength of the solution is increased from zero, the adsorption is at first merely 
an increased density of the solution in the surface layer. For some reason, 
after this has reached a certain limit, further addition of salt to the solution 
renders this mode of composition of the surface layers unstable, and there is a 
breaking up of the arrangement of the layer with a diminution in its amount. 
We may now suppose the second mode of deposition to begin to show its effect 
with a recovery in the amount of the surface layers and a further building up of 
the adsorption deposits. 

On account of passing through this point of instability the process is 
irreversible, so that the application of thermo-dynamics to the phenomenon of 
adsorption is necessarily greatly restricted in its usefulness. 

A possible cause of the instability in the adsorption layer wliich occurs at 
the critical point may be looked for in the alternations in the sign of the mutual 
forces between attracting particles of the kind suggested by Lord Kelvin and 
others. Within a certain distance apart — the molecular range — the particles of 
matter mutually attract one another, while at very close distances they obviously 
must repel, for two i^articles refuse to occupy the same space. At some inter- 
mediate distances the force must pass through zero value. It has for various 
reasons been thought that, in addition, the force has zero value at a second dis- 
tance lying between the first zero and the molecular range, with accompanying 
alternations in the sign of the force. Thus, starting from zero distance apart 
of the particles, the sign of the force is negative or repulsive ; then, as the dis- 
tance apart is supposed to increase, the force of repulsion diminishes, and after 
passing through zero value becomes positive or attractive ; next, as the distance 
is increased the force diminishes again, and after passing through a second zero 
becomes negative for a second time ; finally, the force on passing through a third 
zero becomes positive, and is then in the stage dealt with in capillary and other 
questions. 

As an instance of where these alternations of sign seem to be manifest, may 
be mentioned the case of certain crystals when split along cleavage planes. The 
split often runs along further than the position of the splitting instrument or 
inserted wedge seems to warrant. This would occur if the particles on either 
side of the cleavage plane were situated at the distance apart where the force 
between them was in the first attractive condition, for then, on increasing the 
distance between the particle.-* by means of the wedge, the force changes sign and 
becomes repulsive, thus helping the splitting to be propagated further out. 

Assuming that a repulsive force can supervene between the particles in the 
adsorption layer, through the particles becoming so crowded in places as to 
reduce their mutual distances to the stage when repulsion sets in, we might 
expect that an instability would be set up. 

As already stated, a rise in temperature reduces in general the amount 
adsorbed, but below the critical point the nitrates and sulphates are exceptional, 
for ri.se in temperature here increases the amount adsorbed from a given solution. 
This obviously necessitates that the isothermals cross one another at the critical 
point in an Adsorption-Concentration diagram. This may perhaps account for 
some observers finding that adsorption did not change with temperature. We 
have another exception to the simple laws of adsorption in the case of the alkali 
chlorides ; this exception occurs under certain conditions of temperature and 
strength of solution. The normal condensation into the surface layer is reversed 
and the salt is repelled into the general solution instead of being attracted by 
the surface. In other words, it is the turn of the other constituent of the 
solution, namely, the water, to be adsorbed. 

It is a very well known experiment in adsorption to run a solution such as 
that of permanganate of potash through a filter of sand, or, better, one of 
precipitated silica, so as to provide a very large surface. The first of the solution 
to come through the filter has practically lost all its salt owing to having been 
adsorbed by the surface of the sand. 

I was interested in finding a few months ago that Defoe, the author of 
' Robinson Crusoe,' in one of his other books, depicts a party of African travellers 



288 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

lis being saved from thirst in a place where the water was charged with alkali 
by filtering the water through bags of sand. Whether this is a practical thing 
or not is doubtful, or even if it has ever been tried ; for it is only the first part of 
the liquid to come through the filter which is purified, and very soon the surface 
has taken up all the salt it can adsorb, and after that, of course, the solution 
comes through intact. It is interesting, however, to know that so long ago as 
Defoe's time the phenomenon of adsorption from salt solutions had been 
observed. It is not so well known that in the case of some salts under the cir- 
cumstances mentioned above, the first of the solution to come through the sand 
filter is stronger instead of weaker. This, as already mentioned, is because 
water, or at least a weaker solution, forms the adsorption layer. 

Most of the alkali chlorides as the temperature is raised show this anomalous 
adsorption, provided the strength of the solution is below a certain critical value 
differing for each temperature. For strengths of solution above these values 
the normal phenomenon takes place. 

No investigations seem to have been made on the effect of pressure on adsorp- 
tion. These data are much to be desired. 

The investigation of adsorption and absorption should throw light on Osmosis, 
as in the first place the phenomenon occurs across a surface necessarily covered 
with an adsorption layer, and in the second place, as we shall see, the final con- 
dition is an equilibrium between the absorption of water by the solution and that 
by the membrane. 

The study of the conditions of absorption of water throughout the mass of the 
colloidal substance of which osmotic membranes are made is of much interest. 
Little work has been done on the subject as yet, but what little has been done is 
very promising 

It is convenient to call the material of which a semi-permeable membrane is 
made the semi-permeable medium. The ideal semi-permeable medium will not 
absorb any salt from the solution, but only water, but such perfection is probably 
seldom to be met with. If a semi-permeable medium such as parchment paper 
be immersed in a solution, say, of sugar, less water is taken up or absorbed than 
is the case when the immersion is in pure water. The diminution in the amount 
absorbed is found to increase with the strength of the solution. It is at the 
same time found that the absorption or release of water by the semi-permeable 
medium according as the solution is made weaker or stronger is accompanied by 
a swelling or shrinkage greater than can be accounted for by the water taken up 
or rejected. 

The amount of water absorbed by a semi-permeable medium from a solution 
is found by experiment to depend upon the hydrostatic pressure. If the pressure 
be increased the amount of water absorbed by the semi-permeable medium is 
increased. It is always thus possible by the application of pressure to force the 
semi-permeable medium to take up from a given solution as much water as it 
takes up from pure water at atmospheric pressure. 

It is not possible for a mass of such a medium to be simultaneously in con- 
tact and in equilibrium with both pure water and with a solution all at one and 
the same pressure, seeing that the part of the medium in contact with the pure 
water would hold more water than that part in contact with the solution, and 
consequently diffusion would take place through the mass of the medium. 

If, however, the medium be arranged so as to separate the solution 
and the water, and provided the medium is capable of standing the necessary 
strain, it is possible to increase the pressure of the solution without increasing 
the pressure of the water on the other side. Thus the part of the medium which 
is in contact witli the solution is at a higher pressure than that part in contact 
with the pure solvent ; consequently the medium can be in equilibrium with both 
the solution and the solvent, for if the pressures are rightly adjusted the moisture 
throughout the medium is everywhere the same. 

The ordinary arrangement for showing osmotic pressure is a case such as we 
are considering, and equilibrium throughout the membrane is only obtained when 
the necessary difference in pressure exists between the two sides of the 
membrane. 

This condition would eventually be reached no matter Jiow thick the mem- 
brane was. It is sometimes helpful to think of the membrane as being very 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 289 

thick. It precludes any temptation to view molecules as shooting across from one 
liquid to the other thi-ough some kind of peepholes in the membrane. 

The advantage of a thin membrane in practice is simply that the necessary 
moisture is rapidly applied to the active surface, thus enabling the pressure on 
the side of the solution to rise quickly, but it has no effect on the ultimate 
equilibrium. 

As far as that goes, the semi-permeable membrane or saturated medium 
might be infinitely thick, or, in other words, there need be no receptacle or plate 
for holding the pure solvent outside the membrane at all. In fact, the function 
of the receptacle containing the pure solvent is only to keep the medium moist, 
and is no more or no less important than the vessel of water supplied to the 
gauze of the wet-bulb thermometer. It is merely to keep up the supply of water 
to the medium. 

The real field where the phenomenon of osmosis takes place is the surface of 
separation between the saturated semi-permeable medium and the solution. 
Imagine a large mass of colloidal substance saturated with water and having a 
cavity containing a solution. The pressure will now tend to rise in the cavity 
until it reaches the osmotic pressure — that is, until there is established an equi- 
librium of surface transfer of molecules from the solution into the medium and 
back from the medium into the solution. 

No doubt, the phenomenon as thus described occurs often in Nature. It is 
just possible that the high-pressure liquid cavities which mineralogists find in 
certain rock crystals have been formed in some such manner in the midst of a 
mass of semi-permeable medium; the pure solvent in this case being carbon 
dioxide and the medium colloidal silica, which has since changed into quartz 
crystal. 

In considering equilibrium between a saturated semi-permeable medium 
and a solution there seems to me to be a point whioh should be carefully con- 
sidered before being neglected in any complete theory. That is, the adsorption 
layer over the surface of the semi-permeable medium. We have seen that solu- 
tions are profoundly modified in the surface layers adjoining certain solids, 
through concentration or otherwise of the salts in the surface layer, so that the 
actual equilibrium of surface transfer of water molecules is not between the 
unmodified solution and the semi-permeable medium, but between the altered 
solution in the absorption layer and the saturated medium. Actual determina- 
tions of the adsorption by colloids are much wanted, so as to be able to be quite 
sure of what this correction amounts to or even if it exists. It may turn out to 
be zero. If there is adsorption, however, it may possibly help to account for part 
of the unexpectedly high values of the osmotic pressure observed at high con- 
centrations of the solution, the equilibrium being, as we have seen, between the 
^turated medium and a solution of greater concentration than the bulk of the 
liquid, namely, that of the adsorption layer. In addition, when above the 
critical adsorption point, there may be a deposit in the solid state. This may 
produce a kind of polarised equilibrium of surface transfer in which the molecules 
which discharge from the saturated medium remain unaltered in amount, but 
those which move back from the adsorption layer are reduced owing to this 
deposit, thus necessitating an increase in pressure for equilibrium. If either 
or both of these effects really exist, it would seem to require that the pressure 
should be higher for equilibrium of the molecular surface transfer than if there 
were no adsorption layer and the unaltered solution were to touch the medium, 
but at the same time it should be remembered that there is a second surface 
where equilibrium must also exist— that is, the surface of separation of the 
adsorption layer and the solution itself. It is just possible that the two together 
cancel each other's action. 

Quantitative determinations of absorption by solid media from solution are 
hard to carry out, but with a liquid medium are not so difficult. Ether con- 
stitutes an excellent semi-permeable medium for use with sugar solution, because 
it takes up or dissolves only a small quantity of water and no sugar. A series 
of experiments using these for medium and solution has shown (1) that the absorp- 
tion of water from a solution diminishes with the strength of the solution ; and 
(2) that the absorption of water for any given strength of solution increases with 
the pressure. This increase with pressure is somewhat more rapid than if it 

19M. u 



290 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

were in proportion to the pressure. On the other hand, from pure water ether 
absorbs in excess of normal almost in proportion to the pressure. Certainly this 
is so up to 100 atmospheres. This would go to confirm the suggestion already 
made that the departure from proportionality in the osmotic pressure is attri- 
butable to absorption. 

By applying pressure ether can be thus made to take up the same quantity of 
water from any given solution as it takes up from pure water at atmospheric 
pressure. It is found by experiment that this pressure is the osmotic pressure 
proper to the solution in question. 

Decidedly the most interestmg fact connected with the whole question of 
osmotic pressure, the behaviour of vapour pressures from solution, and the 
equilibrium of molecular transfer of solutions with colloids, is that discovered 
by van 't Hoff, that the hydrostatic pressure in question is equal to what would 
be produced by a gas ihaving the same number of particles as those of the 
introduced salt. Take the case of a mass of colloid or semi-permeable medium 
placed in a vessel of water; the colloid when in equilibrium at atmospheric 
pressure holds what we will call the normal moisture. By increasing the pressure 
this moisture can be increased to any desired amount. Now, on introducing 
salt the moisture in the colloid can be reduced at will. The question is. What 
quantity of salt must be introduced just to bring back the amount of the 
moisture in the colloid to normal ? Here we get a gi'eat insight into the internal 
mechanism of the liquid state. The quantity of salt required turns out to be, 
approximately at least, that amount which if in the gaseous state would produce 
the pressure. So that normality can be either directly restored by removing the 
pressure or indirectly by introducuig salt in quantity which just takes up the 
applied pressure. That this is so naturally suggested that the salt, although 
compelled to remain within the confines of the liquid, nevertheless produces the 
same molecular bombardment as it would were it in the gaseous state, though of 
course the free path must be viewed as enormously restricted compared with that 
in the gaseous state. 

Many have felt a difficulty in accepting this view of a molecular bombard- 
ment occurring in the liquid state, but of recent years much light has been 
thrown on the subject of molecular movements in liquids, especially by Perrin's 
work, so that much of the basis of this difficulty may be fairly considered as now 
removed. 

Quite analogous to the reduction from the normal of the moisture held by a 
semi-permeable medium brought about by the addition of salt to the water, is 
the reduction in the vapour pressure arising from the presence of a salt in the 
water. The vapour pressure is likewise increased by the application of hydro- 
static pressure, which may be effected by means of an inert gas. In both cases 
the hydrostatic pressure which must be applied to bring back to normality is 
equal to that which the added salt would exert if it were in the state of vapour, 
or, in other words, the osmotic pressure. 

The two cases are really very similar. In both there is equal molecular transfer 
backwards and forwards across the bounding surface. In the one a transfer 
from that solution to the semi-permeable medium and back from it into the 
solution. In the other a transfer from the solution into the superambient vapour 
and back from it into the solution. 

The processes are very similar, namely, equal molecular transfer to and fro 
across the respective surfaces of separation. 

Thus we may in the case of osmotic equilibrium attribute the phenomenon 
with Callender to evaporation, but not evaporation in its restricted sense, from 
a free surface of liquid, but as we have seen from a saturated collodial surface 
into the solution. This process might perhaps be better referred to as molecular 
emigration, the term migration being already a familiar one in connection with 
liquid phenomena. 

The following Report and Papers were then read :— 

1. Report of the Committee to Aid in Establishing a Solar Physics 
Observatory in Australia,. — See Eeports, p. 74. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 291 

2. Mount StromJo Observatorij. By P. Baracchi. 

The Government of the Commonwealth, wishing to define a spot within the 
Federal Territory the meridian of which should be adopted as the Prime Meri- 
dian of Australia, to serve as the common longitude datum for all State surveys, 
decided to mark the spot by erecting upon it a small astronomical observatory 
which, if the selected site proved to be sufficiently good for the most delicate and 
important class of astronomical observation and research, was to be expanded 
and equipped as a modern observatory of the first order, including a department 
for the study of the sun. 

The site was selected in the year 1910 ; a concrete structure with an eighteen- 
foot dome was subsequently erected, and a nine-inch refractor by Grubb, equa- 
torially mounted, was installed in September 1911. 

With this instrument astronomical observations, visual, photographic and 
spectroscopic, were carried out during one week of each month in the year 1912 
and till April 1913, after which sufficient evidence was collected to show that the 
site was suitable for a first-class observatory. 

Since then this observatory has remained inoperative pending the decision of 
the Government as to its future. 

In this paper the site of the observatory, the instruments, and the work done 
were briefly described, with the object of placing sufficient information about this 
matter before the British Association to enable it to recommend to the Common- 
wealth Government the general lines on which this observatory should be 
enlarged and equipped, and what should be the programme of its future work. 



3. Proofs of {he Sun's Variahiltty. By C. G. Abbot. 

It has been shown by experiments of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory conducted simultaneously at Mount Wilson in California and Bassour in 
Algeria, in the years 1911 and 1912, that the values of the intensity of the solar 
radiation outside the atmosphere estimated by spectrobolometric observations at 
the two stations on the same days are, within the limits of error, identical. The 
measurements at the two stations agreed within an average deviation of about 
1 per cent. It appeared, however, that the values of the solar constant of 
radiation obtained deviated over a range of nearly 10 per cent, during the con- 
tinuance of the expeditions. This deviation was observed at both stations, 
so that if high values were obtained in California high values were obtained 
simultaneously in Algeria, and vice versa. Professor Turner has computed, from 
the observations, the coefficient of correlation between the results at the two 
stations. He finds this coefficient to be 52 per cent, plus or minus 7 per 
cent, if all the observations are used. Rejecting three observations of extreme 
doubtfulness, the correlation coefficient rises to 60 per cent. This furnishes very 
strong evidence of the variability of the sun, which appears to be irregular in 
period and irregular in amplitude, but may range over a course of 5 per cent, 
or even more within the lapse of a week. 

Measurements of the solar constant of radiation have been conducted on 
Mount Wilson in California by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for 
about eight years, though unfortunately the observations have been confined to 
the months of summer and autumn, when the sky is favourable there for them. 
It is highly important that such work should be taken up at another station, or 
preferably at several other stations, where favourable conditions of the sky 
would be found in the other months of the year. 

When the monthly mean values of the solar constant as obtained on Mount 
Wilson are compared with the sun-spot numbers of Wolfer, it is found that 
increased sun-spot numbers correspond with increased values of the solar radia- 
tion and vice versa. Professor Turner has computed the correlation coefficient 
for these two variables as depending upon fifty months of observations, and 
finds this coefficient to be 5.3 per cent, plus or minus 7 per cent. Here also it i.^ 
seen that a strong proof of the variability of the sun's radiation exists. It 
appears therefore that the sun, besides varying from day to day in the manner 
shown by the combined Algerian and Mount Wilson observations, also varies 
from year to year in connection with the march of the sun-spot cycle. 

u 2 



292 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

In September 1913 a tower telescope, forming the image of the sun by the use 
of mirrors without lenses, and yielding an image of about 9 inches in 
diameter, was made ready in connection with the station of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory on Mount Wilson. The image of the sun is caused 
to fall upon the slit of a spectrobolometer, which slit for this purpose is only 
about three-eighths of an inch in height. By stopping the clock of the telescope 
the solar image drifts centrally across the slit of the spectrobolometer, owing 
to the diurnal rotation of the earth. There is thus produced, by automatic 
registering of the indications of the bolometer, a curve of distribution of in- 
tensity along the diameter of the sun's disk. This curve takes the form of a 
letter U . The length of the straight sides of the \J may be taken as represent- 
ing the intensity of the solar radiation at the edge of the sun's disk, and the 
height of the U to the centre of the curve may be taken as representing the 
intensity of the radiation at the centre of the disk. Thus a contrast of the 
intensity of radiation along the diameter of the sun is made manifest. Obser- 
vations were made on nearly fifty days of the year 191-3 with this apparatus, and 
on each day the distribution of intensity at seven different wave-lengths of the 
spectrum between 3,700 Sngstroms and 10,000 Sngstroms was determined by 
making two curves at each wave-length. On the same days the solar constant 
of radiation was determined at Mount Wilson. 

Work with a similar object, but done in different ways, has been carried 
on by Vogel, Pickering, Langley, Very, Schwarzschild and Villager, and Abbot 
and Fowle. It is found by comparison of the distribution curves obtained at 
Mount Wilson in 1913 with others obtained by Abbot and Fowle in 1907, that a 
change of form of the distribution curve has occurred between these epochs. 
The contrast of brightness between the centre and edge of the sun in the year 
1907 was greater than the contrast found in the year 1913. This is verified at 
all wave-lengths, but the change of contrast is greater for short wave-lengths 
than for longer ones. 

It further appears, by comparison of results of one day with another in the 
year 1913, that a change of contrast of brightness is going on all the time, 
similar in irregularity of period and amplitude with the variation of the sun's 
total radiation which was foamd by comparison of IMonnt W^ilson and Bassour 
observations. When the daily values of the solar constant of radiation obtained 
in 1913 are compared with the distribution of brightness along the sun's 
diameter, it is seen that a close correspondence of variation occurs between the 
two. This daily variation is of such a nature that when the solar constant values 
increase the constant of brightness between the centre and edge of the sun 
diminishes. The result is contrary to that which was indicated by a few 
observations of Abbot and Fowle in the year 1908. It is believed on further 
examination that the results of Abbot and Fowle in 1908 were made erroneous 
by certain defects in the measurements of the solar constant of radiation on two 
or three days. The new results come from nearly fifty days of observation, and 
are quite definite in showing the connection between the variation of the radia- 
tion of the sun and the variation of brightness along the sun's diameter. 

It appears, however, that the correlation between solar constant values and 
contrast values between the years 1907 and 1913 is contrary in its sign to the 
correlation between these variables exhibited by the daily march of values for 
the year 1913. This may point to a greater complexity of the solar problem 
than was at first indicated by the results of Abbot and Fowle. It may be that 
the march of the sun-spot period attends an influence in one direction, while the 
march of short-period fluctuations of the solar radiation from day to day attends 
a change of contrast in the other direction. 



4. Discussion on the Present State of the Problem of Australian 
Longitudes. Opened by P. Baracchi. 

In Mr. Baracchi's paper were discussed the longitude values assigned to the 
two Australian meridians of Port Darwin and Southport (Queensland) ; these 
being, respectively, the terminals of the two chains of telegraphically deter- 
mined longitudes carried eastward from Greenwich via India, Singapore, and 



TKANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 293 

Port Daiwiu, in one case, and westward through Canada and the Pacifiu Ucean 
to Southport (Queensland) in the other case. 

It was also shown that the connection between these two meridians obtained 
by means of the measured longitudinal arcs Port Darwin-Melbourne, Melbourne- 
Sydney, and Sydney-Southport (Queensland) completes a whole longitude circuit 
round the Earth, with a closing error of less than a hundred feet. 

The reality of such a small error was questioned, chiefly on the ground that 
larger discrepancies were found in the independent results of certain links which 
have been measured more than once. 

It was pointed out that in order to render the whole of this important longi- 
tude circuit homogeneous and reliable a re-measurement .should be made of the 
arcs Madras-Singapore, Singapore-Port Darwin, and Port Darwin-Southport 
(Queensland), adopting the highest refinements of modern practice and present 
instrumental means. 

The object of the paper was to enlist the sympathy of the British Association 
in this matter, and to obtain its advice as to the most practical and efficient plan 
of carrying out the work. 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 18. 

Joint Meeting with Section B (Chemistry). 

Discussion on the Structure of Atoms and Molecules. 

Sir Ernest Rutherford (abstract of remarks) : In recent times there ha.s 
been an accumulation of convincing evidence of the independent existence of 
the chemical atom. The atomic theory is no longer merely an hypothesis intro- 
duced to explain the laws of chemical combination ; we are able to detect and 
count the individual atoms. We can determine the actual mass of an atom in 
various ways, and know its value with considerable accuracy. The idea that the 
atom is an electrical structure received a great impetus by the detection of the 
electron by J. J. Thomson; and, moreover, the Zeeman effect showed that all 
atoms must contain electrons. The atomic character of negative electricity is 
well established; we always find the negative electron, however produced, 
carrying a definite charge. We have, unfortunately, not the same certainty 
with regard to the behaviour of positive electricity, for it cannot be obtained 
except associated with a mass comparable with that of a hydrogen atom. In 
J. J. Thomson's model of the atom the positive electricity was supposed 
(for mathematical reasons) to be distributed throughout a large sphere with the 
negative corpuscles moving inside it. This hypothesis has played a useful part 
in indicating possible lines of advance ; but it does not fit in with more recent 
discoveries, which point to a concentrated positive nucleus. 

We have now two powerful methods that aid us in determining the inner 
structure of the atom — the scattering of high-speed particles in transit through 
matter, and the vibrations of the interior parts of the atom. In C. T. R. 
Wilson's photographs of the tracks of the a particles through a gas we notice 
many sudden bends in the paths. In order to account for these deflections I 
have found it necessary to believe that there is a concentrated nucleus in the 
atom (having a certain number of units of charge), in which the main part of 
the mass resides; outside this there are a corresponding number of electrons. 
The whole dimensions of the nucleus are very small indeed compared with the 
distance of the outer electrons. From the scattering experiments it appears 
that the law of force right up to the nucleus is the inverse square law ; no 
other formula would give accordance with the observations. The radius of the 
nucleus is of the order 10-'" cm. in the case of gold, and for a lighter element 
it is smaller still. The approach of the a particle to the nucleus of the hydrogen 
atom when the latter is set into very swift motion is exceedingly close — a 
distance even less than the diameter of an electron. From this it is 
probable that the hydrogen nucleus is simply the positive electron with a large 
electrical mass due to the great concentration of the positive charge. Another 



294 TRA]!JSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

fact that appears from the scattering experiments is that the number of elec- 
trons (outside the nucleus) is about half the atomic weight. There is now 
fairly good evidence that, if the elements are numbered in order of atomic 
weight, the numbers will actually express the charge on the nucleus. The rate 
of vibration of the inner parts of the nucleus can now be measured by means 
of the characteristic X-rays emitted. Each substance has several strong lines 
in its X-ray spectrum, and as we pass from element to element in order of 
atomic weight the frequencies of these change by regular jumps. H. G. J. 
Moseley has investigated all the known elements in this way, and he is even 
able to show at what points elements are missing, because at such points the 
X-ray frequencies make a double jump. In this way he has found that between 
aluminium and gold only three elements are now missing. It is deduced from 
these considerations that there is something more fundamental in the atom than 
its atomic weight, viz., the charge on the nucleus, and that this is the main 
factor which controls the frequency of the interior vibrations, the mass having 
only a slight influence. 

There are certain elements with identical chemical properties, but different 
atomic weights. Thus Eadium-B (atomic weight 214) and lead (207) are 
chemically inseparable and have the same y-ray spectrum. It is quite clear 
that some new conception is required to explain how the atoms, having the 
structure we have supposed, can hold together. N. Bohr has faced the diffi- 
culty by bringing in the idea of the quantum in a novel way. At all events, 
there is something going on in the atom which is inexplicable by the older 
mechanics. 

Professor Abmstrong : Although chemists must admire as well as welcome 
the bold attempt physicists are making to unravel the structure of the 
elementary atom, they cannot yet with advantage discuss the conclusions 
arrived at by their colleagues ; the arguments used are so novel and daring, the 
contentions so original, that at present they are not in a position to appreciate, 
still less to criticise them effectively ; in fact, the chemist's office at the 
moment must be mainly to point out the conditions that a theory must satisfy 
to meet his requirements. He has long been prepared to believe that the 
materials spoken of as elements may prove eventually to be compounds; indeed, 
the relationships between them are so similar to those manifest between carbon 
compounds, and of such a character, that it is almost necessary to believe in their 
composite nature ; but the views that are now advocated by physicists are 
entirely different from any conceptions that chemists have ever entertained and 
cannot easily be assimilated by them. Physicists, unfortunately, in the past 
have held aloof from chemists ; they have paid too little attention to their 
methods and to their results i the movement now in progress is therefore to be 
welcomed, as it must have the effect of leading the two parties in future to 
work together to a common end. Hence the value of the present discussion. 

It is doubtful if it be permissible at present to conclude that elements of 
different atomic weight may and do exist which are indistinguishable chemi- 
cally : the observations on which reliance is placed have been made with 
quantities of material far too small to permit of such an inference ; in the case 
of the rare earth elements, although very large quantities of material have been 
at the disposal of chemists, they have only slowly discovered differences by 
which they are enabled to distinguish and separate them. Though the special 
methods made use of by physicists are very powerful, they suffice only in 
certain cases and have little chemical significance ; when physicists resort to 
chemical methods the work becomes subject to ordinary criteria. 

The resemblance of the X-ray spectra of so many elements is undoubtedly 
most significant, but to conclude, on such evidence, that all but very few of 
the elements are discovered is scarcely justifiable ; it may well be that most of 
those that are known belong to a certain 'preferred ' type and that a particular 
series is nearly complete, the similarity of the spectra being perhaps due to the 
presence of a radicle common to the series, much as in the case of a series of 
related benzenoid compounds. In the case of carbon compounds, of the large 
number of series possible, it is well known that certain types are formed 
preferentially, being more stable or more readily produced than others. If the 
so-called elements are compound substances, it may well be that the occurrence 



British Association, 8ith Report, Aitstralia, 191 1.] 



[Plate VI. 






*5 § 



14* 31 




Barlow-Pope Model of Benzene. 



Hi 



#5 #4*3 



TT 



k 



The same, showing arrangement of space affinities. 



Illustrating Discussion on the Structure of Atoms and Molecules. 



(From Proc. Roy. Soc, 1914, Series A, Vol. 90, pp. 113, 146 ; 
by permission of the Royal Society.) 

{.To face page 295. 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 295 

and prevalence of a certain type is determined in a somewhat similar way— 
that some one type has been preferred. 

Any theory of atomic structure to be satisfactory to chemists must take 
fully into account the peculiar valency relationships that are manifest among 
the elements, as the system of ' structural ' formulae now in vogue is based 
solely upon these. The system is admittedly one of extraordinary perfection 
and remarkably simple. In the case of organic compounds, the rules laid down 
have been found to be applicable and to suffice in so many thousands upon 
thousands of cases that it is impossible to doubt their general correctness; at 
most it will be necessary eventually to translate tliem directly into some new 
language. It should be pointed out, however, that so-called structural formulte 
are to be regarded as condensed symbolic expressions indicative of the general 
behaviour of the compoimds represented in terms of certain well-understood 
conventions, rather than as actual representations of structure. For example, 
it is customary to represent benzene by a regular hexagon, a symbol which is a 
complete expression of the chemical behaviour of the hydrocarbon. But the six 
carbon atoms are not to be thought of as arranged in a plane and in a ring in 
the manner depicted by the symbol; such an arrangement is impossible if the 
affinities of the carbon atom 'act tetrahedrally. The structure of benzene is 
rather to be represented by a model in which six carbon atoms (represented by 
six large spheres) are arranged three and three, in two superposed layers, union 
takingplace between an atom in one plane with a contiguous atom in the plane 
above, which in turn is united to that in the plane below — so that the atoms 
are connected in zigzag fashion ; and the six hydrogen atoms are to be thought 
of as severally united to the six carbon atoms in such manner that the hydrogen 
atom is always in a plane different from that which contains the carbon atom 
with which it is connected. If the ' atoms ' in such a model are squeezed down 
into one plane, the projection is practically identical with the ordinary ' centric ' 
symbol of benzene. The arrangement referred to is shown in the accompanying 
figures (see Plate). 

The fundamental assumption made by chemists, upon which their system 
of structural formulse is based, is that the hydrogen atom has unit valency— 
that it is incapable of acting as a linking element. The whole of the evidence 
available appears to be in favour of this view. The contention advanced 
recently by Sir J. J. Thomson, that hydrogen may occur as a triatomic molecule, 
H3, is therefore unacceptable ; until the existence of such a molecule has 
been proved up to the hilt it will be impossible for chemists to admit its 
existence. The artifice by which Sir Joseph Thomson has sought to reconcile 
his interpretations with those of chemists practically involves the representation 
of hydrogen as a dyad ; if this conclusion were accepted it would be necessary 
to double the valency of all other elements, a step which cannot be justified on 
chemical evidence. It is in cases such as these that a better understanding 
between chemists and physicists is required. 

The variation of valency is probably the most perplexing phenomenon in 
chemistry. It is doubtful if any element have a higher ' true ' or fundamental 
valency than carbon ; the view sometimes put forward that certain elements may 
function even as octads is based on evidence which in no way justifies such 
an assumption. Not only will it be necessary to account for the variation in 
valency from element to element but also for the fluctuations observed 
especially in the case of the non-metallic elements. The variation seems to be 
determined by some reciprocal relationship between the interacting elements, 
valency apparently being a dependent variable rather than an absolute pro- 
perty; thus, to quote examples, whilst the hydrocarbon, CR,. is non-existent 
and cannot exist per se, the corresponding oxide, carbonic oxide, CO, is not 
only stable but relatively inert, combining with other substances only under 
special conditions ; and the corresponding sulphur compound is so active that 
it cannot exist independently, but at once undergoes polymerisation with ex- 
plosive violence. Yet sulphuretted hydrogen occurs as a gas of simple mole- 
cular composition, whilst water, being a liquid of relatively high boiling-point. 
is presumably of considerable molecular complexity, so that it must be supposed 
that the fundamental molecule OHj is a highly active material. No theory of 



29G TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

atomic structure will be acceptable unless it can account for variations such as 
these. 

Besides considering variations in atomic properties such as have been 
referred to, it will be necessary also, in devising a theory of atomic structure, 
to take into account the fact that valency is a ' directed function.' The 
tetrahedron apparently is a complete embodiment of the properties of the 
carbon atom, in so far as these are due to directed forces, if the affinities of the 
atom be thought of as proceeding from the centre of mass to the four apices. 
Or if, instead of representing carbon by a sphere four times the volume of the 
unit sphere representing the hydrogen atom, four unit spheres be piled in 
tetrahedral form, the four hollows into which other similar spheres will fit 
are in positions representing the directions in which affinity acts. The great 
body of facts arrived at by studying optically active 'asymmetric' carbon 
compounds are all compatible with such modes of representing carbon : more- 
over, the hypothesis is the only one devised that sets the necessary limit to the 
number of isomerides possible. What is true of carbon is true apparently of 
other elements. But it is very noteworth,v that the affinity of carbon atoms 
for carbon atoms, as well as for those of many other elements, is extraordinarily 
strong in comparison with that of other elements for each other ; carbon has 
properties which are altogether peculiar. 

Fresh significance has been given to the problems of valency of late years 
owing to the introduction, by Barlow and Pope, of the conception that it is to 
be regarded as a function of the volume occupied by the atom. Assuming 
that the atoms are closely packed, they have succeeded to an extent which is 
altogether remarkable, by means of this hypothesis, in correlating crystalline 
form with molecular structure. Regarding the sphere within which the in- 
fluence of the hydrogen atom is exercised as unity, that of the dyad elements 
is twice, that of the triad three times, that of a tetrad element such as 
carbon four times, as great as that of the hydrogen atom. The halogens 
appear to occupy the same relative volume as hydrogen. A large body of evi- 
dence to this effect is to be found in a recent communication to the Royal 
Society (' Proc. R. Soc' A, vol. 90, p. Ill, 1914). Apparently, when an 
element such as an atom of halogen is introduced in place of hydrogen, the 
alteration in volume which attends the change is not simply due to the dis- 
placement effected by the new atom : the alteration in composition involves 
alterations in the spheres of influence of all the atoms in the molecule, so that 
their relative volumes remain the same though their actual volumes may vary. 

It is to be expected that many of the problems of molecular structure which 
in the past could not be considered, especially in the case of inorganic com- 
liounds, will now be amenable to treatment from the crystallographic side. 
The view originally put forward by Lavoisier and elaborated by Berzelius, that 
acids such as sulphuric acid are compounds of an acid oxide with ' water,' may 
be referred to as a case in point (see 'Proc. R. Soc' A, vol. 90, p. 73, 1914). 

In view of the production of helium in so many cases of ' atomic ' disrup- 
tion, it must not be forgotten that the problems of 'elementary' atomic struc- 
ture still require study on the chemical side. It is not to be supposed that they 
are no longer amenable to chemical treatment and that they are ripe for purely 
physical treatment. 

Professor Hicks : Professor Rutherford has approached the question chiefly 
from the side of radioactive phenomena, whilst Professor Armstrong has dealt 
with certain stereographic properties of the molecule which physicists must 
take account of in forming any theory of the structure of the atom itself. I 
propose to draw attention to certain aspects of the problem when approached 
from the spectroscopic side, /.c, from consideration of the atom as a configura- 
tion capable of emitting definite sets of free vibrations. Before doing so, 
however, I should like to offer some criticism with reference to a point raised 
by Professor Rutherford, viz., the actual value of the effective nuclear charge 
in any case. Moseley's law indicates that they are consecutive multiples for the 
consecutive elements in the periodic table, and they are known if that for one, 
say He, is known. What evidence we have seems to me rather to weigh in 
favour of He having an atomic number 4 in place of 2 which is assumed by 
Rutherford, Bohr, and Moseley himself. That it is at least 2 is clear from 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 297 

the double charge on the a particle, but it does not follow when two of the 
movable electrons are freed that nine are left bound with the nucleus. The 
supposition that the atomic number for H is 1 and for He is 2, means that 
there are no intermediate elements between them. But there are several con- 
siderations which point to the existence of 2. (1) Nicliolson has given very 
weighty reasons for supposing that the lines observed in the corona, and in 
nebulae are due to two elements whose atomic weights lie between those of 
H and He, which he has called respectively Coronium and Nebulium. Their 
nuclear charges, however, are 4 and 5, which would make He 6. (2) Rydberg 
has proposed a theory of the constitution of the periodic table which has been 
remarkably justified in one respect by Moseley's measurements, in so far that 
it requires 32 elements between Kr and Ra-Em in place of 36 as hitherto 
supposed. The same reason which requires these 32 elements also requires 
2 between H and He. (3) In the July number of the ' Philosophical 
Magazine ' Rydberg has discussed Moseley's measurements of the frequencies 
of the Barkla K and L series, and finds that if N — the atomic number — be 
based on 4 for He, the frequencies of the lines can be represented by the follow- 
ing scheme : — 

K(a)andK(5) by P(N-3)2 P(N- 3 5)= 

L(a)andL(e) „ P(N-3x3)- P(N -3x3-5)2 

L(7)andL(8) „ P(N-4x3)= P(N-4x3-5)2 

but that such an arrangement is impossible if N be based on any other number 
than 4 for He. More exact numbers, however, are needed before these relations 
can be regarded as established. 

We already know certain definite facts as to the constitution of an atom. 
They are : — 

(1) All atoms contain electrons as a part of their constitution. Of these 
they can apparently lose a certain number without altering their chemical 
identity, whilst in the case of radioactive elements the loss of other sets 
changes them into different elements. We shall doubtless be justified in the 
assumption that the same law extends to all elements. 

(2) There exist also positively charged nuclei associated with the atomic 
mass, containing multiples of the fundamental electric charge, and the evidence 
tends to show that tlie chemical nature of the element is determined by this 
multiple. 

(3) In the case of a certain number of substances there are found associated 
magnetic doublets whose moments are multiples of a definite quantitv, called 
by Weiss the magneton. It appears legitimate to suppose that the same 
phenomenon may exist in other elements, though whether the magneton has an 
independent existence or is a consequence of electronic motion is an open ques- 
tion. If the latter, an explanation of the multiple quality will have to be 
sought for. 

Any theory of atomic structure must, then, be a theory of the way in which 
the atom is built up of these fundamental quantities. So far there are two 
types : (1) Thomson's theory of an extended positive nucleus within which the 
electrons revolve in Saturnian systems; (2) Rutherford's theory of an extremely 
small nucleus with electrons in planetary or Saturnian orbits. Neither of them, 
however, has shown the slightest aptitude in explaining the series laws of 
spectra. The actual structure must be a much more complicated one than is 
assumed in either. Unfortunately the complete mathematical treatment of the 
simplest case is one of extreme difficulty. We may, however, I believe, make 
one very important first step, viz., as to the direction in which to look for the 
source of the energy emitted in spectral radiations. This energy may arise 
either from small vibrations about a stable state or from change from one 
stable state to another. In both cases the stable states must be such as to 
lose no energy, and must therefore be in static equilibrium, or their relative 
motions must be such as to produce no change in an external field relative to 
itself — such as, for instance, a charged sphere moving with uniform velocity. 
In the first case the energy would be made up of extremely small amounts from 
all the atoms, and an increase in intensity would be due to increased ampli- 



298 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

tudes. In the second case it is made up by relatively large amounts from a 
proportion only of the systems, and an increase would be due to a larger 
proportion of atoms changing from one system to another. In the first case, 
although the constancy of period follows as a matter of course, it is difficult 
to see how the conditions of Planck's quanta can be met, and that the ideas 
lying at the base of his theory are well founded there can be little doubt. 
In the second case the energy for each line is transferred in the same amount, 
and the constancy of the frequency follows at once from Planck's theory. 
These general considerations seem to point to the conclusion that the cause of 
spectral emission is change from one configuration to another of less internal 
energy. But there is experimental evidence pointing in the same direction. 
Stark has shown that the series lines in a spectrum are due to molecules which 
have lost one or more electrons. For instance, doublet series are due to 
molecules which have lost one electron, triplets two, &c., and we should there- 
fore expect the energy emitted to be given out by their recombination to dlie 
neutral state. Since in general the larger proportion of spectral lines — both 
arc and spark — are either series or seem to be closely related to series lines, it 
would appear that change of state is one of the chief causes of radiation. 

A further consideration pointing in the same direction is afforded by the 
fact that the formulae to which series lines conform give the frequency itself, 
and not the square of the frequency, which latter is always the case when the 
forces of displacement are proportional to the displacements themselves. As 
Rayleig-h has pointed out, the former case requires forces proportional to the 
velocities, and hence suggests motion in magnetic fields. Now we' know these 
fields exist, and as a fact the only theory which reproduces Rydberg's formulae 
is that of Piitz, depending only on magnetic fields. Unfortunately electrostatic 
fields exist and must be taken account of. If we could conceive of shells of 
constant magnetic force produced by electric charges moving in such a way 
that the electric forces between the moving charges themselves are annulled, we 
should have made a first step towards forming a basis of a satisfactory theory. 
That such motions are possible is rendered probable from consideration of 
Maxwell's classical case of two uniformly charged parallel plates moving 
parallel to one another with the velocity of light. The great desideratum in 
the present state of the question is, not attempts at forming a complete theory, 
but mathematical discussions of as many simple cases as jiossible, in order to 
obtain a clearer comprehension of what such systems may be expected to 
explain. From this point of view the recent most suggestive paper of Conway 
on ' An Electromagnetic Hypothesis as to the Origin of Series Spectra ' ' is of the 
greatest value. We want more of a similar nature. 

Whilst, however, in all probability the greater portion of a spectrum is due 
to changes of configuration, it does not necessarily follow that lines related to 
the series are the only ones emitted. In fact, the high-frequency vibrations 
discovered by Barkla and measured quite recently by Moseley are clearly a case 
in point. Nicholson has determined recently the frequencies of small oscilla- 
tion of electrons revolving round positively charged nuclei on the basis of the 
Rutherford theory. More especially he finds that the sets of lines observed in 
the corona and in nebulae fit in very exactly for elements in which the nuclear 
charges are respectively 4 and 5, and the lines are due to neutral atoms 
and also to atoms which have lost or gained one or two or more electrons. The 
agreements are so close and so numerous as to leave little doubt of the general 
correctness of the theory. But the lines are certainly not connected in any way 
with the series type of line. Their appearance is probably due to the vast 
number of atoms in the corona and nebulae in the line of sight all emitting 
vibrations, whilst the absence of the series type may be due to the rarefaction 
of the gas causing comparatively few clianges from one configuration to another. 
Nicholson's theory stands alone as a first satisfactory theory of one type of 
spectra. Unfortunately this type contains so few examples that if they exist in 
other elements they have not been noticed. It affords considerable evidence 
that Rutherford's theory approximates to the actual case when the nuclear 
charge is a small multiple of the fundamental charge. Several attempts have 

' Phil. Mng. xxvi. p. 1010, December 1913, 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 299 

been made to apply Planck's theory of radiation to the explanation of the laws 
of spectra. The most ingenious and suggestive is that of Bohr. It is based on 
the Rutherford atom, but throws no further light on the structure of the atom 
itself, as the mechanism of radiation is totally unexplained, and it is this 
which we are in search of. The most remarkable result is the derivation of the 
value of Rydberg's constant from known electric constants, and Planck's con- 
stant. This result has certainly caugilit the scientiiic imagination, and one feels 
convinced, especially on a first reading of his paper, that thei-e is some truth 
at the bottom of his theory. But Lindemann has pointed out, by consideration 
of dimensions, that a large number of theories would give values in which the 
various constants enter in the same way. In Bohr's theory the exactness of the 
numerical relation depends on an apparently arbitrary assumption as to the 
frequency of the energy emitted when an electron is combined. It is true that 
later he attempts to justify this by making his formula conform to certain 
observed properties of series. But with the introduction of this his value of 
Rydberg's constant ceases to be a direct deduction from his theory. Moreover, 
in doing so he assumes the frequency of an electron to be proportional to its 
angular velocity, which can only be the case for one electron — i.e., for an atom 
built on a planetary sj'stem, and not on a Saturnian, as is his. Nicholson has 
recently criticised the theory on other grounds, and as he is to take part in the 
discussion I will leave this point to him. From the spectral point of view the 
weightiest objection would seem to be that it is capable only of giving a 
formula of the Balmer type — which holds for hydrogen alone. In the best- 

N 

known series types, the P, S, and D depend on formulre of the type A-; r= 

■^ (m + M)-» 

The ti depend on atomic constants, and are always considerable for elements of 

large atomic weight. As the atomic weight diminishes we get the following 

general changes : — In P, ^u decreases to 1 ; in D it increases to 1 ; in S it 

approaches the value -5. In other words, for P and D the formulee approach a 

Balmer type. For H it is indistinguishable from Balmer's. For He, though 

approaching Balmer's, it is decisively not 1. As a fact, Bohr's theory does 

not represent any of the six known series of He, biit he postulates that certain 

lines hitherto allotted to H belong really to He. Moreover, he supposes He to 

have 2 electrons, whereas, as I have attempted to show above, the number 

is more probably 4. Fowler has recently presented a paper to the Royal 

Society in which he supports Bohr's allocation on observational grounds, but as 

it is not yet (August) published it is not possible to weigh the evidence. In 

concluding, I should like to say that although I have criticised certain parts of 

Bohr's theory adversely, no one can admire more its ingenuity and great 

suggestiveness. 

Mr. H. G. J. MosELEY explained the results of his classification of elements 

by their X-ray spectra. The frequency of the principal line in the X-ray 

spectrum is represented very closely by the formula 

7i=K (N-B) 

where K and B are constants, and N an integer increasing by a unit as we pass 
from element to element up the periodic table. If we take this atomic number 
N as ordinate, and the square root of the principal frequency as abscissa, the 
different elements will therefore give points lying approximately on a straight 
line. The secondary frequencies will at the same time give points on other 
straight lines. The order of the elements determined by N is nearly that of 
increasing atomic weight ; there are one or. two exceptions, and in such cases the 
order given by N, and not the atomic weight, is evidently the correct order cor- 
responding to chemical properties. For example, the atomic weight gives the 
order CI, K, A, whereas the X-ray frequency gives the order CI, A, K. The 
latter is the order required by the periodic table. There are between aluminium 
and gold four missing elements, indicated by the double jump of N required to 
make the formula fit. These correspond generally to gaps indicated also by the 
periodic law. 

Professor Nicholsox : I prefer not to introduce new difficulties, which would 
only make the discussion too long, and will therefore confine my remarks to 



300 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

those points on which mj' opinion has been invited by Professor Hicks. 
Firstly, with regard to Bohr's theory, such criticisms as I have made are in the 
main mathematical, and therefore unsuitable for a joint discussion between 
physicists and chemists. But I can give a statement of the present position 
of the theory as it appears to me. When Bohr's theory is applied to a single 
nucleus of strength e or 2e, with a single rotating electron, it is remarkably 
successful in its deduction of the hydrogen series spectrum and of the Pickering 
series which it ascribes to helium. Its most striking success is, I think, not 
the very accurate deduction of the universal constant of spectra, but its appli- 
cation by Professor Fowler in his Bakerian lecture to a determination of the 
mass of an electron, on the supposition that the Pickering series comes from 
helium. The accuracy of this value cannot be ignored. But analysis shows 
that it is quite impossible to go further, and to derive the usual helium 
spectrum. I mean that in order to do so we must abandon at least one of 
Bohr's premises which is vital to the deduction of the hydrogen formula. 
This fact is capable of rigorous demonstration, as is also the fact that, under 
the inverse square law, which Sir Ernest Rutherford has shown experimentally 
to be valid, Rydberg's constant is not a feature of more complex atoms on this 
theory. 

There is also an experimental difficulty. Whatever its origin, the Pickering 
series should be accompanied by an ultra-violet one in the Schumann region. 
This series has been found by Professor Lyman in the hydrogen spectrum, 
whereas helium appears to have no Schumann spectrum. Professor Lyman is 
repeating these experiments, in view of their importance, but the balance of 
experimental evidence is against Bohr's theory at present. 

I am inclined to agree with Mr. Moseley that my nebular and coronal 
elements may not be chemical elements in the ordinary sense. This opinion, 
that they are sub-elements, or bases of ordinary elements, will be found in my 
papers. Bourget, Buissoii, and Fabry's experiments, described in the 
' Comptes Rendus,' show that these substances have the atomic weights which 
I calculated theoretically from their spectra, so that their existence appears 
to be real. Moreover, as in my papers, ordinary elements with series spectra 
can apparently only be formed from them by an alteration in the nucleus which 
does not affect its total charge. Evidence is accumulating to show that the 
imclear structure may play an important part in series spectra, and therefore 
I am not inclined to agree with Professor Rutherford that the nucleus of a 
hydrogen atom is necessarily the positive electron. It seems to be more 
complicated. But with everything else in his admirable opening address I 
must express a general agreement. I must finally agree with Mr. Moseley that 
any ultimate atomic theory must involve Planck's /;. In my own papers this 
was regarded as an angular momentum, as subsequently also by Bohr. The 
necessity for it is easily seen. For we only have one dynamical relation between 
the radius of the atom and the angular velocity of its electrons. Without 
the introduction of some new universal constant such as h no atom has any- 
thing in its nature which compels a definite size, and definite unchanging 
properties. 

Professor H. Bassett said that, as the number of elements which came 
before neon seemed of considerable importance in connection with the 
theoretical treatment of the constitution of the atom, it might be worth while 
considering whether the periodic law gave any hints on the matter. It was 
well known that Lothar Meyer's atomic volume curve clearly demonsfrated 
that, although the properties of the elements were periodic functions of their 
atomic weights, the periodicity was not of such a simple character as at first 
supposed by Newlands. Leaving out hydrogen for the moment, it was found 
that there were two short periods of eight elements each, beginning with neon 
and argon, and ending with fluorine and chlorine respectively, followed by two 
long periods of 18 elements — ^that was to say, of (2x8) -1-2 elements. These two 
long periods were followed by one very much longer period and a portion of a 
second. Unfortunately this very long period was so far incompletely known, 
and it was not certain how many elements it contained; but this much could 
be said, namely, that it contained approximately twice as many elements as 
one of the long periods, and possibly 33 elements, which would be (2x18) -1-2 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 301 

elements. Now, going back to the region in which hydrogen was situated, one 
was tempted to suggest that this gas was the only known representative of an 
extra short period of three elements. Doubling this number and adding two 
one obtained eight — the number of elements in each of the known short periods. 
Doubling eight and adding two one obtained eighteen — the number of elements 
in each of the long periods, and so on. Although such treatment of the matter 
might appear like playing with figures, it seemed to the speaker of some interest. 

Professor Kerr Grant summarised the difficulty as to the stability of a 
system consisting of one nucleus and one electron. It was difficult, too, to 
account for the non-magnetic character of the hydrogen atom with this struc- 
ture. Magnetism, however, depended probably more on molecular than on 
atomic structure. 

Sir E. Rutherford (replying) said that the chemical inseparability of certain 
isotopes was, indeed, derived from experiments with small quantities, but the 
methods used were very delicate. The separation of Radium D from lead was 
a most important problem; there seems evidence that different leads exist, 
having different atomic weights. The difficulty of stability is common to all 
theories- of the atom; but what it points to is that there is something wrong 
with the theory of electromagnetic radiation — not of the atom. 



The following Paper was then read : — 

On Salts coloured by Cathode Rays. By Professor E. Goldstein. 

See Eeports, p. 250. 



The following Papers were read in Section A : — ■ 

1. Note on the Magneton as a Scattering Agent of a and /3 Particles. 
By Professor W. M. Hicks, F.R.S. 

Weiss has proved the existence of elementary magnetic magnets — or their 
equivalent — as a constituent of the atoms of matter. These magnetons should 
act as very effective scatterers of a and /3 rays, but the mathematical difficulties 
of a complete discussion of the scattering by a single electron are probably 
extremely great. The particular case where the electrons move in an equatorial 
plane of the magneton admits, however, of a complete mathematical solution, 
and may be useful as throwing some light on the nature of the scattering to be 
expected. It is essentially a question of the orbits of charged particles coming 
from an infinite distance, and in the paper the nature and distribution of these 
are explained. Incidentally also a theory of combined electrons appears. 



2. Demonstration of a Mechanical Analogue of Wireless Telegraphic 
Circuits. By Professor T. E. Lyle, F.R.S. 



3. On the Thermal Conductivity of Air. By Professor T. H. Labt 

and E. 0. Herens. 



4. The General Magnetic Survey of Aiistralia. By E. Kidson. 



302 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 19. 
Discussion on Antarctic Meteorology. Opened by G. C. Simpson, B.Sc. 

1. A brief resume was given of the general circulation in the atmosphere 
over the Southern Hemisphere as taught by : 

(a) the text-books. 

(h) Dr. Lockyer in his paper ' Southern Hemisphere Surface Air Circulation.' 

(f) Professor Meinardus in his discussion of the result of the 'Gauss' 
•Antarctic Expedition. 

Dr. Lockyer suggests an intense anticyclone over the Antarctic Continent, 
from which cold air feeds into a series of large cyclones circulating the southern 
ocean and having their centres near to 60° S. The cyclones are supposed to be 
so large that while their southern extremities sweep over the edge of the 
Antarctic Continent their northern extremities reach to latitude 40° S., and so 
dominate the weather of Tasmania and New Zealand, and to some extent that 
of South Australia. 

Professor ]\Ieinardus's scheme also includes a series of cyclones travelling 
from west to east over the southern ocean; but he gives strong reasons against 
the presence of an anticyclone over the southern continent. His chief objection 
to such an anticyclone is that anticyclonic conditions are accompanied by an 
excess of evaporation over precipitation ; hence it would be impossible to account 
for the excess of precipitation which gives rise to the large glaciers and snow- 
fields which discharge the known large quantities of ice. 

2. The simultaneous observations made at Cape Evans, Cape Adare, and 
Framheim were then considered to inve.'^tigate the processes which are at work 
in the Eoss Sea area. Diagrams showing the mean temperature distribution 
both horizontally and vertically were examined, and the curves of barometric 
pressure and wind at the different stations compared. The chief con- 
clusions of the investigation are as follows : The high south-easterly winds— 
commonly called blizzards— are not caused by cyclones passing into the 
Eoss Sea, but are the result of the large differences of temperature 
which exist in the lower atmosphere over the Barrier and the Eoss Sea. The 
cloud observations show that air feeds into the Antarctic at high levels, and 
passes north again in the blizzards. Meinardus's objection that in such a 
circulation of air precipitation would not exceed the evaporation was shown 
not to hold, because of the great cooling of the air due to radiation. The air 
while sinking loses so much heat by radiation that, when forcibly made to rise 
in the blizzards, saturation is reached at a much lower level than that at which 
the air entered. Thus anticyclonic conditions are consistent with an excess of 
precipitation. 

3. The existence of a belt of cyclones between the Antarctic Continent and 
Australia was then considered. Curves on which barometer and wind obser- 
vations made at the ' Gauss ' winter quarters are plotted were shown. From 
them it was seen that during the passage of deep waves of pressure there 
is practically no variation of the wind direction at that station. In most 
cases the wiiid blows a gale from the east both while the barometer falls rapidly 
and while it makes an equally rapid recovery. At present it appears quite impos- 
sible to reconcile the wind" and barometer observations with any system of 
circulation of wind about a centre of low pressure moving from the west to the 
east. Further the simultaneous barometer observations at Melbourne, the Bluff 
(New Zealand), and Cape Adare were examined without finding any certain 
indication of the same cyclone affecting the northern and southern stations. 

4. The monthly departures from normal of pressure at Cape Evans were 
compared with corresponding values for stations in Australasia, and an important 
negative correlation was found. 

5. In conclusion the importance of a permanent meteorological station on 
tlie Antarctic Continent was urged. 

The following Eeport and Papers were then read : — 

L Bcpori of the Seismological Committee. — See Eepovts, p. 41. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 303 

2. On the Change of Thermal Conductivity during the Liquefaction of 
a Metal. By Professor A. W. Pokter, F.R.S., and P. Simeox. 



3. Experiments on Hhe Active Deposit of Radium. By E. Wellisch. 



Sydney. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 21. 

The following Papers were read : — 

1. Tlie Origin and Nature of they Rays from Radium. By Professor 
Sir E. EUTHERFOED, F.R.S. 



2. The Distribution in Space of the Stars near the North Pole. 
By Dr. P. W. Dyson, F.R.S. 



3. The Action of the Juice of Euphorbia peplus on a PJiotographlc 
Plate. By J. M. Petrie and H. G. Chapman. 

The dried milky juice of Euphorbia -pcplu.s acts on a sensitive photographic 
plate in the dark. If a photographic plate, separated by a space of 3 mm., is 
exposed for fourteen days to the dried juice spread in the form of letters on 
glass, sharp images of the letters appear as positive impressions on the plate on 
development in the ordinary way. Faint images are formed by exposures for 
such short periods as twenty-four hours, and deeper impressions, but still sharp 
and well-defined, by exposures up to thirty-one days. The impressions on the 
plate are more marked when the separation is diminished to 1 mm., and no 
impression appears when the separation is increased to 12 mm. The images are 
characteristically well defined, though there is slight diffusion around each letter. 

If a piece of black paper, impervious to light, be inserted between the letters 
and the plate, the images appear as well defined as when the paper is absent. 
The intervention of paraflfined tissue paper fails to prevent the appearance of the 
image on the plate. Images are seen when thin aluminium foil and gold leaf are 
used to separate the plate from the letters. The impression can be obtained 
through thin sheet glass. When a strong current of air is passed between the 
letters and the plate during the exposure, the image appears sharp and no 
evidence of diffusion in the direction of the current can be made out. 

On examining the dried juice with a sulphide screen no scintillation of 
particles can be seen. On testing the dried juice in a gold leaf electroscope 
there is no apparent increase in the rate of discharge of ionised gases. With a 
sensitive electrometer no action of the dried juice on ionised air could be 
detected. 

On heating the dried juice, the photographic action is not diminished after 
several hours' heating to 200° C. When charred to a black mass the juice has a 
diminished action on the plate, and when incinerated to a white ash the ash 
retains a feeble action. 

This photographic action has been noted with all specimens of Euphorbia 
peplus e.xamined by us from many localities, some at least a hundred miles apart. 
The dried juice retains its action unchanged, so that the original sample, dried 
and mounted five years ago, is as active as ever. 

The juices of many other species of Euphorbia, and of other plants with 
similar latex-bearing tubes, have no comparable action on the photographic plate. 



4. Photo-electric Effect in Selenium. J5i/ Professor O'. U. Vonwiller. 



3U4 TRANSACTIONS OF SKCTiON A. 

5. Tlie Pressure upon the Poles oj a Carbon Arc. By Professor 

W. G. DUFFIELD. 



6. The Attractions of Ellipsoidal Sliells. 
Bij Professor A. Gray, F.R.S. 



MONDAY, AUGUST 24. 
The following Papers and Keports were read : — 

1. Bisconiinuilies in Meteorological Phenomena. By Professor 
H. H. Turner, F.B.S. 



2. The Ohlaie Shape of the Stellar Syston. By Professor A. S. 

Eddington, F.R.S. 



3. An Ahsolide Deierniination of the Thermal Conductivity of Air. 
By E. 0. Herens and T. IT. Laby. 



4. The Nature of y Rays. By T. H. Laby and W. Stuart. 



5. Length and Electrical Resistance of Sleel Tapes. By T. II. Laby 

and G. E. Adams. 



G. A Map of the Principal Earthquake Origins of the S.W. Pacific. 

By G. HoGBEN. 

7. Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. — See 

Eeports, p. 69. 



8. Report on the International Tables of Physical and Chemical 

Constants. 



9. Report on the Calculation of Maihemaiical Tables. — See Eeports, 

p. 75. 



10. Report on the Disposal of Copies of the Buiary Canon. — See 

Eeports, p. 102. 



11. Interim Report on Radiotele graphic I)icestigatio)is. — See Eeports, 

p. 70. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

Joi)il Mecliiig with Section G {Engineering). 

Disc2issio)i on Wireless Telegraphy. Oponal hij 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 



305 



The following Papers were then read in Section A : — 

Some Measurements of the Wave-length in Air of Electrical Vibra- 
tions associated ivith a Thin Straight Terminated Bod. By 
Professor J. A. Pollock. 



2. High-Frcquency Spectra. By H. G. J. Moseley. 



3. On the Scattering of Light by Small and Large Particles of 
Conducting and Non-conducting Substances. By Professor 
Alfred W. Porter, F.R.S., and E. Talbot Paris, B.Sc. 

The work summarised herein is a continuation of an investigation by Porter 
and Keen '■ on the diffraction of light by particles comparable with the wave- 
length. In that work the scattering was produced by a sulphur suspension, and 
observations were restricted to the transmitted light. In the present paper the 
degree of polarisation has been determined (by means of a double-image prism 
and nicol) for the light scattered in different directions; and suspensions of 
silver and copper have been investigated as well as suspensions of sulphur. The 
metallic suspensions were made by the method of Pieroni,^ which we have found 
to give stable suspensions. 

The results for sulphur particles show a good general agreement with the 
theoretical values calculated by Lord Rayleigh,' but exact comparison is not 
possible owing to the difficulty of determining the size of the particles. In the 
ease of the silver particles comparison with theory is easier, because the total 
amount of silver present can be so readily determined chemically, the number 
of particles per unit volume can be counted, and thence their size can be 
calculated. Measurements of the size were also made by Perrin's method, i.e., 
by counting the number of particles in each of two layers a small vertical 
distance apart, and attributing the difference (as in an atmosphere of gas) to 
the total weight of particles in the intervening space. Both methods give 
practically the same results. 

Complete curves have been obtained for the polarisation for different-sized 
particles in different directions. Mention will be made here only of the direction 
of maximum polarisation for silver suspensions for light of wave-length 550^/*. 
This is shown in the following table : — 



Diameter of particles. 


Direction of max. 
polarisatiou. 


Relative electric 
conductivity. 


80 
98 
108 
131 
164 
310 


90° 

90° 

98°-36' 
109°-54' 
113°-36' 
130°-30' 


2-96 
3-70 

M. 1 



1914. 



1 Proc. Eoy. Soc. A, Vol. 89, 1914. 

2 Gazetta, Vi (I), 197(1913). 

^ Proc. Roy. Soc. A, Vol. 84, 25 (1910). 



306 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

According to J. J. Thomson/ the direction of maximum polarisation for 
perfectly conducting particles should make 120° with the incident light. From 
the above table it appears that for very small particles this angle is 90°, as it 
would be for dielectric particles (a fact which we find was previously observed 
by Professor R. ThrelfalP), but that it increases as the diameter of the particle 
increases to a value above the theoretical limit. 

Measurements were also made of the electrical conductivity of the sus- 
pensions. Since the average distance between the particles was about 100 times 
their diameter, Maxwell's theory of the conductivity of compound media is 
applicable. The conductivity was measured in every case for concentrations 
containing the same amount of silver and other bodies per unit volume, but 
differing only in the size of the particles. In these circumstances the con- 
ductances should be the same unless there is a difference in the conductivity of 
the silver particles. It will be seen that the conductivity of the mixture in- 
creases as the particles increase in size. It would seem, therefore, that the 
anomalous behaviour of the silver is due to a real change in resistance with size, 
and is not simply a consequence of the fact that Thomson's theory is limited to 
the cases for which the conductivity is sufficiently large. 

No numerical calculation has previously been made for large particles. By 
transferring Thomson's equations so as to express the result in terms of the same 
functions which have been calculated by Lord Rayleigh for fairly large values 
of the argument, his work becomes available for the present problem ; and one 
of us (E. T. P.) has calculated the degree of polarisation of the light scattered 

in different directions for perfectly conducting particles for which '- 

A 

= unity, when \ = wave-length of the light. The maximum polarisation corre- 
sponds to an angle for about 108°. The value indicated by our experiments 
lies between 110° and 120°, but further experiments are necessary to fix it more 
exactly. 

It is not difficult to suggest a reason for the diminution of the conductivity 
with size. Separated molecules, as in a vapour, are jierf ectly non-conducting ; 
we conclude that there are then no free electrons. Aggregation of molecules 
of silver as in a solid gives rise to free electrons (and consequent conductivity) 
owing to the mutual action of the molecules upon one another. In small particles 
the number of free electrons may be proportionately less than for silver in mass. 

It must not be forgotten, however, that a colloid particle in its medium is 
surrounded by a double layer consisting of polarised molecules of the medium, 
and it is quite piossible that it is this polarised layer of a dielectric medium 
which modifies the optical properties of the silver. 



4. On the Viscosities of the Halogens in the Gaseous State. 
By A. 0. Rankine, D.Sc. 

In this paper various methods which have been used for measuring the 
viscosities of the vapours of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine at a number of 
different temperatures were described. 

The relations between the viscosities of these three gases were discussed. The 
laws are similar to those which the author has previously shown to apply to 
the group of inert gases. 

Department op Mathematics. 

1. Symbolic Solution of Linear Partial Differential Equations of the 
Second Order. By T. W. Chaundy, M.A. 

Statement of Eesults. 

Take equation in form — — + a—+ fij + yz = 0, where a, fi, y denote functions 
Sxoy ox Sy 

of X, y. The invariants h, k are ." + a0 — y = h, - h- 0)8-7 = Z;. 

ox oy 

* Becent Besearches in Electricity and Magnetism, p. 449. '^ Phil. Mag., 1894. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 307 



Introduce symbolic operators A = (—1 {k-h)dxa+ —- h) 

U 

X 

y 



& = 1 + ^ A + (-— A V + 

hi y V5^, y) 



y ^y y ^ y 

= 1 + — A + ("i- A V- + . . . 

X 

Then a symbolic solution appears as 

- fi.dx - I a.dy 



e ®,,<P(^) + c ®My) 

y ■<' 

where <t>, ^ are arbitrary functions of their arguments. Here the arbitrary elements 
enter in an infinite series of their derivative. 

We may deduce a form of solution in which </>, vj/ enter in finite terms, namely— 



r^ ry 

ry r^ 

Applying these results to the equation S = 3 we obtain a solution 

y r^ 

2= [ <i>(t).J {{y-t)x}dt^ I ^t).J{(x-t)y}dt + C.3{xy) 

o o 

It li" lV^ 

where C is a constant and J(m) = 1 + -— rr^ + - — ;- + • • • 7- .^, + • • • 

(1!)* {'i\Y {n\y- 



2. Properties of Algebraic Numbers Analogous to Certain Properties of 
Algebraic Functions. By Professor J. C. Fields, F.R.S. 

Suppose e to be a root of an integral algebraic equation f{x) — of degree » in a; 
and irreducible in the domain of the rational numbers. Where p is a prime f{x) 
may, however, happen to be reducible in the domain of the jo-adic numbers. As- 
suming the number of the irreducible p-adic factors to be r we write f(x) = f^(x) 
.... f,(x), where the coefficients of the powers of x in /,{»:), • . . f,{x) are p-adic numberB. 

Consider E,(€) any rational function of e. It may be written as a polynomial 
of degree ?»— 1 in e and satisfies an algebraic equation F (X) = 0, where we have 
F(X) = F,(X) , . . F,(X). The factors F,(X), . . . F,(X) here have p-adio 
coefficients and are co-ordinated with the factors /,(»-•)> • • • / (^') of /(*)• The 
degrees of the factors /,(x), . . . /,(«), as also those of the factors F,(X),_ . . ., 
F,(X) will be certain integers w, . . ., Ur respectively. The constant terms in the 
factors F|(X), . . . F,(X) we name the p-adic partial norms of R{«). The 
order numbers relative to p of the y-adic partial norms of R(€) divided by n,, . . ., 

X 2 



308 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

n,- respectively we call the orders of coincidsnce of R(e) with the ^'-adic factors of 
the fundamental equation f{x) = 0. 

The coefficient of 6"-i in the number R(e) we call its principal coefficient. The 
orders of coincidence of such number relative to the prime yi will be integral multiples 
of certain numbers l/i^,, . . ., Ifv,, where c,, . . ., c,. are factors of »,, . . ., n,. 
respectively. We consider the aggregate of numbers R(e) possessing an assigned 
set of orders of coincidence relative to p. The necessary and sufiicient condition 
that the principal coefficient in the aggregate be integral is that the assigned orders 
of coincidence have a certain set of values. This particular set of orders of co- 
incidence defines adjointness relative to the prime ^j with regard to the fundamental 
equation. 

If we start out from a sufficiently general rational form R(6) with its coefficients 
represented in padio form and impose on it the conditions requisite in order that it 
may possess a certain set of orders of coincidence relative to the prime p, these con- 
ditions take the form of a succession of independent congruences relative to the 
prime p imposed on the coefficients of the powers of p in the jj-adic coefficients of 
the powers of 6. We find a formula for the number of these conditions. We also 
assign sets of orders of coincidence t,"", . . . t^;'1 corresponding to all primes 

p, tliese orders of coincidence being with the exception of a finite number among 
them. Such a system of orders of coincidence we call a basis of coincidences. We 
define complementary adjoint bases of coincidences and derive the analogue of the 
complementary theorem in the tlieory of the algebraic functions. 



3. The Green's Function for the Equation v '« + k^u = 0. 
By Professor H. S. Oarslaw. 



4. The Evolute of the Limagon. 
By Professor W. H. H. Hudson, M.A., LL.M. 

The equation of the Limagon is taken in the form r = a (1-f e cos 6), a will be 
made 1, and the abbreviations used 1 — e- = /, l—4e'^ = Jc, e (1 + e) / (l-|-2c) = c, 
e(l-e)/(l-2e) = c'. 



6=3 



oo 





oo C' 



oo 



The LimaQon is symmetrical about the x- axis ; so therefore is its evolute. 

(1) When e = 0, the Limajon is a circle ; the evolute is a point, the centre of the 
circle. 

(2) When i - e > 0, the evolute is a closed curve with four cusps pointing outwards. 
These cusps are D,(e/, e'^Vj), D",(e ^-eW/), C.,{c,0), C',(c',0). All four lie on the 
circle y'^-\-(x~c) {x—c') = 0. As e increases, this at first star-like figure grows larger, 
the total height approaches VSfi as e approaches ^, the breadth (parallel to the 
X- axis) increases indefinitely. 

(3) When e = J, c' becomes co, the height becomes v^S/i. The cusp C is at 



TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 



309 



e-i 




2 



oo 



V CJO 




oo 



310 TRANSACTIONS OF SECTION A. 

infinity., the other three lie on the straight line x = 3/8, which may be regarded as a 
circle of infinite radius ; the x- axis may be regarded as two coincident asymptotes. 

(4) When 1 > e > |, there are two asymptotes making equal angles with the x- axis. 
As e increases from J to 1 the angle between the asymptotes increases from 0° to 180°, 
their intersection, V, moves from { — cc, 0) to the origin; the cusp C precedes V 
from(— cc, 0) to (0, 0); the distance D D' increases to a maximum 4 v'3/9 when 
e = V{2/3), and then dwindles to 0. 

(5) When c = 1, the Limafon is a cardioid, the evolute is also a cardioid; it passes 
through the origin, its cusp C is at (2/3, 0) ; the three cusps C, D, D', coincident at 
the origin, become a simple point on the cardioid. 

(6) When e> 1, the cusps D, D' have disappeared, the cusps C, C point inwards, 
the curve is closed, the shape of the curve does not change much as e increases, the 
distance C C diminishes from 2/3 to i, the total height (parallel to the y- axis) increases 
from 1/3/2 to 1, the breadth, now less than the height, diminishes from 3/4 to 1/ \/2. 

(7) When c = oo, the evolute is altogether at infinity; the difference c— c' is 
found to be finite and equal to J, likewise the height, 1 , the breadth, 1/ •\''2 ; the position 
of the breadth, y V2, above and below C C enable an illustrative figure to be drawn. 
It is symmetrical about its central ordinate. 

Diagrams are given to illustrate these cases, except (1), which needs no diagram. 

(2) e= '3, the star elongated. 

(3) e = J, with three cusps in a straight line. 

(4) e = J V 3, with the four cusps at the corners of a square. 

(5) e= 1, where three cusps are hidden in one point. 

(6) e = 2, the evolute of the Trisectrix. 

(7) c = 00, with double symmetrj'. 



e == c^ 




The equation of the evolute is 

A;3 1 2/2+(a;-c) {x-c') ] '+27eV {y-+x"--e a xf = 0. 



5. Oil the 'Algebraic Theory of Modular Systems {or Modules of 
Polyno7nials). By F. S. Macaulay, M.A. 

The theory of modules of polynomials is still only in its infancy, although 
it may claim an age of 135 years, its origin dating from the ' Theorie 
Generale des Equations Algebriques,' par M. Bezout, de I'Academie Eoyale des 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 311 

Sciences, m.dcc.lxxix. Its status and importance were made apparent by 
Kronecker's theory of Divisor Systems. 

The central problem (of which no satisfactory solution has yet been given) 
is to find one or several ways of expressing the complete conditions that a 
polynomial F must satisfy in order that it may be capable of taking the form 

F = XiFi + X2F2+ . . . +XkFi, 

where F,, Fj, . . . , Fk are given polynomials (in general non-homogeneous) in 
n variables a;,, x,, . . . , a;", and X,, X^, . . . , Xt are any polynomials in the 
same variables, not given. The whole system of polynomials F is called a 
module (of polynomials), and is regarded as a single entity or class, and is 
symbolised by a letter M. Each F is called a member of M, and the set of 
polynomials F,, F,, . . . , Fa; is called a basis of M. 

A module M is considered from its two conjugate aspects, viz. (i) its content 
as represented by its members, and (ii) its content as represented by its modular 
'equations, i.e., the linear equations which are identically satisfied by the 
coefficients of each and every member F of M. (ii) has received little attention 
hitherto. Either (i) or (ii) gives a complete representation of the module; but 
the difiSculty is to obtain (ii) from (i) and vice versa. In combination (i) and (ii) 
give a very complete view of a module and afford together a simple answer to 
most general questions. Thus the members of the G.C.M. of any number of 
modules consist of all the members of all the modules: the modular equations 
of tlie L.C.M. of any number of modules consist of all the modular equations 
of all the modules ; the members of the product MM' of two modules M and 
M' can be obtained at once from the members of M and M' ; and the modular 
equations of a residual M/M' can be obtained at once from the modular 
equations of M and the members of M'. 

The most important types of modules were considered ; these are the unmixed 
module, prime module (corresponding to a prime number in arithmetic), primary 
module (corresponding to a power of a prime in arithmetic), simple module (that 
is, a module containing one point only), module of the principal class, perfect 
module, and closed module. The method of obtaining the modular equations 
from a basis of the module was discussed, and also the resolution of a module 
into primary modules. 

6. A Theory of Double Poiuts. By F. S. Macaul.w, M.A. 



Brisbane. 
FBI DAY, AUGUST 22. 



Professor E. W. Brown, F.R.S., Vice-President of the Section, delivered the 
following Address : — 

To one who has spent many years over the solution of a problem which is 
somewhat isolated from the more general questions of his subject, it is a satisfac- 
tion to have this opportunity for presenting the problem as a whole instead of in 
the piecemeal fashion which is necessary when there are many separate features 
to be worked out. In doing so, I shall try to avoid the more technical details of 
my subject as well as the temptation to enter into closely reasoned arguments, 
confining myself mainly to the results which have been obtained and to the 
conclusions which may be drawn from them. 

In setting forth the present status of the problem, another side of it gives one 
a sense of pleasure. When a comparison between the work of the lunar theorist 
and that of the observer has to be made, it is necessary to take into consideration 
the facts and results obtained by astronomers for purposes not directly connected 
with the moon : the motions of the earth and planets, the position of the observer, 
the accuracy of star catalogues, the errors of the instruments used for the 
measurement of the places of celestial objects, the personality of the observers — 



312 TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 

all these have to be considered ; in fact, almost every one of the departments of 
the astronomy of position must be drawn upon to furnish necessary data. The 
time has now arrived when it may perhaps be possible to repay in some measure 
the debt thus contracted by furnishing to the astronomer, and perhaps also to the 
student of geodesy and, if I may coin a word, of selenodesy, some results which 
can be deduced more accurately from a study of the moon's motion than in any 
other way. A long-continued exploration with few companions which ultimately 
leads to territories where other workers have already blazed paths gives the 
impression of having emerged from the thick jungle into open country. The 
explorer can once more join forces with his brother astronomers. He can 
judge his own results more justly and have them judged by otliers. If, 
then, an excuse be needed for overstepping the limits which seem, by silent 
consent, to have been imposed on those who devote themselves to lunar problems, 
it consists in a desire to show that these limits are not necessary and that a study 
of the motion of the moon can be of value and can contribute its share to the 
common funds of astronomy. 

The history of the motion of the moon has been for more than two centuries 
a struggle between the theorists and the observers. Ever since the publication 
of the ' Principia ' and the enunciation of the law of gravitation by Isaac 
Newton, a constant effort has been maintained to prove that the moon, like the 
other bodies of the solar system, obeyed this law to its farthest consequences. 
While the theory was being advanced, the observers were continually improving 
their instruments and their methods of observing, with the additional advantage 
that their efforts had a cumulative effect : the longer the time covered by their 
observations, the more exact was the knowledge obtained. The theorist lacked 
the latter advantage : if he started anew he could only use the better instru- 
ments for analysis provided by the mathematician. He was always trying to 
forge a plate of armour which the observer with a gun whose power was increas- 
ing with the time could not penetrate. In the struggle the victory rarely failed 
to rest with the observer. Within the last decade we theorists have made 
another attempt to forge a new plate out of the old mat/;rials ; whether we have 
substantially gained the victory must rest pai'tly on the evidence I have to place 
before you to-day and partly on what the observer can produce in the near future. 

There are three well-defined periods in the history of the subject as far as a 
complete development of the moon's motion is concerned. From the publication 
of the ' Princi]3ia ' in 1687, when Newton laid down the broad outlines, until the 
middle of the eighteenth century, but little progress was made. It seems to have 
required over half-a-century for analysis by symbols to advance sufficiently far 
for extensive applications to the problems of celestial mechanics. Clairaut and 
d'Alembert both succeeded in rescuing the problem from the geometrical form 
into which Newton had cast it and in reducing it to analysis by the methods of 
the calculus. They were followed by Leonard Euler, who in my opinion is the 
greate.st of all the successors of Isaac Newton as a lunar theorist. He initiated 
practically every method which has been used since his time, and his criticisms 
show that he had a good insight into their relative advantages. A long roll of 
names follows in this period. It was closed by the publication of the theories of 
Delaunay and Hansen and the tables of the latter, shortly after the middle of 
tlie nineteenth century. From then to the end of the century the published 
memoirs deal with special parts of the theory or with its more general aspects, 
but no complete development appeared which could supersede the results of 
Hansen. 

My own theory, which was completed a few years ago, is rather the fulfilment 
to the utmost of the ideas of others than a new mode of finding the moon's 
motion. Its object was severely practical — ^to find in the most accurate way and 
by the shortest path the complete effect of the law of gravitation applied to the 
moon. It is a development of Hill's classic memoir of 1877. Hill in his turn 
was indebted to some extent to Euler. His indebtedness would have been 
greater had he been aware of a little-known paper of the latter, ' Sur la Variation 
de la Lune,' in which the orbit, now called the variation orbit, is obtained, and 
its advantages set forth in the words : ' Quelque chimerique cette question j'ose 
assurer que, si Ton reussissoit a en trouver une isolution parfaite on ne trouveroit 
presque plus de difficulte pour determiner le vrai mouvement de la Lune reelle. 



TRANSACTIONS OP SECTION A. 313 

Cette question est done de la derniere importance et il sera tonjours bon d'en 
approfondir toutes les dilKcultes, avant qu'on en puisse espei'er une solution 
complete.' 

In the final results of my work the development aims to include the gravita- 
tional action of every particle of matter which can have a sensible effect on the 
moon's motion, so that any differences which appear between theory and observa- 
tion may not be set down to want of accuracy in the completeness with which 
the theory is carried out. Every known force capable of calculation is included. 

So much for the theory. Gravitation, however, is only a law of force : we 
need the initial position, speed, and direction of motion. To get this with 
sufficient accuracy no single set of observations will serve ; the new theory must 
be compared with as great a number of these as pos.<!ible. To do this directly 
from the theory is far too long a task, and, moreover, it is not necessary. In the 
past every observation has been compared with the place shown in the ' Nautical 
Almanac ' and the small differences between them have been recorded from day 
to day. By taking many of these differences and reducing them so as to 
correspond with differences at one date, the position of the moon at that date 
can be found with far greater accuracy than could be obtained thr